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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888374/untying-thioether-bond-structures-enabled-by-voltage-scissors-for-stable-room-temperature-sodium-sulfur-batteries
#1
Kejun Chen, HuangJingWei Li, Yan Xu, Kang Liu, Hongmei Li, Xiaowen Xu, Xiaoqing Qiu, Min Liu
A steady sulfur cathode is central to realizing stable room temperature sodium-sulfur (RT Na-S) batteries. Here, sulfur atoms are incorporated into carbon to form thioether bond functionalized carbon (SC) as a cathode material for sodium storage, which is capable of the complete elimination or great suppression of the shuttle effect of soluble poly-sulfides by the generation of insoluble sulfides in RT Na-S batteries using an ordinary carbonate electrolyte. This thioether bond structure (C-S-C) in sulfur-doped carbon can be disassembled by the assistance of "voltage-scissors" in the low voltage range of 0...
March 19, 2019: Nanoscale
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888092/development-of-the-multispectral-uv-polarization-reflectance-imaging-system-mupris-for-in-situ-monitoring-of-the-uv-protection-efficacy-of-sunscreen-on-human-skin
#2
Ken Nishino, Yasushi Haryu, Ayui Kinoshita, Shigeki Nakauchi
BACKGROUND: Protection of the human skin from ultraviolet (UV) damage is one of the main issues in dermatology and cosmetology. The UV protection efficacy (UVPE) of the sunscreen film is decreased by sweat, sebum, and friction during the day. However, the technical relationship between the UVPE evaluated in a laboratory and the actual protection in daily use has not been clarified, because the UVPE measurement method in real-life setting has not been established. This study aimed to develop a novel UVPE evaluation system that allows in situ monitoring of the UVPE in real-life activities...
March 19, 2019: Skin Research and Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30888004/low-linear-energy-transfer-radiolysis-of-supercritical-water-at-400-%C3%A2-c-in-situ-generation-of-ultrafast-transient-density-dependent-acid-spikes
#3
Md Mohsin Patwary, Vanaja Kanike, Sunuchakan Sanguanmith, Jintana Meesungnoen, Muhammad Mainul Islam, Jean-Paul Jay-Gerin
There is growing interest in the radiation chemistry of supercritical water (SCW), as its use as a coolant in a nuclear reactor (Generation IV) is the logical evolution of the current (Generation III or less) water-cooled reactors. However, current knowledge about the potential effects of water radiolysis in a Gen-IV supercritical water-cooled reactor (SCWR) is incomplete. In this work, Monte Carlo track chemistry simulations of the low linear energy transfer (LET) radiolysis of SCW (H2O) at 400 °C are used in combination with a spherical "spur" model to study the effect of water density on the in situ radiolytic formation of H3O+ ions and the corresponding abrupt, transient, highly acidic pH response ("acid spikes") that is observed immediately after irradiation...
March 19, 2019: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30887686/laboratory-contamination-over-time-during-low-biomass-sample-analysis
#4
Laura S Weyrich, Andrew G Farrer, Raphael Eisenhofer, Luis A Arriola, Jennifer Young, Caitlin A Selway, Matilda Handsley-Davis, Christina Adler, James Breen, Alan Cooper
Bacteria are not only ubiquitous on earth but can also be incredibly diverse within clean laboratories and reagents. The presence of both living and dead bacteria in laboratory environments and reagents is especially problematic when examining samples with low endogenous content (e.g. skin swabs, tissue biopsies, ice, water, degraded forensic samples, or ancient material), where contaminants can outnumber endogenous microorganisms within samples. The contribution of contaminants within high-throughput studies remains poorly understood because of the relatively low number of contaminant surveys...
March 19, 2019: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886458/sonophotocatalytic-degradation-mechanisms-of-rhodamine-b-dye-via-radicals-generation-by-micro-and-nano-particles-of-zno
#5
Carmine Lops, Andrea Ancona, Katia Di Cesare, Bianca Dumontel, Nadia Garino, Giancarlo Canavese, Simelys Hérnandez, Valentina Cauda
In this work, it is proposed an environmental friendly sonophotocatalytic approach to efficiently treat polluted waters from industrial dyes exploiting ZnO micro- and nano-materials. For the first time, we deeply investigated the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) under ultrasound stimulation of different ZnO structures by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (EPR). Indeed, five zinc oxide (ZnO) micro- and nano-structures, i.e. Desert Roses (DRs), Multipods (MPs), Microwires (MWs), Nanoparticles (NPs) and Nanowires (NWs), were studied for the Rhodamine B (RhB) sonodegradation under ultrasonic irradiation...
