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Orion McCotter

Orion Z McCotter, Kaitlin Benedict, David M Engelthaler, Ken Komatsu, Kimberley D Lucas, Janet C Mohle-Boetani, Hanna Oltean, Duc Vugia, Tom M Chiller, Gail L Sondermeyer Cooksey, Alyssa Nguyen, Chandler C Roe, Charlotte Wheeler, Rebecca Sunenshine
The incidence of reported coccidioidomycosis in the past two decades has increased greatly; monitoring its changing epidemiology is essential for understanding its burden on patients and the healthcare system and for identifying opportunities for prevention and education. We provide an update on recent coccidioidomycosis trends and public health efforts nationally and in Arizona, California, and Washington State. In Arizona, enhanced surveillance shows that coccidioidomycosis continues to be associated with substantial morbidity...
February 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Antoine A Adenis, Audrey Valdes, Claire Cropet, Orion Z McCotter, Gordana Derado, Pierre Couppie, Tom Chiller, Mathieu Nacher
BACKGROUND: Fungal infections remain a major contributor to the opportunistic infections that affect people living with HIV. Among them, histoplasmosis is considered neglected, often being misdiagnosed as tuberculosis, and is responsible for numerous deaths in Latin America. The objective of this study was to estimate the burden of HIV-associated histoplasmosis compared with tuberculosis in Latin American countries. METHODS: For this modelling study, we estimated prevalence of previous exposure to Histoplasma capsulatum, HIV-associated histoplasmosis annual incidence, and number of deaths in 2012 in Latin American countries based on historical histoplasmin skin test studies in the general population, with an antigen dilution level of more than 1/10...
October 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Charlotte Wheeler, Kimberley D Lucas, Gordana Derado, Orion McCotter, R Steven Tharratt, Tom Chiller, Janet C Mohle-Boetani
Two California state prisons (A and B) have very high rates of coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever). The prison health care service sought to improve their prevention strategy by risk stratification with a newly available spherulin-based Coccidioides delayed-type hypersensitivity test. Of the 36,789 voluntarily screened inmates, 4.7% experienced adverse reactions. A positive test (8.6% of those tested) was independently associated with (1) incarceration at prisons A and B, (2) admission to prison from a Coccidioides-endemic county, (3) length of stay at prisons A and B, and (4) increasing age...
October 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Soofia Khan, Michael A Saubolle, Terry Oubsuntia, Arash Heidari, Kelly Barbian, Kate Goodin, Megan Eguchi, Orion Z McCotter, Kenneth Komatsu, Benjamin J Park, Matthew Casey Geiger, Ahmed Mohamed, Tom Chiller, Rebecca H Sunenshine
Coccidioidomycosis, a fungal infection endemic to the Southwestern United States, is challenging to diagnose. The coccidioidomycosis enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test is the least expensive and simplest to perform to detect coccidioidomycosis antibodies in the serum. Concerns regarding falsely positive immunoglobulin (Ig) M EIA test results have led to questions about the agreement of commercially available EIA test kits among laboratories. We sought to evaluate the laboratory agreement of the EIA test at three laboratories using both IMMY and Meridian EIA test kits...
July 31, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Kaitlin Benedict, Malia Ireland, Meghan P Weinberg, Randon J Gruninger, Jenna Weigand, Lei Chen, Katharine Perez-Lockett, Catherine Bledsoe, Lynn Denny, Katie Cibulskas, Suzanne Gibbons-Burgener, Anna Kocharian, Emilio DeBess, Tracy K Miller, Alicia Lepp, Laura Cronquist, Kimberly Warren, Jose Antonio Serrano, Cody Loveland, George Turabelidze, Orion McCotter, Brendan R Jackson
Although coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California has been well-characterized, much remains unknown about its epidemiology in states where it is not highly endemic. We conducted enhanced surveillance in 14 such states in 2016 by identifying cases according to the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists case definition and interviewing patients about their demographic characteristics, clinical features, and exposures. Among 186 patients, median time from seeking healthcare to diagnosis was 38 days (range 1-1,654 days); 70% had another condition diagnosed before coccidioidomycosis testing occurred (of whom 83% were prescribed antibacterial medications); 43% were hospitalized; and 29% had culture-positive coccidioidomycosis...
July 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Michael Freedman, Brendan R Jackson, Orion McCotter, Kaitlin Benedict
Coccidioidomycosis causes substantial illness and death in the United States each year. Although most cases are sporadic, outbreaks provide insight into the clinical and environmental features of coccidioidomycosis, high-risk activities, and the geographic range of Coccidioides fungi. We identified reports published in English of 47 coccidioidomycosis outbreaks worldwide that resulted in 1,464 cases during 1940-2015. Most (85%) outbreaks were associated with environmental exposures; the 2 largest outbreaks resulted from an earthquake and a large dust storm...
March 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Gail Sondermeyer Cooksey, Alyssa Nguyen, Kirsten Knutson, Farzaneh Tabnak, Kaitlin Benedict, Orion McCotter, Seema Jain, Duc Vugia
Coccidioidomycosis, or Valley Fever, is an infectious disease caused by inhalation of Coccidioides spp. spores (1). This soil-dwelling fungus is endemic in the southwestern United States, with most (97%) U.S. cases reported from Arizona and California (1,2). Following an incubation period of 1-3 weeks, symptomatic patients most often experience self-limited, influenza-like symptoms, but coccidioidomycosis also can lead to severe pulmonary disease and to rare cases of disseminated disease, including meningitis (1)...
