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TGF beta melanocyte

Hae-Young Kim, Shyam Kishor Sah, Sung S Choi, Tae-Yoon Kim
AIMS: Several anti-melanogenic molecules have been developed or identified, but their uses are limited due to either adverse effects or instability during the treatment. We aimed to evaluate the effects of extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3), a powerful antioxidant, as a candidate anti-melanogenic molecule. MAIN METHODS: UVB-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and proliferation in melan-a cells was evaluated by 6-carboxy-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate staining and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay, respectively...
October 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Kaiyuan Ji, Junzhen Zhang, Ruiwen Fan, Shanshan Yang, Changsheng Dong
Melanoma is a highly invasive and metastatic malignant skin tumor with poor prognosis. Although several widely studied pure melanoma cell lines are available, the precise mechanism underlying transformation of melanocyte to melanoma remains unclear. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a vast category of non-coding RNA molecules, and increasing evidence suggests that lncRNAs are crucial for various biological processes, including those in the skin. Herein, lncRNA sequencing was performed on an Illumina HiSeq platform to identify lncRNAs expressed differently in murine B16 melanoma cells compared to normal mouse melanocytes...
August 12, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
David-Nicolas Morand, Olivier Huck, Laetitia Keller, Nadia Jessel, Henri Tenenbaum, Jean-Luc Davideau
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is involved in normal skin wound healing and also has anti-inflammatory properties. The association of α-MSH to polyelectrolyte layers with various supports has been shown to improve these anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of nanofibrous membrane functionalized with α-MSH linked to polyelectrolyte layers on gingival cell inflammatory response. Human oral epithelial cells (EC) and fibroblasts (FB) were cultured on plastic or electrospun Poly-#-caprolactone (PCL) membranes with α-MSH covalently coupled to Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA-α-MSH), for 6 to 24 h...
October 27, 2015: Materials
Petra Wäster, Kyriakos Orfanidis, Ida Eriksson, Inger Rosdahl, Oliver Seifert, Karin Öllinger
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the major risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. Fibroblast activation protein (FAP)-α is a serine protease expressed on the surface of activated fibroblasts, promoting tumour invasion through extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation. The signalling mechanism behind the upregulation of FAP-α is not yet completely revealed. METHODS: Expression of FAP-α was analysed after UVR exposure in in vitro co-culture systems, gene expression arrays and artificial skin constructs...
August 8, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
Naira V Margaryan, Alina Gilgur, Elisabeth A Seftor, Chad Purnell, Nicoleta C Arva, Arun K Gosain, Mary J C Hendrix, Luigi Strizzi
Expression of Nodal, a Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) related growth factor, is associated with aggressive melanoma. Nodal expression in adult dysplastic nevi may predict the development of aggressive melanoma in some patients. A subset of pediatric patients diagnosed with giant or large congenital melanocytic nevi (LCMN) has shown increased risk for development of melanoma. Here, we investigate whether Nodal expression can help identify the rare cases of LCMN that develop melanoma and shed light on why the majority of these patients do not...
March 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ali Malik Osman, Maowia Mohamed Mukhtar, Khalid Hussein Bakheit, Hamdan Zaki Hamdan
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is the most common pigmentary skin disorder. It is a multifactorial polygenic disease with epidermal melanocyte destruction. The cytokines profile found in vitiliginous patients was not fully elucidated. AIMS: We sought to assess the autoimmune nature of vitiligo by comparing plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-17, IL-23, and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in adult Sudanese vitiligo patients with matched control individuals. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Case-control study was conducted in Khartoum Dermatologic Teaching Hospital, in the period between July and December 2013...
November 2015: Indian Journal of Dermatology
Gaia Cantelli, Jose L Orgaz, Irene Rodriguez-Hernandez, Panagiotis Karagiannis, Oscar Maiques, Xavier Matias-Guiu, Frank O Nestle, Rosa M Marti, Sophia N Karagiannis, Victoria Sanz-Moreno
Cell migration underlies metastatic dissemination of cancer cells, and fast "amoeboid" migration in the invasive fronts of tumors is controlled by high levels of actomyosin contractility. How amoeboid migration is regulated by extracellular signals and sustained over time by transcriptional changes is not fully understood. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) is well known to promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and contribute to metastasis, but melanocytes are neural crest derivatives that have undergone EMT during embryonic development...