April 2019: Applied Catalysis. B, Environmental
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886456/quantitative-measure-of-the-size-dispersity-in-ultrasmall-fluorescent-organic-inorganic-hybrid-core-shell-silica-nanoparticles-by-small-angle-x-ray-scattering
#6
Katherine P Barteau, Kai Ma, Ferdinand F E Kohle, Thomas C Gardinier, Peter A Beaucage, Richard Edward Gillilan, Ulrich Wiesner
Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was performed on dispersions of ultrasmall (d < 10 nm) fluorescent organic-inorganic hybrid core-shell silica nanoparticles synthesized in aqueous solutions (C' dots) by using an oscillating flow cell to overcome beam induced particle degradation. Form factor analysis and fitting was used to determine the size and size dispersity of the internal silica core containing covalently encapsulated fluorophores. The structure of the organic poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) shell was modelled as a monodisperse corona containing concentrated and semi-dilute regimes of decaying density and as a simple polydisperse shell to determine the bounds of dispersity in the overall hybrid particle...
February 12, 2019: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30886401/local-nascent-protein-deposition-and-remodelling-guide-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-mechanosensing-and-fate-in-three-dimensional-hydrogels
#7
Claudia Loebel, Robert L Mauck, Jason A Burdick
Hydrogels serve as valuable tools for studying cell-extracellular matrix interactions in three-dimensional environments that recapitulate aspects of native extracellular matrix. However, the impact of early protein deposition on cell behaviour within hydrogels has largely been overlooked. Using a bio-orthogonal labelling technique, we visualized nascent proteins within a day of culture across a range of hydrogels. In two engineered hydrogels of interest in three-dimensional mechanobiology studies-proteolytically degradable covalently crosslinked hyaluronic acid and dynamic viscoelastic hyaluronic acid hydrogels-mesenchymal stromal cell spreading, YAP/TAZ nuclear translocation and osteogenic differentiation were observed with culture...
March 18, 2019: Nature Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30885326/site-directed-mutation-to-improve-the-enzymatic-activity-of-5-carboxy-2-pentenoyl-coa-reductase-for-enhancing-adipic-acid-biosynthesis
#8
Ju Yang, Yiting Lu, Yunying Zhao, Zhonghu Bai, Zheng Ma, Yu Deng
Adipate is a linear C6 dicarboxylic acid, and is a crucial commercial material mainly used to produce the polymer nylon-6,6. In this study, the pathway producing adipate via a reverse reaction of degradation pathway of adipic acid was ported from Thermobifida fusca to Escherichia coli (E. coli). The pathway contains 6 genes: Tfu_0875, Tfu_2399, Tfu_0067, Tfu_1647, Tfu_2576 and Tfu_2577, which encodes β-ketothiolase, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 3-hydroxyadipyl-CoA dehydrogenase, 5-carboxy-2-pentenoyl-CoA reductase and adipyl-CoA synthetase, respectively...
June 2019: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30885217/processing-of-collagen-based-biomaterials-and-the-resulting-materials-properties
#9
REVIEW
Michael Meyer
Collagen, the most abundant extracellular matrix protein in animal kingdom belongs to a family of fibrous proteins, which transfer load in tissues and which provide a highly biocompatible environment for cells. This high biocompatibility makes collagen a perfect biomaterial for implantable medical products and scaffolds for in vitro testing systems. To manufacture collagen based solutions, porous sponges, membranes and threads for surgical and dental purposes or cell culture matrices, collagen rich tissues as skin and tendon of mammals are intensively processed by physical and chemical means...
