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cell biology, cell signaling

Lídia N Queiroz, Franciele R Maldaner, Érica A Mendes, Aline R Sousa, Rebeca C D'Allastta, Gustavo Mendonça, Daniela B S Mendonça, Francisco J L Aragão
The bone morphogenetic protein BMP2 plays a crucial role in the formation and regeneration of bone and cartilage, which is critical for maintaining skeletal integrity and bone fracture repair. Because of its important role in osteogenic properties it has been commercially produced for clinical use. Here we report attempts to express human BMP2 using two plant systems (lettuce chloroplast and soybean seeds). The rhBMP2 gene (coding for the 13 kDa active polypeptide) was introduced in two regions of the lettuce chloroplast genome...
March 19, 2019: Transgenic Research
Estelle Gauquelin, Sham Tlili, Cyprien Gay, Grégoire Peyret, René-Marc Mège, Marc A Fardin, Benoît Ladoux
Biological systems integrate dynamics at many scales, from molecules, protein complexes and genes, to cells, tissues and organisms. At every step of the way, mechanics, biochemistry and genetics offer complementary approaches to understand these dynamics. At the tissue scale, in vitro monolayers of epithelial cells provide a model to capture the influence of various factors on the motions of the tissue, in order to understand in vivo processes from morphogenesis, cancer progression and tissue remodelling. Ongoing efforts include research aimed at deciphering the roles of the cytoskeleton, of cell-substrate and cell-cell adhesions, and of cell proliferation-the point we investigate here...
March 19, 2019: Soft Matter
Shengzhong Liu, Ying He, Jun Shi, Lulu Liu, Hao Ma, Li He, Yingqiang Guo
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains a severe cardiac disease because of its high incidence and mortality worldwide. A growing body of recent investigations have confirmed that LINC00961 acts as a tumor suppressor in diverse malignancies. However, the biological significance of LINC00961 and its molecular mechanism in MI are still elusive. Hypoxia is the leading cause of MI and induces myocardial injury. In this study, we found the upregulated expression of LINC00961 in cardiomyocytes H9c2 after hypoxia treatment...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Yunbao Pan, Guohong Liu, Dujuan Wang, Yirong Li
Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) can act as ceRNA to regulate the expression of target genes by sponging miRNAs, and therefore plays an essential role in tumor initiation and progression. However, functional roles and regulatory mechanisms of lncRNAs as ceRNAs in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) remain to be determined. We downloaded RNA sequence profiles from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, and identified the differential RNAs by bioinformatics. Then we analyzed the biological processes of differential expressed RNAs (DER), and established their interaction networks and pathway analysis to find out potential biological effects of these DERs...
2019: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Kaiming Leng, Yi Xu, Pengcheng Kang, Wei Qin, Hailong Cai, Hao Wang, Daolin Ji, Xingming Jiang, Jinglin Li, Zhenglong Li, Lining Huang, Xiangyu Zhong, Xueying Sun, Zhidong Wang, Yunfu Cui
Akirin2 is a key regulator of embryonic development and the innate immunity response. However, this regulator's role in tumorigenesis especially in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) development has not been thoroughly elucidated to date. In the current work, we used RT-qPCR, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) to explore the expression level of Akirin2, and the relationship between Akirin2 levels and clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated. The biological functions of Akirin2 were examined in vitro and in vivo by using a lentiviral vector system...
March 18, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Masafumi Inaba, Ting-Xin Jiang, Ya-Chen Liang, Stephanie Tsai, Yung-Chih Lai, Randall Bruce Widelitz, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Animal skin pigment patterns are excellent models to study the mechanism of biological self-organization. Theoretical approaches developed mathematical models of pigment patterning and molecular genetics have brought progress; however, the responsible cellular mechanism is not fully understood. One long unsolved controversy is whether the patterning information is autonomously determined by melanocytes or nonautonomously determined from the environment. Here, we transplanted purified melanocytes and demonstrated that melanocytes could form periodic pigment patterns cell autonomously...
March 18, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Qiangqiang Hou, Conghui He, Kejing Lao, Guoshun Luo, Qidong You, Hua Xiang
Both AR and CYP17 are important targets for blocking androgen signaling, and it has been accepted that multifunctional drugs have a low risk of drug resistance in the treatment of cancer. Thus, herein a series of steroidal imidazoles were designed, synthesized and evaluated as dual AR/CYP17 ligands. Several compounds displayed good biological profiles in both enzymatic and cellular assays. SAR studies showed that introducing oximino at the C-3 position of steriodal scaffold is beneficial to the enhancement of AR antagonistic activity...
