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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30753504/technical-note-development-of-an-indirect-calorimetry-system-to-determine-heat-production-in-individual-lactating-sows
#1
Jay S Johnson, Sai Zhang, Gabriela M Morello, Jacob M Maskal, Nathalie L Trottier
The ability to determine total heat production (THP) in individual sows and litters can be logistically difficult and often requires the use of multiple animals to generate data on a per room basis. Furthermore, these systems may be costly to construct precluding their use by many researchers. Therefore, the objective was to develop a low cost indirect calorimetry system to determine THP in individual lactating sows and litters. Six indirect calorimeters were constructed to house 1 sow and litter in a crate throughout farrowing and a 21-d lactation period...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30740461/valved-holding-chamber-drug-delivery-is-dependent-on-breathing-pattern-and-device-design
#2
Péter Csonka, Lauri Lehtimäki
Small children with airway obstruction breathe with very low tidal volumes ( V T ) and high respiratory rates (RRs). These extreme respiratory patterns affect drug delivery unpredictably through valved holding chambers (VHCs). We compared in an in vitro study the effectiveness of two VHCs, one small (140 mL, Optichamber Diamond) and one large (350 mL, Babyhaler) without facemasks, to deliver salbutamol to filters positioned between the VHC mouthpieces and a breathing simulator. Different tidal volumes (from 30 mL to 200 mL) and RRs (25·min-1 and 50·min-1 ) were applied through a breathing simulator...
February 2019: ERJ Open Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30686581/a-platform-for-generation-of-chamber-specific-cardiac-tissues-and-disease-modeling
#3
Yimu Zhao, Naimeh Rafatian, Nicole T Feric, Brian J Cox, Roozbeh Aschar-Sobbi, Erika Yan Wang, Praful Aggarwal, Boyang Zhang, Genevieve Conant, Kacey Ronaldson-Bouchard, Aric Pahnke, Stephanie Protze, Jee Hoon Lee, Locke Davenport Huyer, Danica Jekic, Anastasia Wickeler, Hani E Naguib, Gordon M Keller, Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, Ulrich Broeckel, Peter H Backx, Milica Radisic
Tissue engineering using cardiomyocytes derived from human pluripotent stem cells holds a promise to revolutionize drug discovery, but only if limitations related to cardiac chamber specification and platform versatility can be overcome. We describe here a scalable tissue-cultivation platform that is cell source agnostic and enables drug testing under electrical pacing. The plastic platform enabled on-line noninvasive recording of passive tension, active force, contractile dynamics, and Ca2+ transients, as well as endpoint assessments of action potentials and conduction velocity...
January 18, 2019: Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30675902/characterization-of-a-prototype-rapid-kilovoltage-x-ray-image-guidance-system-designed-for-a-ring-shape-radiation-therapy-unit
#4
Bin Cai, Eric Laugeman, Thomas R Mazur, Justin C Park, Lauren E Henke, Hyun Kim, Geoffrey D Hugo, Sasa Mutic, Hua Li
PURPOSE: This study aims to characterize the performance of a prototype rapid kilovoltage (kV) X-ray image guidance system on-board the newly released Halcyon 2.0 linear accelerator (Varian Medical Systems) by use of conventional and innovatively designed testing procedures. METHODS: Basic imaging system performance tests and radiation dose measurements were performed for all eleven kV cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging protocols available on a pre-clinical Halcyon 2...
January 24, 2019: Medical Physics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30672140/salbutamol-and-ipratropium-by-inhaler-is-superior-to-nebulizer-in-children-with-severe-acute-asthma-exacerbation-randomized-clinical-trial
#5
Ricardo Iramain, Jose A Castro-Rodriguez, Alfredo Jara, Laura Cardozo, Norma Bogado, Rocío Morinigo, Raúl De Jesús
INTRODUCTION: In moderate-severe asthma exacerbation, salbutamol by inhaler (MDI) is superior to salbutamol delivered by nebulizer (NEB); however, to our knowledge, no studies in children with exclusively severe exacerbations were performed. OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of salbutamol and ipratropium bromide by MDI versus by NEB in severe asthma exacerbations. METHODS: We performed a clinical trial enrolling 103 children (2-14 years of age) with severe asthma exacerbations (defined by the Pulmonary Score ≥ 7) seen at the emergency room in Asuncion, Paraguay...