March 18, 2019: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30884947/superhydrophobic-silica-aerogels-encapsulated-fluorescent-perovskite-quantum-dots-for-reversible-sensing-of-so2-in-a-3d-printed-gas-cell
#10
Xu You, Junjie Wu, Yuwu Chi
Recently emerging perovskite quantum dots (PQDs) with several excellent optical properties, such as quantum efficiency, narrow band emission, and tunable emission wavelength, have promising applications in solar cells and light emitting diodes. However, relatively rare applications of PQDs can be found in the field of sensing, mainly due to the very easy degradation of PQDs upon exposure to water or ambient humidity. In this work, for the first time CH3NH3PbBr3 PQDs was encapsulated into a superhydrophobic silica aerogels (AGs) to protect PQDs from being degraded by water...
March 19, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30884832/medical-grade-pcl-based-polyurethane-system-for-fdm-3d-printing-characterization-and-fabrication
#11
Agnieszka Haryńska, Justyna Kucinska-Lipka, Agnieszka Sulowska, Iga Gubanska, Marcin Kostrzewa, Helena Janik
The widespread use of three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies in medicine has contributed to the increased demand for 3D printing materials. In addition, new printing materials that are appearing in the industry do not provide a detailed material characterization. In this paper, we present the synthesis and characterization of polycaprolactone (PCL) based medical-grade thermoplastic polyurethanes, which are suitable for forming in a filament that is dedicated to Fused Deposition Modeling 3D (FDM 3D)printers...
March 16, 2019: Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30884643/encapsulation-of-folic-acid-in-copper-alginate-hydrogels-and-it-s-slow-in-vitro-release-in-physiological-ph-condition
#12
Drexel H Camacho, Sarabeth Jasmine Y Uy, Mary Joyce F Cabrera, Michaela Olisha S Lobregas, Tricia Jan Marie C Fajardo
Folic acid (FA) is an essential micronutrient but its delivery and bioavailability is a problem due to its inherent instability at various conditions. A robust protective encapsulation system for folic acid is highly desirable. This work reports the use of the divalent copper in complex with alginate as a strong encapsulation system for folic acid. Using gel spherification technique, hydrogels were formed upon dropwise addition of sodium alginate solution in a copper bath. In the presence of folic acid, encapsulation was achieved as evidenced by the yellow coloration, intact surface morphology (SEM), the presence of nitrogen (23...
May 2019: Food Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877946/polyurethanases-three-dimensional-structures-and-molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-enzymes-that-degrade-polyurethane
#13
Vanessa Petry do Canto, Claudia Elizabeth Thompson, Paulo Augusto Netz
The global production of plastics increases every year, because these materials are widely used in several segments of modern life. Polyurethanes are a very important class of polymers, used in many areas of everyday life, from automotive equipments to mattresses. The waste management usually involves accumulation in landfills, incineration, and reuse processes. However, bioremediation processes are being increasingly tested, due to the efficiency of enzymes in the degradation, besides adding value to the generated waste...
March 6, 2019: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877944/fretting-corrosion-behavior-on-dental-implant-connection-in-human-saliva
#14
Pascale Corne, Pascal De March, Franck Cleymand, Jean Geringer
Fretting-corrosion has been pointed out as failure mechanism in dental implants between the implant part and the abutment. Depending on countries, surgical habits, 4 combinations of materials, are well used. The behavior of fretting corrosion of these four combinations of materials have been highlighted: pure titanium (Ti-grade 4) against titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V); titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V); against titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V); pure titanium against zirconia stabilized with Yttria (Y-TZP) and titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) against zirconia (Y-TZP)...
February 26, 2019: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877867/considerations-for-emission-monitoring-and-liner-analysis-of-thermally-manufactured-sewer-cured-in-place-pipes-cipp
#15
Kyungyeon Ra, Seyedeh Mahboobeh Teimouri Sendesi, Md Nuruddin, Nadezhda N Zyaykina, Emily N Conkling, Brandon E Boor, Chad T Jafvert, John A Howarter, Jeffrey P Youngblood, Andrew J Whelton
Cured-in-place-pipes (CIPP) are plastic liners chemically manufactured inside existing damaged sewer pipes. They are gaining popularity in North America, Africa, Asia, Europe, and Oceania. Volatile and semi-volatile organic compound (VOC/SVOC) emissions from storm sewer CIPP installations were investigated at a dedicated outdoor research site. Tedlar bag, sorbent tube, and photoionization detector (PID) air sampling was conducted for five steam-CIPP installations and was coupled with composite characterizations...
