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Nicholas K H Khoo, Marco Fazzari, Dionysios V Chartoumpekis, Lihua Li, Danielle Aparecida Guimaraes, Gavin E Arteel, Sruti Shiva, Bruce A Freeman
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity and insulin resistance and is the most prevalent chronic liver disease. During the development of obesity and NAFLD, mitochondria adapt to the increased lipid load in hepatocytes by increasing the rate of fatty acid oxidation. In concert with this, reactive species (RS) generation is increased, damaging hepatocytes and inducing inflammation. Hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction is central to the pathogenesis of NAFLD via undefined mechanisms. There are no FDA approved treatments for NAFLD other than weight loss and management of glucose tolerance...
February 1, 2019: Redox Biology
R N Pena, J L Noguera, M J García-Santana, E González, J F Tejeda, R Ros-Freixedes, N Ibáñez-Escriche
The adipogenic nature of the Iberian pig defines many quality attributes of its fresh meat and dry-cured products. The distinct varieties of Iberian pig exhibit great variability in the genetic parameters for fat deposition and composition in muscle. The aim of this work is to identify common and distinct genomic regions related to fatty acid composition in Retinto, Torbiscal, and Entrepelado Iberian varieties and their reciprocal crosses through a diallelic experiment. In this study, we performed GWAS using a high density SNP array on 382 pigs with the multimarker regression Bayes B method implemented in GenSel...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Pawel Dubiela, Rebecca Del Conte, Francesca Cantini, Tomasz Borowski, Roberta Aina, Christian Radauer, Merima Bublin, Karin Hoffmann-Sommergruber, Stefano Alessandri
Plant non-specific lipid transfer proteins type 1 (nsLTP1) are small basic proteins with a hydrophobic cavity able to host a number of different ligands: i.e. fatty acids, fatty acyl-CoA, phospholipids, glycolipids, and hydroxylated fatty acids. However, ligand binding specificity differs among nsLTPs. Within this protein family, Jug r 3 from walnut has been identified as a major allergen. So far, data on the structural characterization of Jug r 3 and its lipid binding capacity are lacking. We report the results from a fluorescence-based ligand-binding assay and ligand-based NMR experiments, to study the binding interactions between Jug r 3 and the 18-carbon monounsaturated oleic acid...
February 14, 2019: Scientific Reports
Hsiu-Chi Ting, Li-Tzu Chen, Jo-Yu Chen, Yi-Li Huang, Rui-Cheng Xin, Jui-Fen Chan, Yuan-Hao Howard Hsu
BACKGROUND: Supplemented fatty acids can incorporate into cardiolipin (CL) and affect its remodeling. The change in CL species may alter the mitochondrial membrane composition, potentially disturbing the mitochondrial structure and function during inflammation. METHOD: To investigate the effect of the unsaturation of fatty acids on CL, we supplemented macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells with 18-carbon unsaturated fatty acids including oleic acid (OA, 18:1), linoleic acid (LA, 18:2), α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3), γ-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3), and stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4)...
February 14, 2019: Lipids in Health and Disease
Fu Li, Mohammad Mehdi Ramin Moayed, Eugen Klein, Rostyslav Lesyuk, Christian Klinke
The colloidal synthesis of large and thin two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets is fascinating but challenging, since the growth along the lateral dimension and vertical dimensions need to be controlled independently. In-plane anisotropy in 2D nanosheets is attracting more attention as well. We present a new improved synthesis for large colloidal single-crystalline SnS nanosheets with the thicknesses down to 7 nm and lateral sizes up to 8 µm. The synthesis uses trioctylphosphine-S as sulfur source and oleic acid as ligands...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
I T Mendes, A L M Ruela, F C Carvalho, J T J Freitas, R Bonfilio, G R Pereira
Donepezil is one of the main compounds used in the therapy of Alzheimer's disease. Oral administration of this drug presents many drawbacks, resulting in treatment non-adherence among patients. Thus, the development of transdermal formulations for donepezil delivery is important. The aim of this study was to prepare and to evaluate nanostructured lipid carrier-based gels (NLC gel) able to improve the skin delivery of donepezil free base (DPB). The components of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) were selected after evaluating their enhancing effects using in vitro DPB skin delivery assays...
February 6, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Wessam H Abd-Elsalam, Nermeen A ElKasabgy
Mucoadhesive olaminosomes are novel nanocarriers designed to control agomelatine release and enhance its bioavailability. Olaminosomes were prepared using oleic acid, oleylamine and sorbitan monooleate adopting thin film hydration technique. Chitosan HCl was added to impart the mucoadhesive properties to the olaminosomes. Mucoadhesive olaminosomes were characterized for their particle size, in-vitro drug release and irritation potentiality in rabbit eyes. The reduction in intraocular pressure (IOP) through 8 hours in male New Zealand Albino rabbits was measured after administration of the selected formulations...