January 22, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30660629/controlled-release-of-corticosteroid-with-biodegradable-nanoparticles-for-treating-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis
#6
Lixia Luo, Jin Yang, Yumin Oh, Matthew J Hartsock, Shiyu Xia, Yoo-Chun Kim, Zheng Ding, Tuo Meng, Charles G Eberhart, Laura Ensign, Jennifer E Thorne, Walter J Stark, Elia J Duh, Qingguo Xu, Justin Hanes
Noninfectious uveitis is a potentially blinding ocular condition that often requires treatment with corticosteroids to prevent inflammation-related ocular complications. Severe forms of uveitis such as panuveitis that affects the whole eye often require a combination of topical and either regional or systemic corticosteroid. Regional corticosteroids are currently delivered inside the eye by intravitreal injection (e.g. Ozurdex®, an intravitreal dexamethasone implant). Intravitreal injection is associated with rare but potentially serious side effects, including endophthalmitis, retinal and vitreous hemorrhage, and retinal detachment...
January 17, 2019: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30506610/variability-of-right-ventricular-global-and-segmental-longitudinal-strain-measurements
#7
Oana Mirea, Mihaela Berceanu, Ionuț Donoiu, Constantin Militaru, Adrian Săftoiu, Octavian Istrătoaie
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated intra-observer, test-retest, and inter-observer reproducibility of right ventricular (RV) longitudinal strain (LS) measurements derived from two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography. BACKGROUND: The assessment of RV deformation has demonstrated to hold valuable prognostic and diagnostic data in clinical practice. Data about the reproducibility of the measurements, however, are missing. METHODS: In 200 subjects, apical modified four-chamber view focused on the right ventricle (RV) was obtained...
December 1, 2018: Echocardiography
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30483107/development-of-a-donor-tissue-holding-technique-for-descemet-s-membrane-endothelial-keratoplasty-using-a-25-gauge-graft-manipulator
#8
Akira Kobayashi, Hideaki Yokogawa, Natsuko Mori, Toshinori Masaki, Kazuhisa Sugiyama
Purpose: To report a modified surgical technique called the "donor tissue holding technique for Descemet's membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK)" using a newly developed 25-gauge graft manipulator. Methods: Six consecutive patients exhibiting endothelial dysfunction were enrolled and treated by DMEK. In brief, after insertion of a DMEK donor into the anterior chamber, the edge of the roll was grasped using a graft manipulator and this grasp was maintained throughout the centering and opening of the roll (holding technique)...
September 2018: Case Reports in Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30478193/tissue-tension-and-not-interphase-cell-shape-determines-cell-division-orientation-in-the-drosophila-follicular-epithelium
#9
Tara M Finegan, Daxiang Na, Christian Cammarota, Austin V Skeeters, Tamás J Nádasi, Nicole S Dawney, Alexander G Fletcher, Patrick W Oakes, Dan T Bergstralh
We investigated the cell behaviors that drive morphogenesis of the Drosophila follicular epithelium during expansion and elongation of early-stage egg chambers. We found that cell division is not required for elongation of the early follicular epithelium, but drives the tissue toward optimal geometric packing. We examined the orientation of cell divisions with respect to the planar tissue axis and found a bias toward the primary direction of tissue expansion. However, interphase cell shapes demonstrate the opposite bias...
November 26, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30446711/enhancing-all-in-one-bioreactors-by-combining-interstitial-perfusion-electrical-stimulation-on-line-monitoring-and-testing-within-a-single-chamber-for-cardiac-constructs
#10
Roberta Visone, Giuseppe Talò, Silvia Lopa, Marco Rasponi, Matteo Moretti
Tissue engineering strategies have been extensively exploited to generate functional cardiac patches. To maintain cardiac functionality in vitro, bioreactors have been designed to provide perfusion and electrical stimulation, alone or combined. However, due to several design limitations the integration of optical systems to assess cardiac maturation level is still missing within these platforms. Here we present a bioreactor culture chamber that provides 3D cardiac constructs with a bidirectional interstitial perfusion and biomimetic electrical stimulation, allowing direct cellular optical monitoring and contractility test...