November 16, 2015: Current Biology: CB
Kunal Rai, Kadir C Akdemir, Lawrence N Kwong, Petko Fiziev, Chang-Jiun Wu, Emily Z Keung, Sneha Sharma, Neha S Samant, Maura Williams, Jacob B Axelrad, Amiksha Shah, Dong Yang, Elizabeth A Grimm, Michelle C Barton, Denai R Milton, Timothy P Heffernan, James W Horner, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Alexander J Lazar, Jason Ernst, Lynda Chin
UNLABELLED: Epigenetic regulators have emerged as critical factors governing the biology of cancer. Here, in the context of melanoma, we show that RNF2 is prognostic, exhibiting progression-correlated expression in human melanocytic neoplasms. Through a series of complementary gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies in mouse and human systems, we establish that RNF2 is oncogenic and prometastatic. Mechanistically, RNF2-mediated invasive behavior is dependent on its ability to monoubiquitinate H2AK119 at the promoter of LTBP2, resulting in silencing of this negative regulator of TGFβ signaling...
December 2015: Cancer Discovery
Hong-Xing Wang, Chandan Sharma, Konstantin Knoblich, Scott R Granter, Martin E Hemler
In normal melanocytes, TGF-β signaling has a cytostatic effect. However, in primary melanoma cells, TGF-β-induced cytostasis is diminished, thus allowing melanoma growth. Later, a second phase of TGF-β signaling supports melanoma EMT-like changes, invasion and metastasis. In parallel with these "present-absent-present" TGF-β signaling phases, cell surface protein EWI motif-containing protein 2 (EWI-2 or IgSF8) is "absent-present-absent" in melanocytes, primary melanoma, and metastatic melanoma, respectively, suggesting that EWI-2 may serve as a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling...
March 2015: Cell Research
Jenna R Bordelon, James M Grichnik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2015: Dermatologic Therapy
Li Zhou, Yu-Ling Shi, Kai Li, Iltefat Hamzavi, Tian-Wen Gao, Richard H Huggins, Henry W Lim, Qing-Sheng Mi
Although non-segmental vitiligo (NSV) results from the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, the detailed immune mechanisms have not yet been fully elucidated. Th17 cells have been identified to be implicated in human autoimmune diseases. In this study, the frequencies of peripheral blood Th17 cells and serum levels of IL-17A and Th17 cell-related cytokines were examined in 45 patients with active NSV compared to 45 race-, gender-, and age-matched healthy controls. Our results showed increased circulating Th17 cell frequencies and elevated serum IL-17A, TGF-β1, and IL-21 levels in patients with NSV...
May 2015: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Xiaodan Dai, Chunbao Rao, Huirong Li, Yu Chen, Lilv Fan, Huiqin Geng, Shuang Li, Jia Qu, Ling Hou
There is growing evidence that microRNAs are important regulators of gene expression in a variety of cell types. Using immortalized cell lines and primary neural crest cell explants, we show that microRNA-211, previously implicated in the regulation of melanoma proliferation and invasiveness, promotes pigmentation in melanoblasts and melanocytes. Expression of this microRNA is regulated by the key melanocyte transcription factor MITF and regulates pigmentation by targeting the TGF-β receptor 2. Transfection with pre-miR-211 precursor molecules in melb-a and melan-a cells leads to a decrease in the expression of TGF-β receptor 2 and reduces the TGF-β signaling-mediated downregulation of two melanogenic enzymes, tyrosinase and tyrosinase-related protein 1...
March 2015: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Jessica Diann Hathaway, Azizul Haque
Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer in the United States with an increasing prevalence. However, the development of melanoma from a melanocyte precursor is still poorly defined. Understanding the molecules responsible for melanoma progression may lead to improved targeted therapy. One potential molecule is the paired box-3 (PAX-3) protein, which has been implicated in the development of melanocytes and malignant melanoma. In melanoma, the expression of PAX-3 is believed to be differentially regulated, and has been linked with malignancies and staging of the disease...
