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Postural change

Joaquin A Vizcarra, Jose Ricardo Lopez-Castellanos, Alok K Dwivedi, David A Schmerler, Scott Ries, Alberto J Espay
INTRODUCTION: Functional dystonia (FD) is a disabling movement disorder with limited therapeutic options. We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of chemodenervation with OnabotulinumtoxinA (BoNT) versus placebo prior to cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in FD patients. METHODS: FD patients with a Psychogenic Movement Disorders Rating Scale (PMDRS) score ≥ 10 and persistent dystonic posturing for ≥ 1 year were randomized to BoNT or placebo injections prior to 12 weekly individualized 1-h CBT sessions...
February 13, 2019: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Taiichi Koseki, Fujiyasu Kakizaki, Shogo Hayashi, Naoya Nishida, Masahiro Itoh
[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of forward head posture on upper and lower thoracic shape in adults to better understand the relationship between a forward head posture and respiratory function. [Participants and Methods] Fifteen healthy males were recruited after obtaining informed consent from all participants. All participants were instructed to respire in both the forward and neutral head postures while seated. Respiratory function was assessed using spirometry. Thoracic shape during respiration was assessed using 23 markers on both the upper and the lower thorax and compared between the 2 postures...
January 2019: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
T van der Zalm, J Alsma, S W E van de Poll, M W Wessels, N P Riksen, J Versmissen
Postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) is a condition in which a change from a supine to an upright position causes an abnormally large increase in heart rate which may be accompanied by a variety of physical complaints. We report two cases illustrating the heterogeneity of this syndrome. We give an update on the etiology of POTS, which is still poorly understood, and its overlap with other syndromes such as chronic fatigue syndrome. Clinicians should be aware of POTS, a fairly common clinical entity, that can result in significant impairments to a patient's quality of life...
January 2019: Netherlands Journal of Medicine
R Michalik, H Siebers, T Claßen, M Gatz, B Rohof, J Eschweiler, V Quack, M Betsch
BACKGROUND: The purpose of forefoot off-loader shoes (FOS) is to unload the operated region of the foot in order to allow early mobilization and rehabilitation. However, little is known about the actual biomechanical effects of different designs of FOS on gait, pelvis and spine. RESEARCH QUESTION: Aim of this study was to analyse and compare the effects of two different designs of forefoot unloader shoes. METHODS: Ortho-Wedge (FOS A) and Relief-Dual® (FOS B) were evaluated in this study during standing and while walking...
February 10, 2019: Gait & Posture
Jason Yuanzhe Chen, Qi Zhou, Gu Xu, Ryan Taoran Wang, Edward Guangqing Tai, Longhan Xie, Qianzhi Zhang, Yanyan Guan, Xiaochun Huang
To fight against diabetes mellitus, from which more than 400 million people suffer in the world, the patients have to puncture their fingers 4-5 times a day for the blood glucose level checks when using a glucometer, causing invasive pain and the risk of infection. Therefore, non-invasive method has been urged for blood glucose monitoring, among which the mid-infrared spectroscopy (Mid-IR) response of interstitial fluid was found to be promising. However, despite the prolonged effort, the accuracy still falls below the FDA's requirement...
May 15, 2019: Talanta
Inéz Frerichs, Peter A Dargaville, Peter C Rimensberger
BACKGROUND: The provision of guidance in ventilator therapy by continuous monitoring of regional lung ventilation, aeration and respiratory system mechanics is the main clinical benefit of electrical impedance tomography (EIT). A new application was recently described in critically ill patients undergoing diagnostic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) with the intention of using EIT to identify the region where sampling was performed. Increased electrical bioimpedance was reported after fluid instillation...
