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Hong-Ling Yang, Yun-Zhang Sun, Xi Hu, Ji-Dan Ye, Kang-Le Lu, Ling-Hao Hu, Jiao-Jing Zhang
The normal microbiota plays a key role in the health of host, but little is known of how the fish immune system recognizes and responds to indigenous bacteria/probiotics. Our previous studies have showed that heat-inactivated indigenous Bacillus pumilus SE5 activate the TLR2 signaling pathways and modulate the intestinal microbiota in grouper (Epinephelus coioides), suggesting microbial-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) involved. In this study, whole cell wall (CW) and two possible MAMPs, peptidoglycan (PG) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) have been extracted from B...
March 5, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Cuiyun Zou, Ningning Su, Jinhui Wu, Minglei Xu, Zhenzhu Sun, Qingying Liu, Leling Chen, Yuanyuan Zhou, Anli Wang, Chaoxia Ye
In this study, two experiments were performed to explore the effect of Radix Bupleuri extracts (RBE) on growth, lipid deposition and metabolism and immune response of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀) using in vitro and in vivo models. In vitro, we used 2 ml/L 20% lipid emulsion (LE)-induced steatosis in hybrid grouper primary hepatocytes, then RBE (200, 400 and 800 μg/ml) was added to the hepatocytes after (post-treatment) the incubation with 20% LE (2 ml/L) in the culture medium...
February 28, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shina Wei, Jia Cai, Shaowen Wang, Yepin Yu, Jingguang Wei, Youhua Huang, Xiaohong Huang, Qiwei Qin
Cystatin C is an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine proteases and widely exist in organisms. Several studies in mammals have showed that Cystatin C plays critical role in the immune defense against microorganisms. It is also well known that some fish Cystatin C have important immune regulation functions in inflammatory responses. However, the function of fish Cystatin C in virus infection as well as its underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. In the present study, a Cystatin C gene termed Ec-CysC was identified from orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides...
February 26, 2019: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Qing Wang, Min Yang, Chen Li, Shaowen Wang, Yuxin Wang, Fangmei Lin, Leyun Zheng, Yepin Yu, Qiwei Qin
Chemokine receptors are a superfamily of seven-transmembrane domain G-coupled receptors and have important roles in immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. In previous studies, a series of CXCRs in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was identified; however, the function of CXCR in viral infection has not been studied. To better understand the effect of the CXCR family on the fish immune response, full-length CXCR1a was cloned, and its immune response to Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) was investigated...
February 23, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Shun Maekawa, Pei-Chi Wang, Shih-Chu Chen
Transcriptome analysis is a powerful tool that enables a deep understanding of complicated physiological pathways, including immune responses. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq)-based transcriptome analysis and various bioinformatics tools have also been used to study non-model animals, including aquaculture species for which reference genomes are not available. Rapid developments in these techniques have not only accelerated investigations into the process of pathogenic infection and defense strategies in fish, but also used to identify immunity-related genes in fish...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Yoann Garnier, Hugo Jacob, Ana Sofia Guerra, Frédéric Bertucci, David Lecchini
Microplastics are ubiquitous throughout the oceans, yet few studies have documented their occurrence in marine organisms associated with coral reefs. Four genera of adult fish were sampled (Myripristis spp., Siganus spp., Epinephelus merra and Cheilopogon simus) from different trophic guilds around the tropical island of Moorea, French Polynesia. Digestive tracts from 133 adult fish were surveyed and microplastics were found in 28 tracts (21%). Abundance of ingested microplastic pieces per individual fish varied from 1 to 3 pieces, with an average of 1...
March 2019: Marine Pollution Bulletin
Xiaohong Tan, Zhenzhu Sun, Chaoxia Ye, Heizhao Lin
Growth performance, hepatic morphology and antioxidant ability, and expressions of antioxidant, inflammatory and apoptosis related genes were investigated in hybrid grouper fed high lipid diets containing 0, 0.5, 1, 2 and 10 g kg-1 Lycium barbarum extract (LBE) for 8-week feeding. The study showed that dietary LBE significantly increased weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of fish (P < 0.05), the highest WGR and SGR were observed in fish fed 10.00 g kg-1 LBE diet. Dietary LBE improved liver morphology by decreasing hepatocyte necrosis and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by high lipid diets...
