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Ana Maria Jansen, Samanta Cristina das Chagas Xavier, André Luiz Rodrigues Roque
Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) infects all tissues of its hosts, which along with humans, include hundreds of mammalian species in the Americas. The epidemiology of T. cruzi has been changing in that currently the majority of the cases and/or outbreaks of Chagas disease occur by the ingestion of comestibles contaminated by T. cruzi metacyclic forms. These cases/outbreaks occur in distinct regional scenarios, mainly in the Amazon biome and are related to the local interaction mode of humans with their surroundings, as well as with the overall local ecological peculiarities...
September 6, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Vicente D Moreno Andrade, Carlos Saldaña Gutiérrez, Rosa P Calvillo Medina, Andrés Cruz Hérnandez, Moisés A Vázquez Cruz, Alfonso Torres Ruíz, Sergio Romero Gómez, Miguel A Ramos López, Erika Álvarez-Hidalgo, Silvia B López-Gaytan, Natanahel Salvador Ramírez, George H Jones, Jose Luis Hernandez-Flores, Juan Campos-Guillén
Bee pollen is a highly nutritive natural foodstuff. Because of its use as a comestible, the association of bacteria with bee pollen is commercially and biologically important. We report here the bacterial diversity of seven bee pollen samples (five from Europe, one from Chile, and one from Mexico) based on 16S rRNA gene amplicon metagenome sequencing.
May 17, 2018: Genome Announcements
N Schlueter, B Luka
Erosion is a common phenomenon in the general population of developed countries. However, due to variations in indices, sample sizes and general study designs, it is difficult to compare the various studies and to estimate actual global prevalence. Therefore, the aim of this present paper is to give a narrative overview on the data available on the global prevalence of erosion. Information on prevalence is not available from each country; in particular, data from Asia, Africa, South America, North America and large parts of South-Eastern Europe are unavailable...
March 9, 2018: British Dental Journal
Parham Taslimi, Hülya Akıncıoglu, İlhami Gülçin
In this paper, synephrine and phenylephrine compounds showed excellent inhibitory effects against human carbonic anhydrase (hCA) isoforms I and II, α-amylase, α-glycosidase, acetylcholinesterase (AChE), and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Synephrine and phenylephrine had Ki values of 199.02 ± 16.01 and 65.01 ± 5.00 μM against hCA I and 336.02 ± 74.01 and 92.04  ±  18.03 μM against hCA II, respectively. On the other hand, their Ki values were found to be 169.10  ±  80.03 and 88.03  ±  5...
November 2017: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Kathrin Maedler, Amin Ardestani
The pathways regulating pancreatic β cell survival in diabetes are poorly understood. Here, Chau et al. (2017. J. Cell Biol. demonstrate that mTOR regulates the apoptotic machinery through binding to the ChREBP-Mlx complex to suppress TXNIP, thereby protecting pancreatic β cells in the diabetic setting by inhibiting oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction.
July 3, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Yu-Chen Liu, Wen Liang Chen, Wei-Hsiang Kung, Hsien-Da Huang
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence indicates that plant miRNAs can present within human circulating system through dietary intake and regulate human gene expression. Hence we deduced that comestible plants miRNAs can be identified in the public available small RNA sequencing data sets. RESULTS: In this study, we identified abundant plant miRNAs sequences from 410 human plasma small RNA sequencing data sets. One particular plant miRNA miR2910, conserved in fruits and vegetables, was found to present in high relative amount in the plasma samples...
March 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
Chintan Bhavsar, Munira Momin, Sankalp Gharat, Abdelwahab Omri
Chitosan is the second most abundant natural polysaccharide. It belongs a family of polycationic polymers comprised of repetitive units of glucosamine and N-acetylglucosamine. Its biodegradability, nontoxicity, non-immunogenicity and biocompatibility along with properties like mucoadhesion, fungistatic and bacteriogenic have made chitosan an appreciated polymer with numerous applications in the pharmaceutical, comestics and food industry. However, the limited solubility of chitosan at alkaline and neutral pH limits its widespread commercial use...
