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Brain recovery

Daniel B Kay, Helmet T Karim, Brant P Hasler, Jeffrey A James, Anne Germain, Martica H Hall, Peter L Franzen, Julie C Price, Eric A Nofzinger, Daniel J Buysse
BACKGROUND: Restricting time in bed improves insomnia symptoms, but the neural mechanisms for this effect are unknown. Total and partial acute sleep restriction may be useful paradigms for elucidating these effects. We examined the impact of acute sleep restriction on cerebral glucose metabolism during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in individuals with primary insomnia (n = 17) and good sleep (n = 19). METHODS: Participants underwent [18 F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scans during baseline and recovery NREM sleep following one night of partial or total sleep restriction...
January 4, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Suélen Serafini, Carine de Freitas Souza, Matheus Dellaméa Baldissera, Bernardo Baldisserotto, Julia Corá Segat, Dilmar Baretta, Renato Zanella, Aleksandro Schafer da Silva
The objective of this study was to evaluate whether antiparasitic eprinomectin may be an environmental contaminant in water compartment in low concentrations, negatively affecting neurotransmission and, consequently, the natural behavior of the jundiá (Rhamdia quelen). Fish were allocated in tanks and exposed for 24 and 48 h to eprinomectin concentrations in water [0.0 (Control), 1.124 (T1), 1.809 (T2) and 3.976 (T3) μg L-1 ], followed by 48 h of recovery in eprinomectin-free water, in order to evaluate the behavioral parameters, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the brain, as well as cerebral enzymatic activities of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and of the sodium-potassium ATPase pump (Na+ /K+ -ATPase)...
February 7, 2019: Chemosphere
Aidan C Smith, Ryan C Holden, Sherry M Rasmussen, Michael R Hoane, Michael J Hylin
Age is a consistent predictor of outcome following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Although children and adolescents have the highest rate of hospitalizations and long-term disabilities, few preclinical studies have attempted to model and treat TBI in this population. Studies using nicotinamide (NAM), a soluble B-group vitamin, in older animals (3-6 months) have shown improved functional recovery in experimental models of TBI. The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the preclinical efficacy of NAM at different doses on behavioral outcomes in juvenile rats and examine the microglial response over time...
February 13, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
S Lloyd-Fox, A Blasi, S McCann, M Rozhko, L Katus, L Mason, T Austin, S E Moore, C E Elwell
The first 1000 days of life are a critical window of vulnerability to exposure to socio-economic and health challenges (i.e. poverty/undernutrition). The Brain Imaging for Global Health (BRIGHT) project has been established to deliver longitudinal measures of brain development from 0-24 months in UK and Gambian infants and to assess the impact of early adversity. Here results from the Habituation-Novelty Detection functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) task at 5 and 8 months are presented (N = 62 UK; N = 115 Gambia)...
February 16, 2019: Developmental Science
Pengfei Pan, Yunlin Song, Xinxin Du, Linlin Bai, Xiaoli Hua, Yawen Xiao, Xiangyou Yu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause non-neurological injuries to other organs such as the intestine. Newer studies have shown that paracellular hyperpermeability is the basis of intestinal barrier dysfunction following TBI. Ischemia-reperfusion injury, inflammatory response, abnormal release of neurotransmitters and hormones, and malnutrition contribute to TBI-induced intestinal barrier dysfunction. Several interventions that may protect intestinal barrier function and promote the recovery of TBI have been proposed, but relevant studies are still limited...
February 15, 2019: Neurological Sciences
Christine Blume, Monika Angerer, Marion Raml, Renata Del Giudice, Nayantara Santhi, Gerald Pichler, Alexander B Kunz, Monika Scarpatetti, Eugen Trinka, Manuel Schabus
INTRODUCTION: Healthy circadian rhythmicity has been suggested to relate to a better state of brain-injured patients and to support the emergence of consciousness in patient groups characterised by a relative instability thereof such as patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC). METHODS: Going beyond earlier studies, we have adopted a systems-level perspective and, using multilevel modelling, assessed the joint predictive value of three indexes of circadian rhythm integrity derived from skin temperature variations, melatoninsulfate (aMT6s) secretion, and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) patterns for DOC patients' (13 unresponsive wakefulness syndrome [UWS]; 7 minimally conscious (exit) state [E/MCS]) behaviourally assessed state (Coma Recovery Scale-Revised [CRS-R] score)...