March 15, 2019: Steroids
Yujeong Oh, Jiwon Jang
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have been used as promising tools for regenerative medicine, disease modeling, and drug screening. Traditional and common strategies for pluripotent stem cell (PSC) differentiation toward disease-relevant cell types depend on sequential treatment of signaling molecules identified based on knowledge of developmental biology. However, these strategies suffer from low purity, inefficiency, and timeconsuming culture conditions. A growing body of recent research has shown efficient cell fate reprogramming by forced expression of single or multiple transcription factors...
March 15, 2019: Molecules and Cells
Charlotte M Mistretta, Archana Kumari
The Hedgehog (Hh) pathway has regulatory roles in maintaining and restoring lingual taste organs, the papillae and taste buds, and taste sensation. Taste buds and taste nerve responses are eliminated if Hh signaling is genetically suppressed or pharmacologically inhibited, but regeneration can occur if signaling is reactivated within the lingual epithelium. Whereas Hh pathway disruption alters taste sensation, tactile and cold responses remain intact, indicating that Hh signaling is modality-specific in regulation of tongue sensation...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nina Smolinska, Karol Szeszko, Kamil Dobrzyn, Marta Kiezun, Edyta Rytelewska, Katarzyna Kisielewska, Marlena Gudelska, Kinga Bors, Joanna Wyrebek, Grzegorz Kopij, Barbara Kaminska, Tadeusz Kaminski
Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanism of the implantation process in pigs is crucial for reproductive success. The endometrium plays an important role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of gestation. The goal of the current study was to determine the effect of adiponectin on the global expression pattern of genes and relationships among differentially expressed genes (DE-genes) in the porcine endometrium during implantation using microarrays. Diverse transcriptome analyses including gene ontology (GO), biological pathway, networks, and DE-gene analyses were performed...
March 16, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Geoffrey Gourinchas, Stefan Etzl, Andreas Winkler
Bacteriophytochromes are a subfamily of the diverse light responsive phytochrome photoreceptors. Considering their preferential interaction with biliverdin IXα as endogenous cofactor, they have recently been used for creating optogenetic tools and engineering fluorescent probes. Ideal absorption characteristics for the activation of bacteriophytochrome-based systems in the therapeutic near-infrared window as well the availability of biliverdin in mammalian tissues have resulted in tremendous progress in re-engineering bacteriophytochromes for diverse applications...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Arianna Pocaterra, Giulia Santinon, Patrizia Romani, Irene Brian, Andrea Dimitracopoulos, Andrea Ghisleni, Alejandro Carnicer-Lombarte, Mattia Forcato, Paola Braghetta, Marco Montagner, Francesca Galuppini, Mariaceleste Aragona, Gianmaria Pennelli, Silvio Bicciato, Nils Gauthier, Kristian Franze, Sirio Dupont
BACKGROUND & AIMS: In vitro, several data indicate that cell function can be regulated by the mechanical properties of cells and of the microenvironment. Cells measure these features by developing forces via their actomyosin cytoskeleton, and respond accordingly by transducing forces into biochemical signals that instruct cell behavior. Among these, the transcriptional coactivators YAP/TAZ recently emerged as key factors mediating multiple responses to actomyosin contractility. However, whether mechanical cues regulate adult liver tissue homeostasis, and whether this occurs through YAP/TAZ, remains largely unaddressed...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Hepatology
Cheong-Whan Chae, Yoo-Wook Kwon
Currently, coronary artery disease accounts for a large proportion of deaths occurring worldwide. Damage to the heart muscle over a short period of time leads to myocardial infarction (MI). The biological mechanisms of atherosclerosis, one of the causes of MI, have been well studied. Resistin, a type of adipokine, is closely associated with intravascular level of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and augmentation of the expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells. Therefore, resistin, which is highly associated with inflammation, can progress into coronary artery disease...
March 15, 2019: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Dan Wu, Ming Zhou, Liang Li, Xiangfeng Leng, Zheng Zhang, Ning Wang, Yanwei Sun
Patients with severe burns are susceptible to infectious complications including burn-site infections and sepsis. The purpose of this study was to explore the pathologic development of burn injury in a mouse model and to screen genes dysregulated at different time points on the basis of gene expression microarrays. Differential expression analysis identified a total 223 genes that related to only time progression independent of burn injury and 214 genes with aberrant expression due to burn injury. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) of the 214 genes obtained seven gene modules which named as red, blue, turquoise, green, brown, yellow, and gray module, and the blue module was found to be significantly associated with severe burn injury progression, and in which several genes were previously reported being associated with inflammation and immune response, such as interleukin IL-6, IL-8, and IL-1b...
