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Bdelloid rotifer

Leigh C Latta, K Nathaniel Tucker, Robert A Haney
BACKGROUND: A proposed mediator of trade-offs between survival and reproduction is oxidative stress resistance. Investments in reproduction are associated with increased oxidative stress that reduces lifespan. We used the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga to examine baseline patterns of survival, reproduction, and measures of oxidative stress, as well as how these patterns change in the face of treatments known to induce oxidative stress. RESULTS: We discovered that under standard laboratory conditions late-life mortality may be explained by increased levels of oxidative stress induced by reproduction...
February 1, 2019: BMC Ecology
Bayar Chuluunbaatar, Zoltán Béni, Miklós Dékány, Bernadett Kovács, András Sárközy, Zsolt Datki, Lilla Mácsai, János Kálmán, Judit Hohmann, Attila Ványolós
Twelve compounds ( 1 ⁻ 12 ) were isolated from the methanol extract of brick cap mushroom ( Hypholoma lateritium (Schaeff.) P. Kumm.). The structures of the compounds were elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analyses, including NMR and MS measurements. Lanosta-7,9(11)-diene-12β,21α-epoxy-2α,3β,24β,25-tetraol ( 1 ) and 8-hydroxy-13-oxo-9 E ,11 E -octa-decadienoic acid ( 2 ) were identified as new natural products, together with ten known compounds, from which 3β-hydroxyergosta-7,22-diene ( 4 ), demethylincisterol A2 ( 5 ), cerevisterol ( 6 ), 3β- O -glucopyranosyl-5,8-epidioxyergosta-6,22-diene ( 7 ), fasciculol E ( 9 ), and uridine ( 12 ) were identified in this species for the first time...
January 15, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Bette J Hecox-Lea, David B Mark Welch
BACKGROUND: Bdelloid rotifers are the oldest, most diverse and successful animal taxon for which males, hermaphrodites, and traditional meiosis are unknown. Their degenerate tetraploid genome, with 2-4 copies of most loci, includes thousands of genes acquired from all domains of life by horizontal transfer. Many bdelloid species thrive in ephemerally aquatic habitats by surviving desiccation at any life stage with no loss of fecundity or lifespan. Their unique genomic diversity and the intense selective pressure of desiccation provide an exceptional opportunity to study the evolution of diversity and novelty in genes involved in DNA repair...
November 28, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Aydin Örstan
The morphological descriptions of the species of bdelloid rotifers and the associated taxonomic difficulties, primarily resulting from the inadequate original descriptions of many species, are discussed. The genus Adineta, whose members are relatively easy to study and frequently encountered, is proposed as a starting point for taxonomic revisions of the Bdelloidea. The taxonomically significant morphological traits in the genus Adineta are discussed. Some of these have rarely been used: the number of denticles on the rake organ and body proportions...
November 21, 2018: Zootaxa
Lilla Mácsai, Zsolt L Datki, Dezső Csupor, Attila Horváth, Zoltán P Zomborszki
Rotifers have been widely used as well-characterized models of aging, since their multiorgan character makes them suitable as in vivo toxicological and lifespan models. Here we report the assessment of four adaptogenic plants and their extracts for the first time in this model. The effects on rotifer viability of extracts and characteristic active markers of Panax ginseng , Withania somnifera , Leuzea carthamoides, and Rhodiola rosea were tested in vivo . The crude extracts were nontoxic to Philodina acuticornis bdelloid rotifers; however, the pure substances of the plants influenced negatively the viability...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Christopher G Wilson, Reuben W Nowell, Timothy G Barraclough
A few metazoan lineages are thought to have persisted for millions of years without sexual reproduction. If so, they would offer important clues to the evolutionary paradox of sex itself [1, 2]. Most "ancient asexuals" are subject to ongoing doubt because extant populations continue to invest in males [3-9]. However, males are famously unknown in bdelloid rotifers, a class of microscopic invertebrates comprising hundreds of species [10-12]. Bdelloid genomes have acquired an unusually high proportion of genes from non-metazoans via horizontal transfer [13-17]...