February 15, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Chun-Hwei Tai, Michele Bellesi, An-Chih Chen, Chih-Li Lin, Hsin-Hua Li, Pin-Jiun Lin, Wen-Chieh Liao, Ching-Sui Hung, Rainer K Schwarting, Ying-Jui Ho
Several neurodegenerative disorders, namely Parkinson's disease dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, and Alzheimer's disease, share common pathophysiological features, such as (1) cognitive deficits, (2) glutamatergic hyperactivity-related excitotoxicity, and (3) deposition of α-synuclein (α-syn) and β-amyloid (Aβ). Ceftriaxone (CEF) is a well-tested and safe drug that has been used as an antibiotic for several decades. Recent studies have demonstrated the following effects of CEF: (1) increasing glutamate transporter-1 expression and glutamate reuptake and suppressing excitotoxicity, (2) binding well with α-syn and inhibition of α-syn polymerization, (3) modulating expression of genes related to Aβ metabolism, and (4) enhancing neurogenesis and recovery of neuronal density...
February 12, 2019: Behavioural Brain Research
Edward H F de Haan, Noor Seijdel, Robert W Kentridge, Charles A Heywood
What is the long-term trajectory of semantic memory deficits in patients who have suffered structural brain damage? Memory is, per definition, a changing faculty. The traditional view is that after an initial recovery period, the mature human brain has little capacity to repair or reorganize. More recently, it has been suggested that the central nervous system may be more plastic with the ability to change in neural structure, connectivity, and function. The latter observations are, however, largely based on normal learning in healthy subjects...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neuropsychology
Zhiyou Yang, Tomoharu Kuboyama, Chihiro Tohda
Two kinds of microglia are known, classical M1 and alternative M2 phenotypes. Amyloid β (Aβ), a critical cause of Alzheimer's disease (AD), promotes M1 microglial polarization, leading to neuroinflammation and neuronal death. M2 microglia play important roles in anti-inflammatory effects, Aβ clearance, and memory recovery in AD. Therefore, increasing of M2 microglia is expected to recover from AD. We previously found that naringenin, a blood-brain barrier penetrating compound, decreased Aβ deposits and recovers memory function in transgenic AD model mice...
February 15, 2019: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Adela Desowska, Duncan L Turner
Recovery from a stroke is a dynamic time-dependent process, in which the central nervous system reorganises to accommodate for the impact of the injury. The purpose of this paper is to review recent longitudinal studies of changes in brain connectivity after stroke. A systematic review of research papers reporting functional or effective connectivity at two or more time points in stroke patients was conducted. Stroke leads to an early reduction of connectivity in the motor network. With recovery time, the connectivity increases and can reach the same levels as in healthy participants...
February 15, 2019: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Adil Omer, Ester Engelman, Khushbir Bath, Alan V Krauthamer, Leszek Pisinski
Remote Cerebellar Hemorrhage is a rare entity that manifests spontaneously after supratentorial craniotomy and spinal surgeries. We present a 53-year-old male who was admitted due to subdural hematoma along the left frontoparietotemporal convexity. After treatment of the subdural hematoma with craniotomy and evacuation, he developed remote cerebellar hemorrhage 1 week later. Brain computed tomography demonstrated the zebra sign. Follow-up imaging showed complete recovery without any neurologic symptoms or signs...
March 2019: Radiology Case Reports
Sudesh Kumar, Suresh Kumar, Mukesh Surya, Anjali Mahajan, Sanjiv Sharma
Aims: The aim of this study is to compare postcontrast three-dimensional (3D) T1-Sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions, 3D fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR), and 3D T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) sequences in patients of meningitis. Settings and Design: A hospital-based cross-sectional study done in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, IGMC Shimla for a period of 1 year from June 1, 2016, to May 30, 2017...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Ross C Puffer, John K Yue, Matthew Mesley, Julia B Billigen, Jane Sharpless, Anita L Fetzick, Ava M Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, David O Okonkwo
INTRODUCTION: Prospects for recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI) are often underestimated, potentially leading to withdrawal of care in the comatose TBI patient who may ultimately have a favorable outcome with aggressive care. Outcomes and trajectories of recovery in a large series of TBI patients were evaluated at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury. METHODS: A secondary analysis of the Phase 3 COBRIT was performed analyzing recovery trajectories and long-term outcomes at 30, 90 and 180 days post-injury...