February 15, 2019: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
Arjen Mol, Jeffrey H H Woltering, Willy N J M Colier, Andrea B Maier, Carel G M Meskers, Richard J A van Wezel
PURPOSE: Cerebral oxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) might be useful to discriminate between physiological and pathological responses after standing up in individuals with orthostatic hypotension. This study addressed the physiological sensitivity of the cerebral oxygenation responses as measured by NIRS to different types and speeds of postural changes in healthy adults and assessed the reliability of these responses. METHODS: Cerebral oxygenated hemoglobin (O2 Hb), deoxygenated hemoglobin (HHb) and tissue saturation index (TSI) were measured bilaterally on the forehead of 15 healthy individuals (12 male, age range 18-27) using NIRS...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Alexander Lilja-Cyron, Morten Andresen, Jesper Kelsen, Trine Hjorslev Andreasen, Kåre Fugleholm, Marianne Juhler
BACKGROUND: Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is used in cases of severe intracranial hypertension or impending intracranial herniation. DC effectively lowers intracranial pressure (ICP) but carries a risk of severe complications related to abnormal ICP and/or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation, eg, hygroma formation, hydrocephalus, and "syndrome of the trephined." OBJECTIVE: To study the long-term effect of DC on ICP, postural ICP regulation, and intracranial pulse wave amplitude (PWA)...
February 15, 2019: Neurosurgery
Chuhui Chen, Weimin Wang, Wen Zhou, Jiewen Jin, Wei Chen, Dalong Zhu, Yan Bi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is a risk factor for arrhythmias and adverse cardiovascular events, but the relation between the severity of CAN progression and nocturnal arrhythmias needs to be furthermore clarified. The following study aims to evaluate the association between nocturnal arrhythmias and severity of CAN in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: 219 type 2 diabetes patients were recruited from January 2017 to May 2018. Subjects were classified into no CAN (NCAN), early CAN (ECAN), definite CAN (DCAN) or advanced CAN (ACAN) according to cardiovascular autonomic reflex tests (CARTs)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Diabetes
Shiroh Isono, Natsuko Nozaki-Taguchi, Makoto Hasegawa, Shinichiro Kato, Shinsuke Todoroki, Shigemi Masuda, Norihito Iida, Toshiaki Nishimura, Masatoshi Noto, Yasunori Sato
Rate of respiration is a fundamental vital sign. Accuracy and precision of respiratory rate measurements with contact-free load cell sensors under the bed legs were assessed by breath-by-breath comparison with the pneumotachography technique during two different dynamic breathing tasks in 16 awake human adults resting on the bed. The subject voluntarily increased and decreased the respiratory rate between 4 to 16 bpm (n=8), and 10 to 40 bpm (n=8) at every 2 breaths in 6 different lying postures such as supine, left lateral, right lateral, and 30-degree, 45-degree, and 60-degree sitting postures...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Mamiko Noguchi, Michal Glinka, Graham R Mayberry, Kimihiro Noguchi, Jack P Callaghan
Potential alternatives for conventional sitting and standing postures are hybrid sit-stand postures (i.e., perching). The purposes of this study were i) to identify where lumbopelvic and pelvic angles deviate from sitting and standing and ii) to use these breakpoints to define three distinct postural phases: sitting, perching, and standing, in order to examine differences in muscle activations and ground reaction forces between phases. Twenty-four participants completed 19 one-minute static trials, from sitting (90°) to standing (180°), sequentially in 5°trunk-thigh angle increments...
February 14, 2019: Ergonomics
Georges Matar, Jean-Marc Lina, Georges Kaddoum
Pressure ulcer prevention is a vital procedure for patients undergoing long-term hospitalization. A human body lying posture (HBLP) monitoring system is essential to reschedule posture change for patients. Video-surveillance, the conventional method of HBLP monitoring, suffers from various limitations, such as subject's privacy, and field-of view obstruction. We propose an autonomous method for classifying the four state-of-art HBLPs in healthy adult subjects: supine, prone, left and right lateral, with no sensors or cables attached on the body and no constraints imposed on the subject...
February 13, 2019: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
Kimitaka Kaga, Yusuke Kimura, Shujiro Minami
Background: The function of common cavity deformity demonstrated by temporal bone CT and MRI has been unknown. AIM/OBJECTIVE: To investigate the developmental changes of vestibular ocular reflex and acquisition of postural control in infants with common cavity deformity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eight infants who were congenitally deaf complicated by common cavity deformity were studied. The damped rotational chair test was carried out to evaluate vestibular ocular reflex...
