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Fear in psychology

Lene Aasdahl, Sigmund Østgård Gismervik, Gunn Hege Marchand, Ottar Vasseljen, Roar Johnsen, Marius Steiro Aasdahl, Sigmund Østgård Gismervik, Gunn Hege Marchand, Ottar Vasseljen, Roar Johnsen, Marius Steiro Fimland
OBJECTIVES: To assess: (i) whether changes in the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire (FABQ) were greater for multicomponent inpatient rehabilitation vs outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy, and (ii) whether baseline scores and changes (pre- to post-intervention) in FABQ were associated with future work-participation. METHODS: Individuals sick-listed for 2-12 months were randomized to inpatient multicomponent rehabilitation (3.5 weeks or 4+4 days) or outpatient cognitive behavioural therapy (6 sessions/6 weeks)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Peter L Fisher, Angela Byrne, Louise Fairburn, Helen Ullmer, Gareth Abbey, Peter Salmon
Background: Adult cancer survivors often experience substantial psychological morbidity following the completion of acute cancer treatment. Unfortunately, current psychological interventions are of limited efficacy. This study explored if metacognitive therapy (MCT); a brief transdiagnostic psychological intervention was potentially efficacious and could be delivered effectively to adult cancer survivors with psychological morbidity. Methods: An open trial with 3- and 6-month follow-up evaluated the treatment effects of MCT in 27 consecutively referred individuals to a clinical psychology health service specializing in psycho-oncology...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Daniel Gromer, Max Reinke, Isabel Christner, Paul Pauli
Virtual reality plays an increasingly important role in research and therapy of pathological fear. However, the mechanisms how virtual environments elicit and modify fear responses are not yet fully understood. Presence, a psychological construct referring to the 'sense of being there' in a virtual environment, is widely assumed to crucially influence the strength of the elicited fear responses, however, causality is still under debate. The present study is the first that experimentally manipulated both variables to unravel the causal link between presence and fear responses...
2019: Frontiers in Psychology
Kalpana Poudel-Tandukar, Cynthia S Jacelon, Genevieve E Chandler, Bhuwan Gautam, Paula H Palmer
This qualitative study aimed to identify cultural influences on seeking mental health support among Bhutanese refugees resettled in Western Massachusetts. Bhutanese refugees aged 18 years or older were recruited for eight focus group discussions, organized by age and gender ( N = 67, 49.3% female, mean age = 38, SD = 15.9). The PEN-3 cultural model was used as the theoretical framework to examine the roles of cultural perceptions that influence mental health-seeking behaviors. Focus group discussions were audio taped to facilitate the thematic-analysis...
February 13, 2019: International Quarterly of Community Health Education
Yulin Hswen, Anuraag Gopaluni, John S Brownstein, Jared B Hawkins
BACKGROUND: More than 3.5 million Americans live with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Major challenges persist in diagnosing ASD as no medical test exists to diagnose this disorder. Digital phenotyping holds promise to guide in the clinical diagnoses and screening of ASD. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the feasibility of using the Web-based social media platform Twitter to detect psychological and behavioral characteristics of self-identified persons with ASD...
February 12, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Pasquale Caponnetto
The burden of mental illness is profound and growing. Each year, almost one in three adults in the non-institutionalized community has a diagnosable mental or addictive disorder, and this figure climbs to approximately 40% among emergency departments patients. We described the principal cardiovascular acute disease and their emotional and behavioral consequences where psychological intervention could improve the care pathway and clinical outcome. Peer-reviewed articles from Medline, Psycinfo, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane library, about psychological and psychopathological sequelae in cardiovascular acute disease were searched...
November 6, 2018: Mental Illness
Iris A M Verpaalen, Geraly Bijsterbosch, Lynn Mobach, Gijsbert Bijlstra, Mike Rinck, Anke M Klein
Facial expressions play a central role in diverse areas of psychology. However, facial stimuli are often only validated by adults, and there are no face databases validated by school-aged children. Validation by children is important because children still develop emotion recognition skills and may have different perceptions than adults. Therefore, in this study, we validated the adult Caucasian faces of the Radboud Faces Database (RaFD) in 8- to 12-year-old children (N = 652). Additionally, children rated valence, clarity, and model attractiveness...