October 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Yann Nicolas Barbot, Hashem Al-Ghaili, Roland Benz
The increased use of terrestrial crops for biofuel production and the associated environmental, social and ethical issues have led to a search for alternative biomass materials. Terrestrial crops offer excellent biogas recovery, but compete directly with food production, requiring farmland, fresh water and fertilizers. Using marine macroalgae for the production of biogas circumvents these problems. Their potential lies in their chemical composition, their global abundance and knowledge of their growth requirements and occurrence patterns...
June 21, 2016: Marine Drugs
Carlos Alberto Machado da Rocha, Carla Mariana Ferreira Pessoa, Claudia Antonia Campos Rodrigues, Raul Henrique da Silva Pinheiro, Edmar Tavares da Costa, Adriana Costa Guimarães, Rommel Rodríguez Burbano
Maintaining water quality within tolerable limits is a basic need of the riverside communities in the Amazon. Using endemic aquatic organisms as biological models is useful for monitoring the environment. In this study, potential cytotoxic and genotoxic damages in Plagioscion squamosissimus (commonly known as silver croaker) from the Marajó Archipelago were evaluated using a flow cytometry assay and a survey of micronuclei (MN) frequency as well as other nuclear abnormalities (NA). P. squamosissimus specimens were collected at four locations in the Marajó Archipelago...
October 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Christopher P Smith
INTRODUCTION: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) and interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome collectively referred to as urologic CPPS (UCPPS) is defined by the absence of identifiable bacterial infection as a cause for the chronic pain and urinary symptoms. METHODS: A PubMed search of all recent relevant articles using the keywords/phrases: CPPS, CPPS, and male pelvic pain, was conducted. RESULTS: CPPS has a high worldwide prevalence and its negative impact on quality of life compares with or exceeds common chronic morbidities...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
Barbara Shorter, Meredith Ackerman, Michael Varvara, Robert M Moldwin
PURPOSE: American Urological Association guidelines suggest dietary changes as first line treatment for interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome. We previously developed a validated survey instrument to determine which foods, beverages and supplements exacerbate the symptoms of this condition. In this study we developed a shortened questionnaire that would provide an easily self-administered food symptom history useful for clinical practice and future research. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using data from our previously validated food sensitivity questionnaire we remodeled the original lengthy survey to an abbreviated list including the 35 most problematic comestibles...
June 2014: Journal of Urology
Amin S Herati, Barbara Shorter, Arun K Srinivasan, Julia Tai, Casey Seideman, Martin Lesser, Robert M Moldwin
OBJECTIVE: To better elucidate the prevalence of perceived food sensitivity and characterize the sensitivity pattern in patients with clinically diagnosed chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome. METHODS: A total of 286 men meeting the National Institutes of Health criteria for chronic prostatitis were mailed a validated questionnaire designed to detect the effect of foods, beverages, and/or supplements on pelvic pain symptoms. The questionnaire assessed the effect of 176 individual comestibles on each patient's symptoms...
December 2013: Urology
François Gaascht, Mario Dicato, Marc Diederich
Chemoprevention uses natural or synthetic molecules without toxic effects to prevent and/or block emergence and development of diseases including cancer. Many of these natural molecules modulate mitogenic signals involved in cell survival, apoptosis, cell cycle regulation, angiogenesis, or on processes involved in the development of metastases occur naturally, especially in fruits and vegetables bur also in non-comestible plants. Carnivorous plants including the Venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula Solander ex Ellis) are much less investigated, but appear to contain a wealth of potent bioactive secondary metabolites...
2013: Frontiers in Oncology
Steven M Lipson, Fatma S Ozen, Laina Karthikeyan, Ronald E Gordon
Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and grape (Vitis labrusca) juices, and these species' secondary plant metabolites [i.e., proanthocyanidins (PACs)] possess antiviral activity. An understanding of the mechanism(s) responsible for these juices and their polyphenolic constituents' direct effect on enteric virus integrity, however, remains poorly defined. Using the rotavirus (RTV) as a model enteric virus system, the direct effect of manufacturer-supplied and commercially purchased juices [Ocean Spray Pure Cranberry 100 % Unsweetened Juice (CJ), Welch's 100 % Grape Juice (GJ), 100 % Concord (PG) and 100 % Niagara juices (NG)] and these species' cranberry (C-PACs) and grape PACs (G-PACs) was investigated...
