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Upper GI disorders

Hiroto Miwa, Tadayuki Oshima, Toshihiko Tomita, Hirokazu Fukui, Takashi Kondo, Takahisa Yamasaki, Jiro Watari
Over almost 30 years since functional dyspepsia (FD) was defined, researchers have endeavored to elucidate the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders. Now a consensus is emerging that the gastric symptoms of FD are caused mainly by gastric motility abnormalities and gastric hypersensitivity. The involvement of other causative factors including acid, Helicobacter pylori, psychological factors, and diet has been debated, but how they are involved in the manifestation of dyspeptic symptoms remains unclear...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Gastroenterology
Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
GOAL: The goal of this study was to determine the relationship of reflux with gastroparesis (Gp), looking both at symptoms and objective testing. BACKGROUND: Gp patients often experience gastroesophageal reflux symptoms. How the severity of reflux correlates with the severity of Gp is not known. STUDY: Patients referred to our academic center with symptoms of Gp completed the Patient Assessment of Upper Gastrointestinal Symptoms, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ)-15...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Bruno Sovran, Floor Hugenholtz, Marlies Elderman, Adriaan A Van Beek, Katrine Graversen, Myrte Huijskes, Mark V Boekschoten, Huub F J Savelkoul, Paul De Vos, Jan Dekker, Jerry M Wells
Aging significantly increases the vulnerability to gastrointestinal (GI) disorders but there are few studies investigating the key factors in aging that affect the GI tract. To address this knowledge gap, we used 10-week- and 19-month-old litter-mate mice to investigate microbiota and host gene expression changes in association with ageing. In aged mice the thickness of the colonic mucus layer was reduced about 6-fold relative to young mice, and more easily penetrable by luminal bacteria. This was linked to increased apoptosis of goblet cells in the upper part of the crypts...
February 5, 2019: Scientific Reports
Ashok K Tuteja, Nicholas J Talley, Gregory J Stoddard, Matthew H Samore, G Nicholas Verne
BACKGROUND: Gastroenteritis is a risk factor for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but its role in other functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is less clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of FGIDs in Gulf War (GW) Veterans before, during, and after deployment and to determine whether gastroenteritis was a risk factor for upper and lower FGIDs. METHODS: The Veterans who served during the Persian GW were mailed validated questionnaires inquiring about their bowel habits, psychological and extra-intestinal symptoms, and quality of life (QOL)...
January 29, 2019: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Renata Mazur, Małgorzata Buksińska-Lisik, Artur Mamcarz
Patients with severe diabetic acidosis may present varying electrocardiography (ECG) abnormalities including ST-segment elevation. The authors described a case of 70-year-old type 2 diabetic woman hospitalized due to ST elevation myocardial infarction and serious metabolic disorders. According to the clinical presentation, the ECG abnormalities and the significant rise in myocardial necrosis biomarkers the patient was diagnosed with myocardial infarction and received a typical pharmacological treatment. In the autopsy, no signs of myocardial infarction and no significant stenoses in the coronary arteries were found, while the features of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding were observed...
December 28, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Judy Nee, Saikiran Kilaru, John Kelley, Sveta S Oza, William Hirsch, Sarah Ballou, Anthony Lembo, Jacqueline Wolf
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Prior studies have shown a high prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, diagnoses of functional GI diseases (FGIDs), and pelvic floor symptoms associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). It is unclear if Marfan syndrome (MFS), another common hereditary noninflammatory connective tissue disorder, is also associated these symptoms. This study evaluates the prevalence of and compares FGIDs and pelvic floor symptoms in a national cohort of EDS and MFS patients...
January 21, 2019: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Heba Yasin, William T Gibson, Sylvie Langlois, Robert M Stowe, Erica S Tsang, Leora Lee, Jenny Poon, Grant Tran, Christine Tyson, Chi Kin Wong, Marco A Marra, Jan M Friedman, Farah R Zahir
A decade ago, we described novel de novo submicroscopic deletions of chromosome 14q11.2 in three children with developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and similar dysmorphic features, including widely-spaced eyes, short nose with flat nasal bridge, long philtrum, prominent Cupid's bow of the upper lip, full lower lip, and auricular anomalies. We suggested that this constituted a new multiple congenital anomaly-intellectual disability syndrome due to defects in CHD8 and/or SUPT16H. The three patients in our original cohort were between 2 years and 3 years of age at the time...