February 11, 2019: World Neurosurgery
Maryam Sulaiman Alsaadi
DAPK (death-associated protein kinase) is a calcium/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM) regulated serine/threonine kinase. Structurally, it assumes a multi-domain structure and participates in various apoptotic systems which imply that it may interact with a wide range of intracellular components to exert its action. DAPK plays vital roles in pro-apoptotic, apoptotic and autophagic pathways. In addition, it plays important roles in many diseases such as cancer, Alzheimer's disease, cerebral ischemia and epilepsy. Although a novel protein, DAPK's various cellular signal transduction pathways proves that it can be a target for a potential future therapeutic effects...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Zenshi Miyake, Yasushi Tomidokoro, Takao Tsurubuchi, Akira Matsumura, Noriaki Sakamoto, Masayuki Noguchi, Akira Tamaoka
RATIONALE: Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a type of malignant lymphoma in which neoplastic B cells proliferate selectively within the lumina of small- and medium-sized vessels. Patients with IVLBCL frequently develop neurological manifestations during their disease course. Patients are known to often develop various neurological manifestations, but there are only a few reports of IVLBCL whose initial symptoms are deafness and/or disequilibrium. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old Japanese man was provisionally diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Pedro Montes, Rosa María Vigueras-Villaseñor, Julio César Rojas-Castañeda, Tomas Monfil, Miguel Cervantes, Gabriela Moralí
OBJECTIVE: Rats treated with progesterone (P4) after ischemia show an adequate functional performance despite a significant loss of hippocampal pyramidal neurons, suggesting that P4 could favour a permissive microenvironment for cerebral plasticity mechanisms. The possibility of P4 treatment promoting the survival of newly generated hippocampal neurons, in relation to the performance of ischemic rats in a spatial learning task, was assessed in this study. METHODS: Adult male rats were subjected to a severe global cerebral ischemia episode (30 min) and treated with P4 or its vehicle at 15 min, 2, 6, 24, 48 and 72 h of reperfusion...
February 14, 2019: Neurological Research
James E Orfila, Robert M Dietz, Krista M Rodgers, Andra Dingman, Olivia P Patsos, Ivelisse Cruz-Torres, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Christian Schroeder, Paco S Herson
Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide and clinical data suggest that children may recover from stroke better than adults; however, supporting experimental data are lacking. We used our novel mouse model of experimental juvenile ischemic stroke (MCAO) to characterize age-specific cognitive dysfunction following ischemia. Juvenile and adult mice subjected to 45-min MCAO, and extracellular field recordings of CA1 neurons were performed to assess hippocampal synaptic plasticity changes after MCAO, and contextual fear conditioning was performed to evaluate memory and biochemistry used to analyze Nogo-A expression...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Liang Jiang, Yu-Chen Chen, Hong Zhang, Mingyang Peng, Huiyou Chen, Wen Geng, Quan Xu, Xindao Yin, Yuehu Ma
PURPOSE: Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensity (FVH) is frequently found in stroke patients after intracranial arterial occlusion, but the prognostic value of FVH findings is unclear. We assessed whether FVH is associated with cerebral collateral status and functional outcome in patients with acute stroke patients receiving endovascular therapy. METHODS: FVH score, American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (ASITN) grade, the functional outcome at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale (mRS)), and other clinical data were collected for 37 acute stroke patients with large vessel occlusion (LVO) receiving MRI before and after endovascular therapy...
February 14, 2019: European Radiology
Ji-Peng Jiang, Xue-Gang Niu, Chen Dai, Ke Ma, Hui-You Xu, Shi-Xiang Cheng, Zhi-Wen Zhang, Feng Duan, Xu Zhu, Yu-Ting Wang, Xu-Yi Chen, Sai Zhang
An accurate and effective neurological evaluation is indispensable in the treatment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury. However, most of the existing evaluation methods in basic research and clinical practice are not objective or intuitive for assessing the neurological function of big animals, and are also difficult to use to qualify the extent of damage and recovery. In the present study, we established a big animal model of traumatic brain injury by impacting the cortical motor region of beagles...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Olympia Gianfrancesco, Vivien J Bubb, John P Quinn
Despite advances in genetic research, causal variants affecting risk for schizophrenia remain poorly characterized, and the top 108 loci identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) explain only 3.4% of variance in risk profiles. Such work is defining the highly complex nature of this condition, with omnigenic models of schizophrenia suggesting that gene regulatory networks are sufficiently interconnected such that altered expression of any "peripheral" gene in a relevant cell type has the capacity to indirectly modulate the expression of "core" schizophrenia-associated genes...
2019: Frontiers in Psychiatry
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