February 11, 2019: Cognition & Emotion
Byung-Mu Lee, Seok Kwon, Yun Mi Cho, Kyu-Bong Kim, Kyungwon Seo, Choong Sik Min, Kyoungeun Kim
Safety issues regarding consumer products contaminated with trace amounts of chemicals are of great concern to consumers, with the degree of concern occasionally escalating to the psychological syndrome, chemophobia (i.e., the fear of chemicals). Hazardous substances frequently implicated in safety concerns include heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, cadmium, and lead), volatile organic compounds (VOC) such as benzene and o-toluidine, pesticides, carcinogens, radioactive substances, and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) such as bisphenol A and phthalates...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Piotr Niewinski, Dariusz Jagielski, Krystian Josiak, Krzysztof Nowak, Bartosz Biel, Stanislaw Tubek, Tomasz Walczak, Iwona Szemplinska, Agnieszka Siennicka, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski
BACKGROUND: Seat belt use is the single most effective means of reducing fatal injuries in road traffic accidents. The presence of cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) might influence seat belt-related behaviours due to the physical proximity of the seat belt and left subclavian area in which the device is usually implanted. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of improper seat belt use may improve safety of these patients. METHODS: We performed a prospective study using a structured questionnaire with 120 CIED recipients (age 63...
February 10, 2019: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Andrew M Armenta, Sasha D Jaquez, Moise L Levy, Lucia Z Diaz
The fear of painful procedures is at an increased incidence within the pediatric population. This can be an extremely challenging obstacle in dermatology where injections, blood draws, and cryotherapy are often required during the care of patients. Psychologic techniques based on cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be implemented leading up to and while performing these procedures to help reduce patient anxiety.
February 10, 2019: Pediatric Dermatology
Adrian Curwen, Jane Fernandes, Rachael Howison, Paul Binfield, Frank Rohricht, Domenico Giacco
Background: People participation teams are being established in many British NHS Trusts. They support active service user involvement in staff recruitment interviews, in evaluations of care and in programmes to improve services. No studies exploring experience of people involved in these activities are available in published mental health literature. In this project we explored benefits experienced and suggestions for improvement provided by service users. Methods: The design, materials and methods of the project were developed in workshops including N  = 15 service users...
2019: Research Involvement and Engagement
Annina Riggenbach, Liesbet Goubert, Stijn Van Petegem, Rémy Amouroux
This topical review outlines the resilience pathway to adaptive functioning in pediatric pain within a developmental perspective. Self-Determination Theory proposes that the satisfaction of one's basic psychological needs (for autonomy, relatedness, and competence) is crucial for understanding human flourishing and healthy development. However, the role of the basic psychological needs received little attention in a pediatric-pain population. Yet, we propose that need satisfaction may be a resilience factor and need frustration a risk factor, for living with chronic pain...
2019: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
Esther Eijlers, Ale Smidts, Maarten A S Boksem
Although many studies revealed that emotions and their dynamics have a profound impact on cognition and behavior, it has proven difficult to unobtrusively measure emotions. In the current study, our objective was to distinguish different experiences elicited by audiovisual stimuli designed to evoke particularly happy, sad, fear and disgust emotions, using electroencephalography (EEG) and a multivariate approach. We show that we were able to classify these emotional experiences well above chance level. Importantly, we retained all the information (frequency and topography) present in the data...
2019: PloS One
Yuan Yang, Wen Li, Yunhong Wen, Hongmei Wang, Hengwen Sun, Weijiang Liang, Bin Zhang, Gerry Humphris
OBJECTIVE: The current systematic review aims to provide an overview of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR) in adolescent and young adult cancer survivors (15-39 yrs at cancer diagnosis, AYAs). METHODS: MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase databases were independently searched to identify relevant quantitative articles. PRISMA systematic review procedures were followed with quality assessment. RESULTS: Seventeen studies were included in the current review...
