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Adiponectin and autophagy

Mahdi Vazirian, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Samineh Jafari, Azadeh Manayi
Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a heterotrimeric enzyme which monitors cellular energy status and regulates metabolism with energy balance. AMPK activation, as a master regulator of metabolism, plays role in key tissues like liver, skeletal muscles, and heart as well as central nervous system (CNS). Activation of the enzyme by indirect activators attracts scientific attentions to treat diabetes, obesity, cancer, and other related metabolic disorders like physiological and pathophysiological states in CNS...
December 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Pil-Hoon Park
Adipose tissue acts as a dynamic endocrine organ playing critical roles in many metabolic and immune responses. Endocrine functions by adipose tissue are achieved by secretion of diverse cytokines and hormones, collectively called adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin the most abundantly expressed adipokines within adipose tissue have an impact on various physiological responses. While both adiponectin and leptin are secreted from the same location, their physiological functions are not identical. Adiponectin possesses potent anti-inflammatory properties and anti-tumor activities, whereas leptin acts as a pro-inflammatory hormone and generates tumor-promoting effects...
September 27, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Qing Tian, Lei Chen, Bang Luo, Ai-Ping Wang, Wei Zou, Yong You, Ping Zhang, Xiao-Qing Tang
Backgroud: Chronic restraint stress (CRS) induces depressive-like behaviors in rodents, which involves dysregulation of hippocampal synapse formation and excessive autophagy. Adiponectin has antidepressant activity. Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) is a novel gasotransmitter. The present work was to investigate whether H2 S antagonizes CRS-induced depressive-like behaviors in rats and to explore whether its potential mechanism involves ameliorated synaptic and autophagic dysregulation by upregulation of adiponectin...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Aastha Shrestha, Nirmala Tilija Pun, Pil-Hoon Park
Adiponectin, a hormone predominantly originated from adipose tissue, has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy induction plays a crucial role in anti-inflammatory responses by adiponectin. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Association of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, an autophagy activating protein, prevents autophagy induction. We have previously shown that adiponectin-induced autophagy activation is mediated through inhibition of interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1...
September 1, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Eun Hye Kim, Pil-Hoon Park
Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose treatment causes severe liver injury. Adiponectin, a hormone predominantly produced by adipose tissue, exhibits protective effects against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. In the present study, we examined the protective effect of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) on APAP-induced hepatocyte death and its underlying mechanisms. We found that APAP (2 mM)-induced hepatocyte death was prevented by inhibition of the inflammasome...
August 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Tania Gamberi, Francesca Magherini, Alessandra Modesti, Tania Fiaschi
In the liver, adiponectin regulates both glucose and lipid metabolism and exerts an insulin-sensitizing effect. The binding of adiponectin with its specific receptors induces the activation of a proper signaling cascade that becomes altered in liver pathologies. This review describes the different signaling pathways in healthy and diseased hepatocytes, also highlighting the beneficial role of adiponectin in autophagy activation and hepatic regeneration.
May 7, 2018: Biomedicines
J Kosacka, M Nowicki, S Paeschke, P Baum, M Blüher, N Klöting
Background: Wistar Ottawa Karlsburg W (RT1u) rats (WOKW) are a model of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adipose tissue (AT) and peripheral nerves of WOKW rats exhibit up-regulated autophagy and inflammation corresponding with decreased apoptosis rate. The aim of this study was to characterize AT in WOKW rats in relation to autophagic activity. Methods: mRNA and protein expression of adiponectin, pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic markers including MCP1, TNFα, cleaved caspase-3 and RNF157, a new candidate gene regulated through autophagy, were analyzed in adipocytes isolated from visceral and subcutaneous AT of 5-month old WOKW rats with MetS and LEW...
2018: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Munehiro Kitada, Yoshio Ogura, Taeko Suzuki, Itaru Monno, Keizo Kanasaki, Ai Watanabe, Daisuke Koya
Background: The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of a low-protein diet (LPD) starting from a young age on diabetic status and renal injury in a rat model of type 2 diabetes and obesity. Methods: Diabetic male Wistar fatty ( fa/fa ) rats (WFRs) were fed a standard diet (23.84% protein) or an LPD (5.77% protein) for 24 weeks beginning at 6 weeks of age. We investigated the effects of the LPD on total body weight (BW); fat weight (FW); lower-limb muscle weight (MW); several measures of diabetic status, including fasting/random glucose levels, HOMA-IR and the IPITT; and renal injuries, including renal hypertrophy, albuminuria and histological changes...
2018: Nutrition & Metabolism
Ishwarlal Jialal, Sridevi Devaraj
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common global problem that comprises the cardio-metabolic cluster and predisposes to both diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Although the pathogenic mechanisms have not been elucidated, both increased inflammation and insulin resistance play a pivotal role. It appears that both monocyte/macrophages and adipose tissue (AT) conspire to accentuate both the pro-inflammatory state and increased insulin resistance. Whilst there are scant data on visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) biology, there are data on subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) dysregulation...
January 20, 2018: Hormone Molecular Biology and Clinical Investigation
Nirmala Tilija Pun, Pil-Hoon Park
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Adiponectin potently suppresses inflammatory mediator production. Autophagy is known to play a critical role in the modulation of inflammatory responses by adiponectin. However, the underlying mechanisms are not clearly understood. Interaction between Beclin-1 and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) is a critical event in autophagy induction. We examined the effects of globular adiponectin (gAcrp) on the Beclin-1/Bcl-2 association and its underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: The effect of gAcrp on the interaction between Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 was examined by immunoprecipitation followed by Western blotting...
April 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Valerio Nobili, Guido Carpino, Francesco De Peppo, Romina Caccamo, Antonella Mosca, Ilaria Romito, Diletta Overi, Antonio Franchitto, Paolo Onori, Anna Alisi, Eugenio Gaudio
OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether the modulation of local cellular cross-talks and the modification of hepatic adipocytokine expression could mechanistically explain the improvement of liver histopathology after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) in adolescents with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). STUDY DESIGN: Twenty obese (body mass index of ≥35 kg/m2 ) adolescents who underwent LSG and with biopsy-proven NAFLD were included. At baseline (T0) and 1 year after treatment, patients underwent clinical evaluation, blood tests, and liver biopsy...
March 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
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