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Giovanni Landoni, Vladimir V Lomivorotov, Caetano Nigro Neto, Fabrizio Monaco, Vadim V Pasyuga, Nikola Bradic, Rosalba Lembo, Gordana Gazivoda, Valery V Likhvantsev, Chong Lei, Andrey Lozovskiy, Nora Di Tomasso, Nazar A R Bukamal, Fernanda S Silva, Andrey E Bautin, Jun Ma, Martina Crivellari, Ahmed M G A Farag, Nikolay S Uvaliev, Cristiana Carollo, Marina Pieri, Jan Kunstýř, Chew Yin Wang, Alessandro Belletti, Ludhmila A Hajjar, Evgeny V Grigoryev, Felice E Agrò, Hynek Riha, Mohamed R El-Tahan, A Mara Scandroglio, Abeer M Elnakera, Massimo Baiocchi, Paolo Navalesi, Vladimir A Shmyrev, Luca Severi, Mohammed A Hegazy, Giuseppe Crescenzi, Dmitry N Ponomarev, Luca Brazzi, Renato Arnoni, Dmitry G Tarasov, Miomir Jovic, Maria G Calabrò, Tiziana Bove, Rinaldo Bellomo, Alberto Zangrillo
BACKGROUND: Volatile (inhaled) anesthetic agents have cardioprotective effects, which might improve clinical outcomes in patients undergoing coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We conducted a pragmatic, multicenter, single-blind, controlled trial at 36 centers in 13 countries. Patients scheduled to undergo elective CABG were randomly assigned to an intraoperative anesthetic regimen that included a volatile anesthetic (desflurane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane) or to total intravenous anesthesia...
March 19, 2019: New England Journal of Medicine
Ray Kreienkamp, Susana Gonzalo
The structural nuclear proteins known as "lamins" (A-type and B-type) provide a scaffold for the compartmentalization of genome function that is important to maintain genome stability. Mutations in the LMNA gene -encoding for A-type lamins- are associated with over a dozen of degenerative disorders termed laminopathies, which include muscular dystrophies, lipodystrophies, neuropathies, and premature ageing diseases such as Hutchinson Gilford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS). This devastating disease is caused by the expression of a truncated lamin A protein named "progerin"...
2019: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Mark Ross, Hannah Lithgow, Lawrence Hayes, Geraint Florida-James
Exercise in young adults has been consistently shown to improve various aspects of physiological and psychological health but we are now realising the potential benefits of exercise with advancing age. Specifically, exercise improves cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and metabolic health through reductions in oxidative stress, chronic low-grade inflammation and modulating cellular processes within a variety of tissues. In this this chapter we will discuss the effects of acute and chronic exercise on these processes and conditions in an ageing population, and how physical activity affects our vasculature, skeletal muscle function, our immune system, and cardiometabolic risk in older adults...
2019: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Ludmila Müller, Svetlana Di Benedetto, Graham Pawelec
Aging leads to numerous changes that affect all physiological systems of the body including the immune system, causing greater susceptibility to infectious disease and contributing to the cardiovascular, metabolic, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative diseases of aging. The immune system is itself also influenced by age-associated changes occurring in such physiological systems as the endocrine, nervous, digestive, cardio-vascular and muscle-skeletal systems. This chapter describes the multidimensional effects of aging on the most important components of the immune system...
2019: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jane L Tarry-Adkins, Susan E Ozanne
The prevalence of age-associated disease is increasing at a striking rate globally and there is evidence to suggest that the ageing process may actually begin before birth. It has been well-established that the status of both the maternal and early postnatal environments into which an individual is exposed can have huge implications for the risk of developing age-associated disease, including cardiovascular disease (CVD), type-2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity in later life. Therefore, the dissection of underlying molecular mechanisms to explain this phenomenon, known as 'developmental programming' is a highly investigated area of research...