December 2012: Food and Environmental Virology
Mahsa Motshakeri, Mahdi Ebrahimi, Yong Meng Goh, Patricia Matanjun, Suhaila Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Sargassum polycystum, a brown seaweed, contains various nutrients and bioactive compounds that have antioxidant and healing properties. The research hypothesises that antioxidants and pigments in dietary S. polycystum extracts can improve insulin sensitivity, blood sugar levels and blood lipid levels in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. The diabetes was induced by a high-sugar, high-fat diet for 16 weeks to enhance insulin resistance, followed by a low-dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (35 mg kg(-1) body weight)...
May 2013: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
F S Carneiro, A E B Lacerda, M R Lemes, R Gribel, M Kanashiro, A M Sebbenn
The Neotropical tree Hymenaea courbaril, locally known as Jatobá, is a valuable source of lumber and also produces comestible and medicinal fruit. We characterized Mendelian inheritance, linkage and genotypic disequilibrium at nine microsatellite loci isolated from H. courbaril, in order to determine if they would provide accurate estimates of population genetic parameters of this important Amazon species. The study was made on 250 open-pollinated offspring originated from 14 seed trees. Only one of nine loci presented significant deviation from the expected Mendelian segregation (1:1)...
2012: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Justin I Friedlander, Barbara Shorter, Robert M Moldwin
What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Nearly 90% of patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS) report sensitivities to a wide variety of dietary comestibles. Current questionnaire-based literature suggests that citrus fruits, tomatoes, vitamin C, artificial sweeteners, coffee, tea, carbonated and alcoholic beverages, and spicy foods tend to exacerbate symptoms, while calcium glycerophosphate and sodium bicarbonate tend to improve symptoms. At present we recommend employing a controlled method to determine dietary sensitivities, such as an elimination diet, in order to identify sensitivities while at the same time maintain optimal nutritional intake...
June 2012: BJU International
Jonathan D Baker
This paper examines the debate about the safety of kava (Piper methysticum Forst. f, Piperaceae), a plant native to Oceania, where it has a long history of traditional use. Kava became popular as an anti-anxiety treatment in Western countries in the late 1990s, but it was subsequently banned in many places due to adverse reports of liver toxicity. This paper focuses on the responses to the bans by scientists involved in kava research, contrasting their evidential culture with that employed by clinicians and regulatory officials...
June 2011: Social Studies of Science
Ulrike Schulte-Oehlmann, Jörg Oehlmann, Florian Keil
The European Parliament recently approved a new EU regulation aimed at eliminating the use of pesticides that have unwanted endocrine-disrupting properties. The test criteria for these chemicals are slated to be finalized by 2013. For this reason, in this review, we have evaluated the meta data of lists and databanks that address pesticides with potentially endocrine-disrupting properties, and have checked which of the 250 active ingredients currently in use in Germany are affected. Azoles, dithio-carbamates/carbamates, and pyrethroids were most frequently rated as endocrine-active ingredients...
2011: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Paolo Scopelliti
The very presence of myths in psychoanalysis raises questions about their scientific status: that leads to reconsider the whole issue of Freudian mythology in a non-medical manner, by envisaging it in the more general context of modern myths, both political and artistic. Special attention is then paid to Surrealism, as the only avant-garde movement at the same time focused on psychoanalysis and politics: the role played by dreams in foundering myths is examined in both Surrealism and psychoanalysis. Surrealistic myths, such as Dalí's Grand Paranoïaque Comestible, finally prove to be so non-oedipian as the Nazi Ubermensch myth; nevertheless, their comparison with Freudian mythology points out their common origin, as they all fulfilled the need of the mass society for a modern myth, able to express his deeply renewed self-awareness...
2009: Medicina Nei Secoli
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