February 27, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30877547/heterogeneous-photo-fenton-process-using-iron-modified-regional-clays-as-catalysts-photonic-and-quantum-efficiencies
#16
María A De León, Marta Sergio, Juan Bussi, Guadalupe B Ortiz de la Plata, Orlando M Alfano
A regional raw clay was used as the starting material to prepare iron-pillared clays with different iron contents. The catalytic activity of these materials was tested in the heterogeneous photo-Fenton process, applied to the degradation of 2-chlorophenol chosen as the model pollutant. Different catalyst loads between 0.2 and 1.0 g L-1 and pH values between 3.0 and 7.0 were studied. The local volumetric rate of photon absorption (LVRPA) in the reactor was evaluated solving the radiative transfer equation applying the discrete ordinate method and using the optical properties of the catalyst suspensions...
March 16, 2019: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30876003/theoretical-and-experimental-investigation-of-haze-in-transparent-aerogels
#17
Lin Zhao, Elise Strobach, Bikram Bhatia, Sungwoo Yang, Arny Leroy, Lenan Zhang, Evelyn N Wang
Haze in optically transparent aerogels severely degrades the visual experience, which has prevented their adoption in windows despite their outstanding thermal insulation property. Previous studies have primarily relied on experiments to characterize haze in aerogels, however, a theoretical framework to systematically investigate haze in porous media is lacking. In this work, we present a radiative transfer model that can predict haze in aerogels based on their physical properties. The model is validated using optical characterization of custom-fabricated, highly-transparent monolithic silica aerogels...
February 18, 2019: Optics Express
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875731/one-step-low-temperature-hydrothermal-synthesis-of-flexible-tio%C3%A2-pvdf-mos%C3%A2-core-shell-heterostructured-fibers-for-visible-light-driven-photocatalysis-and-self-cleaning
#18
Zhi-Guang Zhang, Hui Liu, Xiao-Xiong Wang, Jun Zhang, Miao Yu, Seeram Ramakrishna, Yun-Ze Long
Novel flexible and recyclable core-shell heterostructured fibers based on cauliflower-like MoS₂ and TiO₂/PVDF fibers have been designed through one-step hydrothermal treatment based on electrospun tetrabutyl orthotitanate (TBOT)/PVDF fibers. The low hydrothermal temperature avoids the high temperature process and keeps the flexibility of the as-synthesized materials. The formation mechanism of the resultant product is discussed in detail. The composite of MoS₂ not only expands the light harvesting window to include visible light, but also increases the separation efficiency of photo-generated electrons and holes...
March 14, 2019: Nanomaterials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30875047/sequencing-library-preparation-from-degraded-samples-for-non-illumina-sequencing-platforms
#19
Renata F Martins, Marie-Louise Kampmann, Daniel W Förster
Efficient methods for building genomic sequencing libraries from degraded DNA have been in place for Illumina sequencing platforms for some years now, but such methods are still lacking for other sequencing platforms. Here, we provide a protocol for building genomic libraries from degraded DNA (archival or ancient sample material) for sequencing on the Ion Torrent™ high-throughput sequencing platforms. In addition to a reduction in time and cost in comparison to commercial kits, this protocol removes purification steps prior to library amplification, an important consideration for work involving historical samples...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30874936/anatomical-and-ultrastructural-responses-of-hordeum-sativum-to-the-soil-spiked-by-copper
#20
Tatiana Minkina, Vishnu Rajput, Grigory Fedorenko, Alexey Fedorenko, Saglara Mandzhieva, Svetlana Sushkova, Tatiana Morin, Jun Yao
Effects of Cu toxicity from contaminated soil were analysed in spring barley (Hordeum sativum distichum), a widely cultivated species in South Russia. In this study, H. sativum was planted outdoors in one of the most fertile soils-Haplic Chernozem spiked with high concentration of Cu and examined between the boot and head emergence phase of growth. Copper toxicity was observed to cause slow ontogenetic development of plants, changing their morphometric parameters (shape, size, colour). To the best of our knowledge, the ultrastructural changes in roots, stems and leaves of H...
March 14, 2019: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
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