January 22, 2019: Journal of Human Genetics
Emily He, Rupert Alison, Roger Blanks, Kirstin Pirie, Gillian Reeves, Robyn L Ward, Robert Steele, Julietta Patnick, Karen Canfell, Valerie Beral, Jane Green
Background: In 2006, the Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) in England began offering biennial faecal occult blood testing (FOBt) at ages 60-69 years. Although FOBt is aimed at detecting colorectal neoplasms, other conditions can affect the result. In a large UK prospective study, we examined associations, both before and after screening, between FOBt positivity and 10 conditions that are often associated with gastrointestinal bleeding. Methods: By electronically linking BCSP and Million Women Study records, we identified 604 495 women without previous colorectal cancer who participated in their first routine FOBt screening between 2006 and 2012...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Epidemiology
Lila Simakachorn, Pornthep Tanpowpong, Chatmanee Lertudomphonwanit, Usanarat Anurathapan, Samart Pakakasama, Suradej Hongeng, Suporn Treepongkaruna, Pornpimon Phuapradit
PTLD is a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, which shows a higher prevalence in children than in adults. From 129 children who underwent LT, we reported 5 cases with biopsy-proven PTLD at a single teaching hospital. Four patients had shared clinical presentations including fever, lymphadenopathy, and splenomegaly. They were noted to be given a prolonged course of IS due to the management of comorbid complications such as acute cellular rejection or severe food allergy or eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease...
January 20, 2019: Pediatric Transplantation
Faisal Inayat, Asad Ur Rahman, Effa Zahid, Nouman Safdar Ali, Roger Charles
Primary systemic or amyloid light chain (AL) amyloidosis is a multisystem disorder with myriad presentations. Although it can involve the upper gastrointestinal tract in 8% of cases, symptomatic involvement is exceedingly rare. We chronicle here a case of postprandial epigastric pain associated with AL amyloidosis involving the stomach and duodenum. Pathological examination of endoscopic biopsy using Congo red staining confirmed the diagnosis. In order to establish the underlying aetiology of AL amyloidosis, the patient underwent extensive workup...
January 17, 2019: BMJ Case Reports
Mattis Bekkelund, Dag A Sangnes, Jan Gunnar Hatlebakk, Lars Aabakken
OBJECTIVES: Idiopathic gastroparesis is a gastric motility disorder characterized by chronic upper gastrointestinal symptoms and delayed gastric emptying without an identifiable underlying condition. This review summarizes recent understanding of the pathophysiology and treatment of idiopathic gastroparesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Structured literature search in the PubMed, Embase and databases. RESULTS: Idiopathic gastroparesis involves several alterations in gastric motility and sensation, including delayed gastric emptying, altered myoelectrical activity, impaired fundic accommodation, visceral hypersensitivity and disturbances in antropyloroduodenal motility and coordination...
January 13, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Marian A Esvelt, Zachary T Freeman, Alexander T Pearson, Jack R Harkema, Gregory T Clines, Katrina L Clines, Melissa C Dyson, Mark J Hoenerhoff
Zibotentan, an endothelin-A receptor antagonist, has been used in the treatment of various cardiovascular disorders and neoplasia. Castrated athymic nude mice receiving zibotentan for a preclinical xenograft efficacy study experienced weight loss, gastrointestinal bloat, and the presence of an audible respiratory click. Human side effects have been reported in the nasal cavity, so we hypothesized that the nasal cavity is a target for toxicity in mice receiving zibotentan. Lesions in the nasal cavity predominantly targeted olfactory epithelium in treated mice and were more pronounced in castrated animals...
December 30, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Silvia Iuliano, Roberta Minelli, Francesca Vincenzi, Federica Gaiani, Claudio Ruberto, Gioacchino Leandro, Barbara Bizzarri, Antonio Nouvenne, Francesco Di Mario, Gian Luigi De'Angelis
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune-mediated relapsing disease caused by eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa which is normally lacking these cells. EoE belongs to the group of the so called Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders (EGIDs). From a rare and unusual disease, EoE has become an emerging entity and in recent years its incidence and prevalence have increased all over the world, also in children. The pathogenesis is very complex and still not completely clear. Esophageal disfunction symptoms (e...