February 11, 2019: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Piroonporn Srimongkol, Nuttha Thongchul, Saranya Phunpruch, Aphichart Karnchanatat
To investigate the potential of application of marine cyanobacterium for concurrent biomass production and ammonium removal, Synechococcus sp. VDW was cultured under different conditions in medium containing varying concentrations of NH4 Cl. Response surface methodology (RSM) was then used to build a predictive model of the combined effects of independent variables (pH, inoculum size, ammonium concentration). At the optimum conditions of initial pH 7.4, inoculum size 0.17 (OD730) and ammonium concentration 10...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
Takamasa Watanabe, Yoshiaki Yamamoto, Maki Miura, Hiroyuki Konno, Shigekazu Yano, Yoshimune Nonomura
Bacterial flora on the skin surface contains Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis) which causes rough skin and atopic dermatitis and enhances innate immunity, respectively. In this study, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was evaluated for six saturated fatty acids and two unsaturated fatty acids against S. aureus and S. epidermidis. The antimicrobial behavior in the liquid medium was categorized into three groups. The first was the selective antibacterial activity group comprising myristic acid (C14:0 fatty acid), palmitoleic acid (C16:1 fatty acid), and oleic acid (C18:1 fatty acid) and preferentially displayed antimicrobial activity for S...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Oleo Science
Congjian Shi, Weiju Xue, Bowen Han, Fengli Yang, Yaping Yin, Chengmu Hu
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease which affects millions of people worldwide. Acetaminophen (APAP) overdose is the leading cause of acute liver failure. In this study, APAP (50, 100, 200mg/kg) were employed on mice fed with a high-fat diet, and APAP (2, 4, 8mM) were cultured with L02 cells in the presence of alcohol and oleic acid. APAP treatment significantly aggravated hepatic lipid accumulation, increased the serum levels of triglyceride (TG), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and increased hepatic lipid accumulation in H&E and Oil red O staining results...
February 9, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiawen Zheng, Yuejian Chen, Zhiming Wang, Lina Song, Yu Zhang, Ning Gu, Fei Xiong
Through self-assembly of nanoparticles into high-order and stable structures of cubic clusters, high drug-loading rubik-like magnetic nano-assemblies (MNAs), possessing folic acid targeting and strong magnetism-enhanced cellular uptake capabilities, were built. In this study, the core of the cubic drug assemblies consisted of four monodisperse superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles coated with layers of oleic acid (Fe₃O₄@OA), simultaneously encapsulating fluorescein, and Paclitaxol (Flu-MNAs and PTX-MNAs) for imaging and therapeutic applications...
June 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Xi Huang, Eun Joo Lee, Dong U Ahn
A study was conducted to develop non-dairy creamer analogs/mimics using egg white, egg yolk, soy protein and their combinations, and their nutrient content, shelf-life and flavor acceptability were compared. The protein contents of the non-dairy creamer analogs/mimics were about 8.5% as calculated. The amounts of oleic and linoleic acid content increased as the amount of yolk increased in the formula, but the increases of polyunsaturated fatty acids were < 0.5% of total fat. Addition of egg yolk to the formula increased choline and lutein content in the products, but the amounts were < 0...
January 2, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Elisa Mariana García, Agustín López, María Zimerman, Olegario Hernández, José Ignacio Arroquy, Mónica Azucena Nazareno
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary incorporation of tannin-rich woody species on meat oxidative stability, carcass traits and meat quality in goats. Methods: Two tannin-rich species were tested using a three-treatments feeding trial, where treatments consisted of: Larrea divaricata and Acacia aroma both at 12.5% in dry matter basis of the diet and a control diet (alfalfa hay). All feeding diets were iso-protein and iso-energy...
January 3, 2019: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Navin Kumar, Ambedkar Gautam, Arvind Kumar Dubey, Ruma Ranjan, Ashutosh Pandey, Babita Kumari, Gayatri Singh, Sachin Mandotra, Puneet Singh Chauhan, Saripella Srikrishna, Venkatesh Dutta, Shekhar Mallick
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a free amino acid, which helps to counteract biotic and abiotic stresses in plants. In the present study, two concentrations of GABA, i.e., 0.5 mM and 1 mM were applied to examine the tolerance of rice seedlings against As(III) (25 µM) toxicity, through the modulations of fatty acids (FAs), stress responsive amino acids (AAs) and polyamines (PAs) biosynthesis. Exogenous GABA (0.5 mM) application significantly reduced the H2 O2 and TBARS levels and recovered the growth parameters against As(III) stressed rice seedlings...