February 14, 2019: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Shashank Ghai, Ishan Ghai
Patients undergoing chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and immunotherapy experience neurotoxic changes in the central and peripheral nervous system. These neurotoxic changes adversely affect functioning in the sensory, motor, and cognitive domains. Thereby, considerably affecting autonomic activities like gait and posture. Recent evidence from a range of systematic reviews and meta-analyses have suggested the beneficial influence of music-based external auditory stimulations i.e., rhythmic auditory cueing and real-time auditory feedback (sonification) on gait and postural stability in population groups will balance disorders...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Vinicius Araújo Armelin, Victor Hugo da Silva Braga, Igor Noll Guagnoni, Ariela Maltarolo Crestani, Augusto Shinya Abe, Luiz Henrique Florindo
Orthostatic hypotension is a phenomenon triggered by a change in the position or posture of an animal, from a horizontal to a vertical head-up orientation, characterised by a blood pooling in the lower body and a reduction in central and cranial arterial blood pressure ( P A ). This hypotension elicits systemic vasoconstriction and tachycardia, which generally reduce blood pooling and increase P A Little is known about the mediation and importance of such cardiovascular adjustments that counteracts the haemodynamic effects of orthostasis in ectothermic vertebrates, and some discrepancies exist in the knowledge available on this subject...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Experimental Biology
Yong-Sook Park, Na Young Jung, Young Cheol Na, Jin Woo Chang
BACKGROUND: Following the emergence of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound as a promising tool for movement disorder surgery, thalamotomy for essential tremor using this technique has become a useful tool based on its efficacy and lack of adverse effects. Here, we summarize the 4-year results of previous reports focusing on the durability of effectiveness of magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound thalamotomy for essential tremor. METHODS: From October 2013 to August 2014, 15 patients with intractable essential tremor were enrolled...
February 13, 2019: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Bianca Nunes Pimentel, Valdete Alves Valentins Dos Santos Filha
OBJECTIVE: Changes in postural balance and visual complaints are frequent consequences of stroke. We aimed to investigate the symptoms and the vestibular and oculomotor functions of patients with dizziness post ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke and compare the results among them. METHODS: Fifty patients with dizziness after stroke were evaluated through a clinical anamnesis and computerized vector electronystagmography: calibration of ocular movements, spontaneous nystagmus, semi-spontaneous nystagmus, pendular tracking, optokinetic nystagmus, rotary chair testing, and the caloric test...
January 2019: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
Bergthora Baldursdottir, Susan L Whitney, Alfons Ramel, Palmi V Jonsson, Brynjolfur Mogensen, Hannes Petersen, Ella K Kristinsdottir
BACKGROUND: Asymmetric vestibular function, decreased plantar sensation, postural control and functional ability have been associated with fall-related wrist fractures. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether multi-sensory training (MST) improves postural control, vestibular function, foot sensation and functional ability among people with fall-related wrist fractures compared to wrist stabilization training (WT). METHODS: This was an assessor-blinded, randomized controlled trial...
February 11, 2019: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Jonathan K Doyon, Alen Hajnal, Tyler Surber, Joseph D Clark, Damian G Kelty-Stephen
By definition, perception is a multisensory process that unfolds in time as a complex sequence of exploratory activities of the organism. In such a system perception and action are integrated, and multiple energy arrays are available simultaneously. Perception of affordances interweaves sensory and motor activities into meaningful behavior given task constraints. The present contribution offers insight into the manner in which perception and action usher the organism through competent functional apprehension of its surroundings...
2019: PloS One
David Cruz-Díaz, Kyung-Min Kim, Fidel Hita-Contreras, Marco Bergamin, Agustin Aibar-Almazán, Antonio Martínez-Amat
CONTEXT: Tai Chi is a physical activity modality which is widely practiced over the world. The effectiveness of Tai Chi on postural control and balance, has been described in older population but until recently there is no studies which includes patients with Chronic Ankle Instability (CAI). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of 12 weeks of Tai Chi intervention on dynamic balance and self-reported instability in patients with CAI...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
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