December 17, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Mirim Jin, Miwon Son
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is the most common functional gastrointestinal disorder (FGID). FD is characterized by bothersome symptoms such as postprandial fullness, early satiety, and epigastric pain or burning sensations in the upper abdomen. The complexity and heterogeneity of FD pathophysiology, which involves multiple mechanisms, make both treatment and new drug development for FD difficult. Current medicines for FD targeting a single pathway have failed to show satisfactory efficacy and safety. On the other hand, multicomponent herbal medicines that act on multiple targets may be a promising alternative treatment for FD...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anne F Peery, Seth D Crockett, Caitlin C Murphy, Jennifer L Lund, Evan S Dellon, J Lucas Williams, Elizabeth T Jensen, Nicholas J Shaheen, Alfred S Barritt, Sarah R Lieber, Bharati Kochar, Edward L Barnes, Y Claire Fan, Virginia Pate, Joseph Galanko, Todd H Baron, Robert S Sandler
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Estimates of disease burden can inform national health priorities for research, clinical care, and policy. We aimed to estimate health care use and spending among gastrointestinal (GI) (including luminal, liver, and pancreatic) diseases in the United States. METHODS: We estimated health care use and spending based on the most currently available administrative claims from commercial and Medicare Supplemental plans, data from the GI Quality Improvement Consortium Registry, and national databases...
October 10, 2018: Gastroenterology
Lauren P Manning, Jessica R Biesiekierski
The role of food in the development of symptoms experienced within functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) is well recognised. This review aims to describe the evidence base for dietary interventions in the different functional esophageal, duodenal and bowel disorders. Randomised controlled trials are lacking for many of the FGIDs, with the exception of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Restricting rapidly fermentable, short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs) provides an evidence based dietary approach for the management of symptoms of IBS...
December 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
Masoumeh Asgarshirazi, Monir Farokhzadeh-Soltani, Zarrintaj Keihanidost, Mamak Shariat
Objective: This cross sectional study aims to survey developing feeding disorders and nutritional deficiencies disorders in children with neurodevelopmental disorders such as cerebral palsy. Materials and methods: A total of 50 children (28 boys and 22 girls) with cerebral palsy and symptoms suggesting gastrointestinal problems such as choking, recurrent pneumonia and poor weight gain, who referred to the Pediatric department of Vali-asr Hospital, Imam Khomeini hospital complex between 1 October 2012 and 30 October 2013, were checked...
December 2017: Journal of Family & Reproductive Health
Khuram Khan, Saqib Saeed, Haytham Maria, Mohammed Sbeih, Farhana Iqbal, Alexius Ramcharan, Brian Donaldson
Introduction: Duodenal diverticulum is a rare disease that can be easily missed. The incidence of duodenal diverticulum diagnosed by upper GI study is approximately 5%. Autopsy results show that 22% of the population have duodenum diverticulum. Most patients with duodenal diverticulum are asymptomatic. However, complications like inflammation, perforation with retroperitoneal abscess, sepsis, pancreatitis, bile duct obstruction, and bleeding can occur. Approximately 162 cases of perforated duodenal diverticulum have been reported in the literature...
2018: Case Reports in Surgery
Zahid Hussain, Da Hyun Jung, Young Ju Lee, Hyojin Park
Background/Aims: Functional dyspepsia (FD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) are common gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and these patients frequently overlap. Trimebutine has been known to be effective in controlling FD co-existing diarrhea-dominant IBS, however its effect on overlap syndrome (OS) patients has not been reported. Therefore, we investigated the effect of trimebutine on the model of OS in guinea pigs. Methods: Male guinea pigs were used to evaluate the effects of trimebutine in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) induced OS model...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Puneet Kumar Agarwal, Mayank Badkur, Richa Agarwal, Seema Patel
Background: Helicobacter pylori infection is a major health ailment in developing countries. The infection is related with high morbidity and mortality ranging from chronic gastritis to gastric malignancies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection greatly varies from country to country and region to region. The aim is to study the prevalence of H. pylori infection in upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract disorders (dyspepsia) patients. Methods: The study was carried out in an outpatient department, India...
May 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
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