February 18, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Pantelis Katharios, Panos G Kalatzis, Constantina Kokkari, Michail Pavlidis, Qiyao Wang
Edwardsiella -associated outbreaks are increasingly reported on both marine and freshwater aquaculture setups, accounting for severe financial and biomass losses. E. tarda, E. ictaluri , and E. hoshinae have been the traditional causative agents of edwardsiellosis in aquaculture, however, intensive studies due to the significance of the disease have just recently revealed two more species, E. piscicida and E. anguillarum . Whole genome sequencing that was conducted on the strain EA011113, isolated from farmed Diplodus puntazzo after an edwardsiellosis outbreak in Greece, confirmed it as a new clinical strain of E...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Zhenzhu Sun, Xiaohong Tan, Minglei Xu, Qingying Liu, Huaqun Ye, Cuiyun Zou, Yuanyuan Zhou, Ningning Su, Leling Chen, Anli Wang, Chaoxia Ye
The study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with dandelion extracts (DE) on growth performance, feed utilization, body composition, serum biochemical, liver histology, immune-related gene expression and CCl4 resistance of hybrid grouper (Epinephelus lanceolatus♂ × Epinephelus fuscoguttatus♀). A basal diet supplemented with DE at 0% (diet 0%), 0.1% (diet 0.1%), 0.2% (diet 0.2%), 0.4% (diet 0.4%) and 0.8% (diet 0.8%) were fed to hybrid grouper for 8 weeks. The results revealed that dietary DE had not a significant impact on growth performance and feed utilization (P > 0...
February 16, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Beibei Zhang, Zhixia Zhuang, Xiaoru Wang, Huabin Huang, Qi Fu, Qingpi Yan
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is a highly pathogenic bacterium for maricultured fish and causes serious losses. A transcriptional regulator gene RK21_RS10315 was found up-regulated during the whole infection process, which was confirmed by qRT-PCR. Five shRNA were designed to silence RK21_RS10315 gene, and the gene expression was reduced up to 96.1%. Compared with the counterpart infected with wild type strain, the infection of RK21_RS10315-RNAi strain resulted in the death time delay, and 90% reduction in mortality of Epinephelus coioides, as well as the alleviation in the symptoms of E...
February 15, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Jussara Oliveira Vaini, Kenneth Gabriel Mota, Alejandra Paola Ojeda, João Pedro Barreiros, Renata Guimarães Moreira, Alexandre Wagner Silva Hilsdorf
The dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus, is a well-known and widespread marine fish assessed as endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Analyzing the genetic diversity of this species is, therefore, of utmost importance and necessary for conservation purposes. Microsatellites are molecular tools with advantages that are ideal for population analyses. This study provides the first set of species-specific microsatellite loci for E. marginatus that can be applied when assessing both intra- and interpopulation genetic variation...
February 14, 2019: Genetics and Molecular Biology
Man Yang, Rui Han, Lu-Yun Ni, Xiao-Chun Luo, An-Xing Li, Xue-Ming Dan, Karl Wah-Keung Tsim, Yan-Wei Li
Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 5 (TRAF5) is a key adapter molecule that participates in numerous signaling pathways. The function of TRAF5 in fish is largely unknown. In the present study, a TRAF5 cDNA sequence (EcTRAF5) was identified in grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Similar to its mammalian counterpart, EcTRAF5 contained an N-terminal RING finger domain, a zinc finger domain, a C-terminal TRAF domain, including a coiled-coil domain and a MATH domain. The EcTRAF5 protein shared relatively low sequence identity with that of other species, but clustered with TRAF5 sequences from other fish...
February 12, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Hyun-Jeoung Lee, Jee-Hyun Jung, Jung-Hwan Kwon
The global consumption of alternative brominated flame retardants (BFRs) has increased with the restriction of the first generation BFRs such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs). However, many alternative BFRs are suspected to be persistent in the environment and possibly bioaccumulative after their release into the environment because of their chemical properties, which are similar to those of the already banned BFRs. In this study, the bioaccumulation potential of selected alternative BFRs (1,2-bis(2,4,6‑tribromophenoxy)ethane (BTBPE), 1,2,3,4,5,6‑hexabromobenzene (HBB), pentabromoethylbenzene (PBEB), 2,3,4,5,6‑pentabromotoluene (PBT), 2‑ethylhexyl-2,3,4,5-tetrabromobenzoate (TBB), and 2,3,4,5‑tetrabromo-6-chlorotoluene (TBCT)) was evaluated...