March 16, 2019: Inflammation
Yaning Cui, Xi Zhang, Meng Yu, Yingfang Zhu, Jingjing Xing, Jinxing Lin
Detecting protein-protein interactions (PPIs) provides fundamental information for understanding biochemical processes such as the transduction of signals from one cellular location to another; however, traditional biochemical techniques cannot provide sufficient spatio-temporal information to elucidate these molecular interactions in living cells. Over the past decade, several new techniques have enabled the identification and characterization of PPIs. In this review, we summarize three main techniques for detecting PPIs in vivo, focusing on their basic principles and applications in biological studies...
March 14, 2019: Science China. Life Sciences
Alka A Potdar, Dalin Li, Talin Haritunians, Kelli L VanDussen, Marie F Fiorino, Ta-Chiang Liu, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Phillip Fleshner, Stephan R Targan, Dermot P B McGovern, Janine Bilsborough
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Heterogeneity in Crohn's disease (CD) provides a challenge for development of effective therapies. Our goal was to define a unique molecular signature for severe, refractory CD to enable precision therapy approaches to disease treatment and facilitate earlier intervention in complicated disease. METHODS: We analyzed clinical meta-data, genetics and transcriptomics from uninvolved ileal tissue from CD patients that underwent a single SB resection...
March 16, 2019: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Shunsuke Kimura, Nobuhide Kobayashi, Yutaka Nakamura, Takashi Kanaya, Daisuke Takahashi, Ryoji Fujiki, Mami Mutoh, Yuuki Obata, Toshihiko Iwanaga, Tomoo Nakagawa, Naoya Kato, Shintaro Sato, Tsuneyasu Kaisho, Hiroshi Ohno, Koji Hase
Microfold (M) cells residing in the follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of the gut-associated lymphoid tissue are specialized for antigen uptake to initiate mucosal immune responses. The molecular machinery and biological significance of M cell differentiation, however, remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that Sox8, a member of the SRY-related HMG box transcription factor family, is specifically expressed by M cells in the intestinal epithelium. The expression of Sox8 requires activation of RANKL-RelB signaling...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Linglu Jia, Yunpeng Zhang, Yawen Ji, Xiaomeng Li, Yixiao Xing, Yong Wen, Haiyun Huang, Xin Xu
Oral tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, such as periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), possess different biological characteristics, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear, which restricts their application in tissue engineering. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to be significant regulators of gene expression, but our knowledge about their roles in the regulation of stem cell biological properties is still limited. This study compared the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between PDLSCs and GMSCs through microarray analysis, and applied bioinformatics methods to analyze and predict the function and connection of differentially expressed genes, aiming to screen potential key regulators of diverse biological characteristics in PDLSCs and GMSCs...
March 12, 2019: Gene
Ruiqing Yu, Qimeng Li, Zhihui Feng, Luhui Cai, Xiong Xu
N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant mRNA modification that affects multiple biological processes, including those involved in the cell stress response and viral infection. YTH domain family 2 (YTHDF2) is an m6A-binding protein that affects the localization and stability of targeted mRNA. RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) can regulate the stability of inflammatory gene mRNA transcripts, thus participating in the regulation of inflammatory processes. As an RBP, the role of YTHDF2 in the LPS-induced inflammatory reaction has not been reported...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mario Joachim Johannes Scheurer, Roman Camillus Brands, Mohamed El-Mesery, Stefan Hartmann, Urs Dietmar Achim Müller-Richter, Alexander Christian Kübler, Axel Seher
Inflammation is a central aspect of tumour biology and can contribute significantly to both the origination and progression of tumours. The NFκB pathway is one of the most important signal transduction pathways in inflammation and is, therefore, an excellent target for cancer therapy. In this work, we examined the influence of four NFκB inhibitors-Cortisol, MLN4924, QNZ and TPCA1-on proliferation, inflammation and sensitisation to apoptosis mediated by the death ligand FasL in the HNSCC cell lines PCI1, PCI9, PCI13, PCI52 and SCC25 and in the human dermal keratinocyte cell line HaCaT...
March 15, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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