January 1, 2011: Open Cancer Journal
Simona Romano, Anna D'Angelillo, Paolo D'Arrigo, Stefania Staibano, Adelaide Greco, Arturo Brunetti, Massimiliano Scalvenzi, Rita Bisogni, Iris Scala, Maria Fiammetta Romano
BACKGROUND: FKBP51 (FKBP5 Official Symbol) is a large molecular weight component of the family of FK506 binding proteins (FKBP). In recent years, research studies from our laboratory highlighted functions for FKBP51 in the control of apoptosis and melanoma progression. FKBP51 expression correlated with the invasiveness and aggressiveness of melanoma. Since a role for TGF-β in the enhanced tumorigenic potential of melanoma cells is widely described, we hypothesized a cooperative effect between FKBP51 and TGF-β in melanoma progression...
2014: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Lila Carniglia, Daniela Durand, Carla Caruso, Mercedes Lasaga
Brain inflammation plays a central role in numerous brain pathologies. Microglia and astrocytes are the main effector cells that become activated when an inflammatory process takes place within the central nervous system. α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a neuropeptide with proven anti-inflammatory properties. It binds with highest affinity to the melanocortin receptor 4 (MC4R), which is present in astrocytes and upon activation triggers anti-inflammatory pathways. The aim of this research was to identify anti-inflammatory mediators that may participate in the immunomodulatory effects of melanocortins in glial cells...
2013: PloS One
Christian Busch, Jelena Krochmann, Ulrich Drews
BACKGROUND: A primary cutaneous melanoma will not kill the patient, but its metastases. Since in vitro studies on melanoma cells in 2-D cultures do often not reflect reality, 3-D models might come closer to the physiological situation in the patient during cancer initiation and progression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the chick embryo model for in vivo studies of melanoma cell migration and invasion. After transplantation of neural crest-derived melanoma cells into the neural tube, the melanoma cells resume neural crest cell migration along the medial and lateral pathways and finally undergo apoptosis in the target areas...
2013: PloS One
Zheng Zhang, Jin Ma, Ke Yao, Jinfu Yin
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a proopiomelanocortin derivative and a multi-function neuropeptide, well know for its pigment-inducing capacity, inhibitory action on proinflammatory cytokines and chemoattractant cytokines, and suppressive action on collagen synthesis. Human Tenon's capsule fibroblasts (HTF) are the main effector cells in the initiation and mediation of wound healing and fibrotic scar formation after trabeculectomy. In this study the effects of alpha-MSH on proliferation of HTF stimulated by transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), have been investigated and discussed...
July 2012: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Marie-Jeanne Pierrat, Véronique Marsaud, Alain Mauviel, Delphine Javelaud
The melanocyte-specific transcription factor M-MITF is involved in numerous aspects of melanoblast lineage biology including pigmentation, survival, and migration. It plays complex roles at all stages of melanoma progression and metastasis. We established previously that GLI2, a Kruppel-like transcription factor that acts downstream of Hedgehog signaling, is a direct transcriptional target of the TGF-β/SMAD pathway and contributes to melanoma progression, exerting antagonistic activities against M-MITF to control melanoma cell invasiveness...
May 25, 2012: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Kumi Orita, Keiichi Hiramoto, Hiromi Kobayashi, Masamitsu Ishii, Atsuo Sekiyama, Masayasu Inoue
To elucidate the possible involvement of nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible NO synthase (iNOS) in the pathogenesis of patients with allergic rhinitis, we used an animal model of atopic dermatitis (AD) induced by epicutaneous sensitization and analysed the differences in ear thickness, the frequency of scratching and plasma levels of ovalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E (OVA-IgE), transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) between control and iNOS(-/-) mice...
November 2011: Experimental Dermatology
Delphine Javelaud, Vasileia-Ismini Alexaki, Marie-Jeanne Pierrat, Keith S Hoek, Sylviane Dennler, Leon Van Kempen, Corine Bertolotto, Robert Ballotti, Simon Saule, Véronique Delmas, Alain Mauviel
We recently identified GLI2, the most active of GLI transcription factors, as a direct TGF-β/SMAD target, whose expression in melanoma cells is associated with increased invasiveness and metastatic capacity. In this work, we provide evidence that high GLI2 expression is inversely correlated with that of the melanocyte-specific transcription factor M-microphthalmia transcription factor (M-MITF) and associated transcriptional program. GLI2-expressing cell lines were characterized by the loss of M-MITF-dependent melanocytic differentiation markers and reduced pigmentation...
October 2011: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
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