February 25, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Shaoqing Zang, Xin Zhang, Chen Li, Liqun Wang, Jingguang Wei, Qiwei Qin
Phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha subunit (eIF2α) occurs under a variety of conditions, including viral infection. Heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) is an eIF2α kinase that modifies this phosphorylation. In this study, a HRI homologue (EcHRI) from the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) was cloned and its roles during fish viral infection were characterized. EcHRI encodes a 664-amino acid polypeptide that shares a high degree of similarity with HRIs from other species. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that EcHRI was distributed in all examined tissues...
February 9, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Noorashikin Md Noor, Tom Defoirdt, Norfarrah Alipiah, Murni Karim, Hassan Daud, Ikhsan Natrah
The link between quorum sensing in Vibrio campbellii and its virulence towards tiger grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) was investigated using V. campbellii wild type and quorum-sensing mutants with inactive quorum sensing or constitutively maximal quorum-sensing activity, and signal molecule synthase mutants. The results showed that wild-type V. campbellii is pathogenic to grouper larvae, causing more than 50% mortality after 4 days of challenge. Furthermore, the mortality of larvae challenged with the mutant with maximally active quorum sensing was significantly higher than that of larvae challenged with the wild type, whereas a higher survival was observed in the larvae challenged to the mutant with a completely inactive quorum-sensing system...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Fish Diseases
Liangge He, Yaosi Liang, Xue Yu, Wan Peng, Jianan He, Lijun Fu, Haoran Lin, Yong Zhang, Danqi Lu
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the major pathogen of vibriosis in aquatic animals and causes inflammation that may be related to tissue damage. Here, we have established a V. parahaemolyticus flagellin stimulation model using grouper spleen (GS) cell line. Purified V. parahaemolyticus flagellin was used to stimulate GS cells. Our results showed that the mRNA levels of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) toll-like receptor 5M (EcTLR5M), EcTLR5S and downstream cytokines, such as interferon-γ2 (IFN-γ2), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), were all significantly increased after stimulation with V...
February 2, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Yujia Sun, Zhixia Zhuang, Xiaoru Wang, Huabin Huang, Qi Fu, Qingpi Yan
Pseudomonas plecoglossicida is an important and highly pathogenic bacterium for aquaculture and causes serious losses. The expression level of flgM was found to be significantly upregulated post-infection compared with in vitro results, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR. RNAi significantly reduced the expression level of flgM mRNA of P. plecoglossicida. Compared with infection with the wild-type strain, infection with the flgM-RNAi strain resulted in a delay in death and a 75% reduction in the mortality of Epinephelus coioides, followed by alleviation of the symptoms in E...
January 29, 2019: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
J Chen, L Xiao, C Peng, Z Ye, D Wang, Y Yang, H Zhang, M Zhao, S Li, H Lin, Y Zhang
Socially controlled sex change in teleosts is a dramatic example of adaptive reproductive plasticity. In many cases, the occurrence of sex change is triggered by a change in the social context, such as the disappearance of the dominant individual. The orange-spotted grouper Epinephelus coioides is a typical protogynous hermaphrodite fish that changes sex from female to male and remains male throughout its life span. In this study, male-to-female sex reversal in male Epinephelus coioides was successfully induced by social isolation...
January 25, 2019: Journal of Fish Biology
Jong Youn Park, Jae Kwon Cho, Young Jae Choi, Kyeong Ho Han, Chang Gi Hong
We determined the morphologic characteristics (body weight and degree of abdomen inflation) of the red spotted grouper, Epinephelus akaara , mother fish producing healthy eggs. Experimental fish were chosen from fish reared in a sea cage. The fish were divided into four size groups by body weight: 400~600, 600~800, 800~1,000, and 1,000~1,200 g and four stages (Ⅰ~Ⅳ) of the degree of abdomen inflation. After hormone treatment, we observed the amount of ovulation-induced eggs, and rates of buoyancy, fertilization, embryonic survival, and hatching...
December 2018: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
Yazhou Zhang, Zimu Tang, Weiru Lin, Xi Yuan, Jirong Jia, Caiyun Sun, Wensheng Li
In the present study, four full-length cDNAs of somatostatin receptor (sstr) were cloned from the forebrain and pituitary of red-spotted grouper. The four full-length cDNAs were designated 2292, 1522, 1873 and 1789 bp and identified as sstr1, sstr2, sstr3, and sstr5 by BLAST analysis; the corresponding sizes of the open reading frames (ORFs) were 1155, 1113, 1467 and 1503 bp, which encoding 384, 370, 488 and 500 aa, respectively. The four receptors have seven transmembrane structures and contain the YANSCANPI/VLY sequence, which is the conserved amino acid sequence of the SSTR family...
January 14, 2019: General and Comparative Endocrinology
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