August 6, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Fernando Rodriguez, Irina R Arkhipova
Polyploidy in animals is much less common than in plants, where it is thought to be pervasive in all higher plant lineages. Recent studies have highlighted the impact of polyploidization and the associated process of diploidy restoration on the evolution and speciation of selected taxonomic groups in the animal kingdom: from vertebrates represented by salmonid fishes and African clawed frogs to invertebrates represented by parasitic root-knot nematodes and bdelloid rotifers. In this review, we focus on the unique and diverse roles that transposable elements may play in these processes, from marking and diversifying subgenome-specific chromosome sets before hybridization, to influencing genome restructuring during rediploidization, to affecting subgenome-specific regulatory evolution, and occasionally providing opportunities for domestication and gene amplification to restore and improve functionality...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Genetics & Development
Stephen Richards
Two recent papers highlight the fascinating comparative genomics of anhydrobiosis, the ability to withstand complete desiccation, in bdelloid rotifers and tardigrades. However, both groups had to openly deal with the significant difficulties of generating and interpreting short-read draft assemblies-especially challenging in microscopic species with high sequence polymorphism. These exemplars demonstrate the need to go beyond single draft-quality reference genomes to high-quality multiple species comparative genomics if we are to fully capture the value of genomics...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
Reuben W Nowell, Pedro Almeida, Christopher G Wilson, Thomas P Smith, Diego Fontaneto, Alastair Crisp, Gos Micklem, Alan Tunnacliffe, Chiara Boschetti, Timothy G Barraclough
Bdelloid rotifers are a class of microscopic invertebrates that have existed for millions of years apparently without sex or meiosis. They inhabit a variety of temporary and permanent freshwater habitats globally, and many species are remarkably tolerant of desiccation. Bdelloids offer an opportunity to better understand the evolution of sex and recombination, but previous work has emphasised desiccation as the cause of several unusual genomic features in this group. Here, we present high-quality whole-genome sequences of 3 bdelloid species: Rotaria macrura and R...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
Hiroko Nakayama, Kan Katayama, Yukimasa Onabe, Atsushi Sato, Norihio Nishimura, Yasuhito Shimada
Rotifers are now becoming a standard live feed for first-feeding larvae, because of their easy rearing protocol and improved growth and survival rate, compared with other fish feed, paramecia, and processed powder fish feeds. In a group of rotifers, bdelloid rotifer, a freshwater plankton, exerts cryptobiosis (an ametabolic state of life) in response to desiccation and survived for a long time. Here, we created "dried rotifer sheet" for rearing larvae in their early developmental stage. More than 80% rotifers could survive after 18-month desiccation in the filter paper...
June 2018: Zebrafish
Zsolt Datki, Zita Olah, Tibor Hortobagyi, Lilla Macsai, Katalin Zsuga, Livia Fulop, Zsolt Bozso, Bence Galik, Eva Acs, Angela Foldi, Amanda Szarvas, Janos Kalman
Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to a systemic enzyme resistance of toxic aggregated molecules and their pathological consequences. This paper presents a unique phenomenon that Philodina acuticornis, a bdelloid rotifer, is able to catabolize different types of neurotoxic peptide and protein aggregates (such as beta-amyloids /Aβ/, alpha-synuclein, and prion) without suffering any damage. P. acuticornis is capable of using these aggregates as an exclusive energy source (i.e., as 'food', identified in the digestive system and body) in a hermetically isolated microdrop environment, increasing their survival...
January 29, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Yuki Yoshida, Georgios Koutsovoulos, Dominik R Laetsch, Lewis Stevens, Sujai Kumar, Daiki D Horikawa, Kyoko Ishino, Shiori Komine, Takekazu Kunieda, Masaru Tomita, Mark Blaxter, Kazuharu Arakawa
Tardigrada, a phylum of meiofaunal organisms, have been at the center of discussions of the evolution of Metazoa, the biology of survival in extreme environments, and the role of horizontal gene transfer in animal evolution. Tardigrada are placed as sisters to Arthropoda and Onychophora (velvet worms) in the superphylum Panarthropoda by morphological analyses, but many molecular phylogenies fail to recover this relationship. This tension between molecular and morphological understanding may be very revealing of the mode and patterns of evolution of major groups...
July 2017: PLoS Biology
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Amelia B Matthews
Rotifers have become widely used in aquatic toxicology as a rapid screening test for toxicity. The commercial availability of diapausing embryos (cysts) have facilitated their popularity because test animals can be obtained without having to master the details of culturing. Other rotifer species have life stages capable of surviving desiccation and also could be used in non-culture systems for toxicity assessment. In this article, we describe a system for toxicity testing in freshwater based on rehydrating desiccated bdelloid rotifers in the genus Philodina...