2019: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
Jiachuan Xiong, Ting He, Min Wang, Ling Nie, Ying Zhang, Yiqin Wang, Yunjian Huang, Bing Feng, Jingbo Zhang, Jinghong Zhao
BACKGROUND: Previous studies reported that magnesium deficiency was associated with vascular calcifications, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, which might play an independent pathogenic role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. However, the results of these studies were somewhat underpowered and inconclusive. METHODS: Literature was identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL)...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Nephrology
Sven Francque, Luisa Vonghia
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has become the most frequently encountered chronic liver disease. NAFLD is associated with increased liver-related morbidity and mortality, but also contributes to cardiovascular disease, diabetes and non-liver-related malignancy. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is considered the more severe subtype of NAFLD that drives most of these adverse outcomes. Lifestyle modification and associated weight loss can improve NASH but are not always sufficient and sustained results are difficult to obtain...
March 19, 2019: Advances in Therapy
Duke Appiah, Pamela J Schreiner, Elizabeth Selvin, Ellen W Demerath, James S Pankow
AIMS: It is unclear if the presence of type-2 diabetes in one spouse is associated with the development of diabetes in the other spouse. We studied the concordance of diabetes among black and white participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and summarized existing studies in a meta-analysis. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort analysis of ARIC data from 8077 married men and women (mean age 54 years) without diabetes at baseline (1987-1989)...
March 19, 2019: Acta Diabetologica
Fabrizia Bonacina, Andrea Baragetti, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Giuseppe Danilo Norata
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Metabolic reprogramming is increasingly recognized as an essential trait of functional activation of immune cells. Here, we describe the link between immuno-metabolism, diabetes, and diabetic nephropathy. RECENT FINDINGS: Crosstalk between cellular metabolic functions and immune activation occurs when plasma levels of glucose, triglycerides, and free fatty acids increase, thus promoting systemic low-grade inflammation that further boosts the development of metabolic complications...
March 19, 2019: Current Diabetes Reports
Guillaume Geri, Philippe Vignon, Alix Aubry, Anne-Laure Fedou, Cyril Charron, Stein Silva, Xavier Repessé, Antoine Vieillard-Baron
PURPOSE: Mechanisms of circulatory failure are complex and frequently intricate in septic shock. Better characterization could help to optimize hemodynamic support. METHODS: Two published prospective databases from 12 different ICUs including echocardiographic monitoring performed by a transesophageal route at the initial phase of septic shock were merged for post hoc analysis. Hierarchical clustering in a principal components approach was used to define cardiovascular phenotypes using clinical and echocardiographic parameters...
March 19, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Miet Schetz, Audrey De Jong, Adam M Deane, Wilfried Druml, Pleun Hemelaar, Paolo Pelosi, Peter Pickkers, Annika Reintam-Blaser, Jason Roberts, Yasser Sakr, Samir Jaber
The World Health Organization defines overweight and obesity as the condition where excess or abnormal fat accumulation increases risks to health. The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and is around 20% in ICU patients. Adipose tissue is highly metabolically active, and especially visceral adipose tissue has a deleterious adipocyte secretory profile resulting in insulin resistance and a chronic low-grade inflammatory and procoagulant state. Obesity is strongly linked with chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, chronic kidney disease, obstructive sleep apnea and hypoventilation syndrome, mood disorders and physical disabilities...
March 19, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine
Javid Moslehi, Keigi Fujiwara, Tomasz Guzik
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 15, 2019: Cardiovascular Research
Maarten Falter, Werner Budts, Kaatje Goetschalckx, Véronique Cornelissen, Roselien Buys
BACKGROUND: Wrist-worn tracking devices such as the Apple Watch are becoming more integrated in health care. However, validation studies of these consumer devices remain scarce. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess if mobile health technology can be used for monitoring home-based exercise in future cardiac rehabilitation programs. The purpose was to determine the accuracy of the Apple Watch in measuring heart rate (HR) and estimating energy expenditure (EE) during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) in patients with cardiovascular disease...
March 19, 2019: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Iny Jhun, Jina Kim, Bennet Cho, Diane R Gold, Joel Schwartz, Brent A Coull, Antonella Zanobetti, Mary B Rice, Murray A Mittleman, Eric Garshick, Pantel Vokonas, Marie-Abele Bind, Elissa H Wilker, Francesca Dominici, Helen Suh, Petros Koutrakis
The association between particulate pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is well established. While the cardiovascular effects of nationally regulated criteria pollutants (e.g., fine particulate matter [PM2.5 ] and nitrogen dioxide) have been well documented, there are fewer studies on particulate pollutants that are more specific for traffic, such as black carbon (BC) and particle number (PN). In this paper, we synthesized studies conducted in the Greater Boston Area on cardiovascular health effects of traffic exposure, specifically defined by BC or PN exposure or proximity to major roadways...