November 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30446318/quantification-of-cardiac-subvolume-dosimetry-using-a-17-segment-model-of-the-left-ventricle-in-breast-cancer-patients-receiving-tangential-beam-radiotherapy
#11
Simon Tang, James Otton, Lois Holloway, Geoffrey P Delaney, Gary Liney, Armia George, Michael Jameson, David Tran, Vikneswary Batumalai, Liza Thomas, Eng-Siew Koh
PURPOSE: Subacute changes following breast radiotherapy have been demonstrated in discrete areas of the left ventricle (LV), with recent guidelines being developed to help determine dose to subvolumes of the LV. This study aims to determine doses to the 17 segments of the LV as per the American Heart Association (AHA) and other cardiac subvolumes, and to correlate mean heart (MHD) dose with various subvolume dosimetric indices. These results may direct focus to specific left ventricular segments in studies of radiation-related heart disease incorporating surveillance imaging, help to determine more precise dose response relationships, and potentially aid prediction of late radiation effects...
November 13, 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30399828/forced-flow-atomic-layer-deposition-of-tio-2-on-vertically-aligned-si-wafer-and-polysulfone-fiber-design-and-efficacy-of-conduit-plates-and-soak-function
#12
Mrinalini Mishra, Chia-Yen Chan, Chi-Chung Kei, Yin-Cheng Yen, Ming-Wei Liao, Tsong-Pyng Perng
The effectiveness of three different designs of conduit plates was verified for even distribution of precursors in a voluminous forced-flow atomic layer deposition (ALD) chamber designed to hold macroscopic elongated substrates vertically. Furthermore, a new "soak function" was introduced in the controlling software of the ALD instrument. This function enabled increase in residence time of the precursor in the chamber without escalating the dosage. The flow of precursors guided by the conduit plates with and without application of the soak function was simulated using computational fluid dynamics...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30399819/aperture-design-for-the-third-neutron-and-first-gamma-ray-imaging-systems-for-the-national-ignition-facility
#13
V E Fatherley, D N Fittinghoff, R L Hibbard, H J Jorgenson, J I Martinez, J A Oertel, D W Schmidt, C S Waltz, C H Wilde, P L Volegov
The current construction of a new nuclear-imaging view at the National Ignition Facility will provide a third line of sight for hotspot and cold fuel imaging and the first dedicated line of sight for 4.4-MeV γ-ray imaging of the remaining carbon ablator. To minimize the effort required to hold and align apertures inside the vacuum chamber, the apertures for the two lines of sight will be contained in the same array. In this work, we discuss the system requirements for neutron and γ-ray imaging and the resulting aperture array design...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30399652/electrostatic-design-and-conditioning-of-a-triple-point-junction-shield-for-a-200-kv-dc-high-voltage-photogun
#14
G Palacios-Serrano, F Hannon, C Hernandez-Garcia, M Poelker, H Baumgart
Nuclear physics experiments performed at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the Jefferson Lab require a DC high voltage photogun to generate polarized electron beams from GaAs photocathodes. The photogun uses a tapered ceramic insulator that extends into the vacuum chamber and mechanically holds the cathode electrode. Increasing the operating voltage from nominal -130 kV to -200 kV will provide lower beam emittance, better transmission through injector apertures, and improved photocathode lifetime...
October 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30388169/the-geographic-embedding-of-online-echo-chambers-evidence-from-the-brexit-campaign
#15
Marco Bastos, Dan Mercea, Andrea Baronchelli
This study explores the geographic dependencies of echo-chamber communication on Twitter during the Brexit campaign. We review the evidence positing that online interactions lead to filter bubbles to test whether echo chambers are restricted to online patterns of interaction or are associated with physical, in-person interaction. We identify the location of users, estimate their partisan affiliation, and finally calculate the distance between sender and receiver of @-mentions and retweets. We show that polarized online echo-chambers map onto geographically situated social networks...