October 2017: Environmental Toxicology
Min Ok Song, Chang-Ho Lee
A taxonomic study on bdelloid rotifers collected from various terrestrial habitats at six different locations in Korea yielded 12 new Korean records and a new species, Philodina koreana n. sp. Among the 12 new Korean records, eight species and two subspecies are new to Asia. These new Asian records include five rare species with poorly known distributions. Philodina childi Milne and P. scabra Milne were rediscovered in Korea almost 100 years after the original descriptions from South Africa. Our study is the first to report Habrotrocha longicalcarata Bērzinš outside its type locality...
March 13, 2017: Zootaxa
Zita Olah, Ashley I Bush, David Aleksza, Bence Galik, Eszter Ivitz, Lilla Macsai, Zoltan Janka, Zoltan Karman, Janos Kalman, Zsolt Datki
Rotifers have been used in biological research as well-characterized models of aging. Their multi-organ characters and their sensitivity for chemicals and environmental changes make them useful as in vivo toxicological and lifespan models. Our aim was to create a bdelloid rotifer model to use in high-throughput viability and non-invasive assays. In order to identify our species Philodina acuticornis odiosa (PA), 18S rDNA-based phylogenetic analysis was carried out and their species-specific morphological markers identified...
October 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Fernando Rodriguez, Aubrey W Kenefick, Irina R Arkhipova
Rotifers of the class Bdelloidea, microscopic freshwater invertebrates, possess a highlydiversified repertoire of transposon families, which, however, occupy less than 4% of genomic DNA in the sequenced representative Adineta vaga . We performed a comprehensive analysis of A. vaga retroelements, and found that bdelloid long terminal repeat (LTR)retrotransposons, in addition to conserved open reading frame (ORF) 1 and ORF2 corresponding to gag and pol genes, code for an unusually high variety of ORF3 sequences...
April 11, 2017: Viruses
Mai Kanazawa, Takahiro Nanri, Masayuki Saigusa
The bdelloid rotifer of the genus Adineta is a freshwater metazoan characterized by anhydrobiosis, a highly stable state of suspended animation induced by desiccation. This study investigated the influence of anhydrobiosis on the thermal habituation by use of an index, Activity Ratio (AR = the number of active rotifers at each experimental temperature/ number of active rotifers at the 25°C stage). In the first experiment, rotifers were divided into two groups: one group was cultivated at 25°C throughout experiment, and another group was transferred to 15°C for two days...
April 2017: Zoological Science
S K Schmidt, J L Darcy, Pacifica Sommers, Eva Gunawan, J E Knelman, Karina Yager
This is the first study of the highest elevation cyanobacteria-dominated microbial mat yet described. The desiccated mat was sampled in 2010 from an ephemeral rock pool at 5500 m above sea level in the Cordillera Vilcanota of southern Perú. After being frozen for 6 years at -20 °C in the lab, pieces of the mat were sequenced to fully characterize both the 16 and 18S microbial communities and experiments were conducted to determine if organisms in the mat could revive and become active under the extreme freeze-thaw conditions that these mats experience in the field...
May 2017: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
K Ingemar Jönsson, Andrzej Wojcik
The aim of this study was to analyze tolerance to heavy ions in desiccated animals of the eutardigrade Richtersius coronifer and the bdelloid rotifer Mniobia russeola within the STARLIFE project. Both species were exposed to iron (Fe) and helium (He) ions at the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in Chiba, Japan, and to X-rays at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne, Germany. Results show no effect of Fe and He on viability up to 7 days post-rehydration in both R. coronifer and M. russeola, while X-rays tended to reduce viability in R...
February 2017: Astrobiology
Guoji Ding, Xiaowei Li, Wei Lin, Yuzuru Kimochi, Ryuichi Sudo
Bdelloid rotifer are reported to play a promoting role in microbial aggregation and floc formation in activated sludge systems; however, the mechanisms involved in this process are unclear. This study explores the effect of a rotifer secretion (RS) from the species Philodina erythrophthalma on the flocculation and growth of two bioflocculation-producing bacteria isolated from activated sludge. Results show that although the secretion has weak bioflocculability in itself, it can significantly enhance the flocculability of bioflocculation-producing bacteria and promote formation of microbial aggregation and floc...
April 1, 2017: Water Research
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