March 19, 2019: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
T Durmić, M Ðjelić, T Gavrilović, M Antić, R Jeremić, A Vujović, Z Mihailović, M Zdravković
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to determine heart rate (HR) recovery after maximal test in elite athletes who compete in high dynamic, high static, and in mixed sport disciplines; to assess differences in HR recovery between these groups of athletes; and to measure the association of HR index (HRI) with heart adaptation variables to determine whether these values were correlated with the type of exercise. METHODS: One hundred and ninety-four elite athletes were divided into three groups according to the predominant type of exercise performed: endurance (n = 40), strength-sprinter (n = 36), and ball-game players (n = 118)...
March 19, 2019: Physiology International
Min-Seok Seo, Jae-Yong Shim, Yong-Jae Lee
Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP), a useful marker of hepatobiliary or bone disorders, has been known to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is increasingly being viewed as an inflammatory disease. C-reactive protein level and leukocyte count have also been highlighted as independent risk markers of CVD. Thus, the mechanism underlying the link between elevated ALP and CVD could be subclinical low-grade inflammation. This study aimed to examine associations of serum ALP level with inflammatory markers...
March 19, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation
Solène Conrad, Florence Demurger, Kamran Moradkhani, Olivier Pichon, Cédric Le Caignec, Cécile Pascal, Caroline Thomas, Sophie Bayart, Antoinette Perlat, Christèle Dubourg, Sylvie Jaillard, Mathilde Nizon
This report presents two families with interstitial 11q24.2q24.3 deletion, associated with malformations, hematologic features, and typical facial dysmorphism, observed in Jacobsen syndrome (JS), except for intellectual disability (ID). The smallest 700 Kb deletion contains only two genes: FLI1 and ETS1, and a long noncoding RNA, SENCR, narrowing the minimal critical region for some features of JS. Consistent with recent literature, it adds supplemental data to confirm the crucial role of FLI1 and ETS1 in JS, namely FLI1 in thrombocytopenia and ETS1 in cardiopathy and immune deficiency...
March 19, 2019: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
A Bonaventura, S Carbone, D L Dixon, A Abbate, F Montecucco
Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) present an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) complications. In addition to improvement in glycaemic control, glucose-lowering therapies, such as glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) and sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter (SGLT)-2 inhibitors, have been shown to significantly reduce CV events. In 2008, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated that all new glucose-lowering drugs undergo CV outcomes trials (CVOTs) to determine their CV safety...
March 19, 2019: Journal of Internal Medicine
Sara E Espinoza, Nicolas Musi, Chen-Pin Wang, Joel Michalek, Beverly Orsak, Terry Romo, Becky Powers, Alicia Conde, Melody Moris, Darcy Bair-Kelps, Yan Li, Vinutha Ganapathy, Tyson E Jergensen, Lauri C Kelly, Rozmin Jiwani
BACKGROUND: Frailty is a geriatric syndrome that leads to poor health outcomes with aging. Previous studies have demonstrated that insulin resistance and inflammation predict frailty onset. Metformin is a widely-used, well-tolerated drug that improves insulin sensitivity and displays anti-inflammatory properties. It is also known to prevent diabetes onset in adults with pre-diabetes. We hypothesize that metformin in older adults with pre-diabetes will promote healthy aging and prevent frailty...
March 19, 2019: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Tal Sharf, Paul K Hansma, Mukund A Hari, Kenneth S Kosik
Developing tools to enable non-invasive, high-throughput electrophysiology measurements of large functional-networks of electrogenic cells used as in vitro disease models for the heart and brain remains an outstanding challenge for preclinical drug discovery, where failures are costly and can prove to be fatal during clinical trials. Here we demonstrate, for the first time, that it is possible to perform non-contact monitoring of extra-cellular field potentials with a multi-electrode array (MEA). To do this preliminary demonstration we built a prototype with a custom mechanical stage to micro-position cells grown on conventional glass coverslips over the recording surface of a MEA sensor...
March 19, 2019: Lab on a Chip
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