February 8, 2019: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Deepthi S Yarramala, Prem Prakash, Dnyanesh S Ranade, Sejal Doshi, Prasad P Kulkarni, Prasenjit Bhaumik, Chebrolu Pulla Rao
Cancer remains one of the biggest threats to human society. There are massive demands for compounds to selectively kill cancerous cells. Earlier studies have shown that bovine α -lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells (BAMLET) becomes cytotoxic against cancer cells in complex with oleic acid {Hoque, M. et. al., PLoSOne 8, e68390 (2013)}. In our study, we obtained bovine α-lactalbumin complexed with lanthanum ion (La3+ -B-α-LA) and determined its high resolution crystal structure. The natural calcium binding site of bovine α-lactalbumin is replaced by lanthanum...
February 11, 2019: Scientific Reports
Justin Chun, Jia-Yue Zhang, Maris S Wilkins, Balajikarthick Subramanian, Cristian Riella, Jose M Magraner, Seth L Alper, David J Friedman, Martin R Pollak
Two coding variants in the apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) gene (termed G1 and G2) are strongly associated with increased risk of nondiabetic kidney disease in people of recent African ancestry. The mechanisms by which the risk variants cause kidney damage, although not well-understood, are believed to involve injury to glomerular podocytes. The intracellular localization and function of APOL1 in podocytes remain unclear, with recent studies suggesting possible roles in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), mitochondria, endosomes, lysosomes, and autophagosomes...
February 7, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Tomasz Olszowski, Izabela Gutowska, Jan Korbecki, Ewa Rębacz-Maron, Katarzyna Barczak, Anna Lubkowska, Dariusz Chlubek
OBJECTIVE: As cardiovascular events are one of the main causes of death in developed countries, each factor potentially increasing the risk of cardiovascular disease deserves special attention. One such factor is the potentially atherogenic effect of lead (Pb) on lipid metabolism, and is significant in view of the still considerable Pb environmental pollution and the non-degradability of Pb compounds. METHODS: Analysis of saturated fatty acids (SFA) (caprylic acid (C8:0), decanoic acid (C10:0), lauric acid (C12:0), tridecanoic acid (C13:0), myristic acid (C14:0), pentadecanoic acid (C15:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), heptadecanoic acid (C17:0), stearic acid (C18:0), and behenic acid (C22:0)), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (palmitoleic acid (C16:1), oleic acid (18:1w9), trans-vaccenic acid (C18:1 trans11)), and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (linoleic acid (C18:2n6), gamma-linolenic acid (C18:3n6), arachidonic acid (C20:4n6)), was conducted by gas chromatography...
March 2019: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jung-Ah Shin, Yoon-Ji Heo, Ki-Teak Lee
Palm mid-fraction (PMF), which has a high content of symmetric POP, was converted to asymmetric PPO (APMF) via acyl migration. After solvent fractionation, the liquid phase of acyl migrated PMF (APMF-L) was obtained and blended with hydrogenated coconut oil (HCO, 50:50, w/w) to produce a fat blend (namely, an alternative fat blend) which had reduced saturated fatty acid content while having similar melting behavior to HCO. In an alternative fat blend, the major fatty acids were lauric (27.94), palmitic (26...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Hoang Thanh Nguyen, Mélanie Marquis, Marc Anton, Sébastien Marze
The kinetics of micellar solubilization of lipophilic micronutrients (bioaccessibility) in relation with triglyceride digestion remains poorly known. To study this interplay in real-time, a droplet microfluidic method was designed and used as reported in the first part of this article series. In this second part, the interplay between the micellar solubilization of (pro)vitamins (beta-carotene or retinyl palmitate) and the digestion of triglyceride oils (tricaprylin TC, or high-oleic sunflower seed oil HOSO, or fish oil FO) during simulated gastrointestinal digestion was investigated...
March 1, 2019: Food Chemistry
Wei Li, Ya-Qi Tang, Shi-Xin Chen, Gui-Hua Tang, Li-She Gan, Chan Li, Yong Rao, Zhi-Shu Huang, Sheng Yin
Euphorhelipanes A (1) and B (2), two Euphorbia diterpenoids with a new 4-(5,5-dimethylheptan-2-yl)-2,7-dimethylbicyclo[4.3.0]nonane skeleton, were isolated from a 95% ethanol extract of the whole plants of Euphorbia helioscopia. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis, quantum chemical calculations, and single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. Compounds 1 and 2 represent the first examples of Euphorbia diterpenoids with a 5/6 fused carbon ring system, and their plausible biosynthetic pathways originating from jatrophanes are proposed...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Natural Products
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