August 11, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Jennifer Shriber, Kathryn C Conlon, Kaitlin Benedict, Orion Z McCotter, Jesse E Bell
Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection endemic to the southwestern United States, particularly Arizona and California. Its incidence has increased, potentially due in part to the effects of changing climatic variables on fungal growth and spore dissemination. This study aims to quantify the county-level vulnerability to coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California and to assess the relationships between population vulnerability and climate variability. The variables representing exposure, sensitivity, and adaptive capacity were combined to calculate county level vulnerability indices...
June 23, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nancy A Chow, Mark D Lindsley, Orion Z McCotter, Dave Kangiser, Ron D Wohrle, Wayne R Clifford, Hayley D Yaglom, Laura E Adams, Kenneth Komatsu, Michelle M Durkin, Rocky J Baker, Lisa F Shubitz, Gordana Derado, Tom M Chiller, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Coccidioides is a soil-dwelling fungus that causes coccidioidomycosis, a disease also known as Valley fever, which affects humans and a variety of animal species. Recent findings of Coccidioides in new, unexpected areas of the United States have demonstrated the need for a better understanding of its geographic distribution. Large serological studies on animals could provide important information on the geographic distribution of this pathogen. To facilitate such studies, we used protein A/G, a recombinant protein that binds IgG antibodies from a variety of mammalian species, to develop an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that detects IgG antibodies against Coccidioides in a highly sensitive and high-throughput manner...
2017: PloS One
Shawn R Lockhart, Orion Z McCotter, Tom M Chiller
Both Cryptococcus gattii and Coccidioides can cause debilitating diseases if not identified early. It is imperative that clinicians recognize these diseases and begin treatment quickly when necessary. In order to have these two mycoses in their differential diagnosis, clinicians, microbiologists, and public health officials must be aware of the expanding geographic boundary in the case of Coccidioides immitis and the new emergence in the case of C. gattii. Accordingly, there is now mandatory reporting for cases of C...
June 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Zimy Wansaula, Sonja J Olsen, Mariana G Casal, Catherine Golenko, Laura M Erhart, Peter Kammerer, Natalie Whitfield, Orion Z McCotter
BACKGROUND: The Binational Border Infectious Disease Surveillance program began surveillance for severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) on the US-Mexico border in 2009. Here, we describe patients in Southern Arizona. METHODS: Patients admitted to five acute care hospitals that met the SARI case definition (temperature ≥37·8°C or reported fever or chills with history of cough, sore throat, or shortness of breath in a hospitalized person) were enrolled. Staff completed a standard form and collected a nasopharyngeal swab which was tested for selected respiratory viruses by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
May 2016: Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses
Orion Z McCotter, Rachel M Smith, Mathew Westercamp, Thomas M Kerkering, Anurag N Malani, Robert Latham, Sheree L Peglow, Rajal K Mody, Peter G Pappas, Tom M Chiller
During September 2012, CDC, in collaboration with state and local health departments and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), investigated a multistate outbreak of fungal meningitis and other infections caused by injections of contaminated methylprednisolone acetate solution (MPA). After this unprecedented outbreak, scientists in the CDC Mycotic Diseases Branch, along with infectious diseases specialists who cared for patients from the outbreak, clinical experts, and public health officials from affected states, have continued to monitor the recovery of affected patients...
October 30, 2015: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Mark D Lindsley, YoonJi Ahn, Orion McCotter, Lalitha Gade, Steven F Hurst, Mary E Brandt, Benjamin J Park, Anastasia P Litvintseva
Coccidioidomycosis (CM), a serious life-threatening fungal infection endemic to arid regions of the western United States and Mexico, can be challenging to diagnose in a timely manner. Commercially developed enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) (from Meridian Biosciences and Immuno-Mycologics [IMMY]) have provided faster, simpler means for serodiagnosis; however, independent evaluations have questioned EIA specificity, particularly IgM-positive/IgG-negative results. This study was conducted to evaluate EIA specificity among persons residing in Puerto Rico (n = 534), where CM is not endemic (who were not likely to have been exposed to Coccidioides spp...
October 2015: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
Richard F Hector, George W Rutherford, Clarisse A Tsang, Laura M Erhart, Orion McCotter, Shoana M Anderson, Kenneth Komatsu, Farzaneh Tabnak, Duc J Vugia, Ying Yang, John N Galgiani
The numbers of reported cases of coccidioidomycosis in Arizona and California have risen dramatically over the past decade, with a 97.8% and 91.1% increase in incidence rates from 2001 to 2006 in the two states, respectively. Of those cases with reported race/ethnicity information, Black/African Americans in Arizona and Hispanics and African/Americans in California experienced a disproportionately higher frequency of disease compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Lack of early diagnosis continues to be a problem, particularly in suspect community-acquired pneumonia, underscoring the need for more rapid and sensitive tests...
April 2011: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Merrill Eisenberg, Orion McCotter, John Sciacca
This research was conducted to determine the impact of voting for clean indoor air ordinance on a local-level policy maker's re-election status. Secondary data were used to identify local tobacco ordinances in Arizona proposed between 2001 and 2005, score ordinance content for comprehensiveness, identify policy makers who voted and how they voted, and determine if the measure passed or failed. Participation in and outcomes of subsequent elections were documented from public records. Ninety-two local-level policy makers in 15 local jurisdictions considered clean indoor air laws between 2001 and 2005...
November 2010: Health Promotion Practice
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