2018: PloS One
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30376212/glossopharyngeal-insufflation-and-kissing-papillary-muscles
#16
Jochen D Schipke, Lars Eichhorn, Patrick Behm, Sinclair Cleveland, Malte Kelm, Florian Boenner
BACKGROUND: Breath-hold diving has increasingly established itself within the leisure sector as near-natural sport. In parallel, a number of competitive disciplines have developed. To reach greater depths various breathing maneuvers are employed one of them being glossopharyngeal insufflation (GI), for which air is repetitively "pumped" into the lungs in order to increase the intrathoracic air volume. As intrapulmonary pressure is considerable increased in parallel, venous return is impeded, leading to incomplete filling of the cardiac chambers...
October 30, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30346809/evaluation-of-a-device-to-improve-non-coring-needle-insertion-into-implanted-intravenous-ports
#17
Andrew Barton, Keith Pamment, Dennis Fitzpatrick
Implanted intravenous ports (IPs) are increasingly used in health care. The experience of having IPs accessed can vary a great deal for patients. Successful IP access depends on the experience and skill of the health professional and wrongly positioned attempts are not only painful for the patient but can also cause damage to the outer casing of the IP. The more skin punctures made over the port, the higher the risk of infection in the subcutaneous tissue. The Portacator is a sterile, single-use product that sits on the skin over the IP insertion site...
October 18, 2018: British Journal of Nursing: BJN
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30324000/intraocular-photobonding-to-enable-accommodating-intraocular-lens-function
#18
Nicolas Alejandre-Alba, Rocio Gutierrez-Contreras, Carlos Dorronsoro, Susana Marcos
Purpose: Accommodating intraocular lenses (A-IOLs) require capturing the ciliary muscle forces. Prior work demonstrated strong photo-initiated bonding between strips of capsular bag and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate); (pHEMA) polymer in an extraocular setting. We demonstrate that photobonding can be achieved intraocularly. Methods: Phacoemulsification was performed in porcine eyes (<24 hours postmortem). A commercial intraocular lens (IOL; pHEMA-MMA material) was inserted in the capsular bag...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30316159/a-bio-electro-fenton-system-with-a-facile-anti-biofouling-air-cathode-for-efficient-degradation-of-landfill-leachate
#19
Dongliang Wang, Huijie Hou, Jingping Hu, Jikun Xu, Long Huang, Shaogang Hu, Sha Liang, Keke Xiao, Bingchuan Liu, Jiakuan Yang
Bio-electro-Fenton (BEF) system holds great potential for sustainable degradation of refractory organics. Activated carbon (AC) air cathode was modified by co-pyrolyzing of AC with glucose and doping with nano-zero-valent iron (denoted as nZVI@MAC) in order to promote two-electron oxygen reduction reaction (2e- ORR) for enhanced oxidizing performance. Single chamber microbial fuel cells (SCMFCs) with nZVI@MAC cathode was examined to degrade landfill leachate. It was revealed that nZVI@MAC cathode SCMFC showed higher degradation efficiency towards landfill leachate...
January 2019: Chemosphere
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30315488/reliability-and-validity-of-the-contingent-valuation-method-for-estimating-willingness-to-pay-a-case-of-in-vitro-fertilisation
#20
Stella Nalukwago Settumba, Marian Shanahan, Willings Botha, Muhammad Zulilhaam Ramli, Georgina Mary Chambers
BACKGROUND: The contingent valuation (CV) method is an alternative approach to typical health economic methods for valuing interventions that have both health and non-health outcomes. Fertility treatment, such as in vitro fertilisation (IVF), fall into this category because of the significant non-health outcomes associated with having children. AIM: To estimate the general population's willingness to pay (WTP) for one cycle of IVF and one year of IVF treatment, and to test the reliability and validity of a CV instrument...
October 13, 2018: Applied Health Economics and Health Policy
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