January 31, 2019: Psycho-oncology
Roy La Touche, Monica Grande-Alonso, Paloma Arnes-Prieto, Alba Paris-Alemany
BACKGROUND: Low back pain (LBP) is the most prevalent musculoskeletal problem among adults. Individuals with chronic LBP (CLBP) can present a psychological disorder and a lack of pain self-efficacy. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to compare the process of repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain, the lumbar range of motion, and the postural stability of patients with non-specific LBP (NSLBP) based on their level of self-efficacy. STUDY DESIGN: This research used a descriptive, cross-sectional study design...
January 2019: Pain Physician
Ryo Okubo, Hiroko Noguchi, Kei Hamazaki, Masayuki Sekiguchi, Takayuki Kinoshita, Noriko Katsumata, Tomomi Narisawa, Yasuhito Uezono, Jinzhong Xiao, Yutaka J Matsuoka
BACKGROUND: The pathophysiology of fear of cancer recurrence (FCR), the leading unmet psychological need of cancer survivors, may involve the dysfunctional processing of fear memory. n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) have beneficial effects on psychiatric disorders, including depressive disorder and anxiety disorders, and are involved in fear memory processing. We hypothesized that n-3 PUFA composition is associated with FCR in cancer survivors. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to examine the relationship between n-3 PUFAs and FCR among breast cancer survivors...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Lauren A M Lebois, Antonia V Seligowski, Jonathan D Wolff, Sarah B Hill, Kerry J Ressler
Although the fear response is an adaptive response to threatening situations, a number of psychiatric disorders feature prominent fear-related symptoms caused, in part, by failures of extinction and inhibitory learning. The translational nature of fear conditioning paradigms has enabled us to develop a nuanced understanding of extinction and inhibitory learning based on the molecular substrates to systems neural circuitry and psychological mechanisms. This knowledge has facilitated the development of novel interventions that may augment extinction and inhibitory learning...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Clinical Psychology
Daniel Freeman, Rachel Lister, Felicity Waite, Ly-Mee Yu, Mel Slater, Graham Dunn, David Clark
BACKGROUND: Persecutory delusions are a major psychiatric problem and are associated with a wide range of adverse outcomes. Our theoretical model views these delusions as unfounded threat beliefs which persist due to defence behaviours (e.g. avoidance) that prevent disconfirmatory evidence being processed. The treatment implications are that patients need to (1) go into feared situations and (2) not use defence behaviours. This enables relearning of safety and hence paranoia diminution...
January 29, 2019: Trials
Sharon A M Stevelink, Norman Jones, Margaret Jones, Daniel Dyball, Charandeep K Khera, David Pernet, Shirlee MacCrimmon, Dominic Murphy, Lisa Hull, Neil Greenberg, Deirdre MacManus, Laura Goodwin, Marie-Louise Sharp, Simon Wessely, Roberto J Rona, Nicola T Fear
Background : UK armed forces personnel are at risk of occupational psychological injury; they are often reluctant to seek help for such problems. Objective : We aimed to examine and describe sources of support, prevalence and associates of help-seeking among UK serving and ex-serving personnel. Method : A total of 1450 participants who self-reported a stress, emotional or mental health problem in the past 3 years were sampled from a health and wellbeing study and subsequently completed a telephone interview comprising measures of mental disorder symptoms, alcohol misuse and help-seeking behaviour...
2019: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
Seonyoung Yoo, Minyoung Sim, Jungwon Choi, Kyoungsun Jeon, Jungha Shin, Seockhoon Chung, Sang-Bum Hong, So-Yeon Lee, Soo-Jong Hong
To substantiate psychological symptoms following humidifier disinfectant (HD) disasters, counseling records of 26 victims and 92 family members of victims (45 were bereaved) were analyzed retrospectively. Among the victims, 34.6% had Clinical Global Impression-Severity scores of over 4, which meant they were moderately ill. While anxiety/fear and depression with respiratory symptoms were frequently observed in victims and family members, chronic psychological distress such as alcohol/smoking abuse and insomnia was relatively high in bereaved family members...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Korean Medical Science
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