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Hongliang Ying, Yongkun Wang, Zhongwen Gao, Qiao Zhang
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a conversant joint disease, which seriously threatens the health of the elderly, and even leads to disability. Long non-coding RNA-activated by transforming growth factor beta (lncRNA-ATB) has been reported in diverse cancers. However, the functions of lncRNA-ATB in OA remain uninvestigated. The current study aimed to explore the impacts of lncRNA-ATB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory injury in ATDC5 cells and to uncover the underlying mechanism. LPS-induced ATDC5 cell injury model was constructed, and the effects of lncRNA-ATB on LPS-injured cells were explored via analyzing cell viability, apoptosis, iNOS, COX-2, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α)...
February 13, 2019: International Immunopharmacology
Julius Huebl, Anahita Poshtiban, Christof Brücke, Sandy Siegert, Antje Bock, Henryk Koziara, Tomasz Kmiec, Rafał Rola, Tomasz Mandat, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVES: Neurodegeneration with Brain Iron Accumulation type I (NBIA-I) is a rare hereditary neurodegenerative disorder with pallidal degeneration leading to disabling generalized dystonia and parkinsonism. Pallidal or subthalamic deep brain stimulation can partially alleviate motor symptoms. Disease-specific patterns of abnormally enhanced oscillatory neuronal activity recorded from the basal ganglia have been described in patients with movement disorders undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
January 25, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Pieczykolan Ewelina, Kurek Marcin Andrzej
The aim of this study was to use micro-encapsulation technology to create microcapsules containing anthocyanins from chokeberry with guar gum, gum arabic, pectin, β-glucan and inulin as wall material. Aqueous extracts from chokeberry fruit were enclosed and spray dried using maltodextrin as a coating material with the addition of guar gum, gum arabic, pectin, beta-glucan, and inulin respectively. Physical properties of microcapsules were tested. The preparations also determined the total content of anthocyanins and vitamin C on the day of preparation and after 7 days of storage...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Abbas Salimi, Hao Li, Hu Shi, Jin Yong Lee
Amyloid-beta protein (Aβ) accumulation in the brain, which is influenced by several factors, is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite the important role of histidine in stabilizing the fibrillar structure of the Aβ peptide at neutral pH, the effect of histidine tautomerism on Aβ peptide aggregation is still largely unknown. Histidine is in equilibrium between δ and ε tautomers and there are three histidine residues (H6, H13, and H14) in the Aβ(1-40) peptide. We performed molecular dynamics simulation on (δδδ) and (εεε) histidine tautomers with different initial homodimeric configurations to elucidate structural and aggregation features...
February 13, 2019: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Shanna Hamilton, Iuliia Polina, Radmila Terentyeva, Peter Bronk, Tae Yun Kim, Karim Roder, Richard T Clements, Gideon Koren, Bum-Rak Choi, Dmitry Terentyev
KEY POINTS SUMMARY: Small-conductance Ca2+ -activated K+ (SK) channels expressed in ventricular myocytes are dormant in health yet become functional in cardiac disease. SK channels are voltage independent and their gating is controlled by intracellular [Ca2+ ] in a biphasic manner. Submicromolar [Ca2+ ] activates the channel via constitutively-bound calmodulin, while higher [Ca2+ ] exerts inhibitory effect during depolarization. Using a rat model of cardiac hypertrophy induced by thoracic aortic banding, we found that functional upregulation of SK2 channels in hypertrophic rat ventricular cardiomyocytes is driven by PKA phosphorylation...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Rodolfo G Gatto, Allen Q Ye, Luis Colon-Perez, Thomas H Mareci, Anna Lysakowski, Steven D Price, Scott T Brady, Muge Karaman, Gerardo Morfini, Richard L Magin
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this work is to study the changes in white matter integrity in R6/2, a well-established animal model of Huntington's disease (HD) that are captured by ex vivo diffusion imaging (DTI) using a high field MRI (17.6 T). MATERIALS AND METHODS: DTI and continuous time random walk (CTRW) models were used to fit changes in the diffusion-weighted signal intensity in the corpus callosum of controls and in R6/2 mice. RESULTS: A significant 13% decrease in fractional anisotropy, a 7% increase in axial diffusion, and a 33% increase in radial diffusion were observed between R6/2 and control mice...
February 15, 2019: Magma
Johanna Estelius, Johan Lengqvist, Elena Ossipova, Helena Idborg, Erwan Le Maître, Magnus L A Andersson, Lou Brundin, Mohsen Khademi, Elisabet Svenungsson, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Jon Lampa
BACKGROUND: Signs of inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of rheumatoid arthritis patients correlate positively with fatigue, a central nervous system (CNS)-related symptom that can be partially suppressed by TNF blockade. This suggests a possible role for CNS inflammation in arthritis that may be affected by TNF blockade. We therefore investigated the effects of TNF blockade on the arthritis CSF proteome and how candidate proteins related to clinical measures of disease activity and inflammation...
February 15, 2019: Arthritis Research & Therapy
D García-Azorin, S Santos-Lasaosa, A B Gago-Veiga, J Viguera Romero, A L Guerrero-Peral
BACKGROUND: Many different preventatives have showed efficacy in the treatment of migraine. National guidelines differ in their recommendations and patients' characteristics are usually taken into account in their selection. In Spain, real life use of preventive therapies seems to be heterogeneous. We aimed to evaluate differences in clinical practice and adherence to national guidelines among Spanish neurologists. METHODS: Observational descriptive study. A survey was conducted among neurologists ascribed to the Spanish Society of Neurology...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Headache and Pain
Edwin D Lephart
Several journal reports, reviews, and commentaries over the last 20-25 years have pointed out the controversy attached to 17β-estradiol's inhibitory or stimulatory influence on hair follicle growth/cycling citing rodent (murine) and human results. While 17β-estradiol is the most potent sex steroid hormone in the body and has almost equal affinity for estrogen receptor (ER) alpha (α) and beta (β), there appears to be specific ER-mediated effects on scalp hair follicles/growth, etc. Additionally, the newly discovered G protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPR30 or GPER) and the orphan receptor, estrogen-related receptor (ERR) gamma (γ), in skin and other tissue sites have potential impacts of how estrogens via these receptors may alter scalp hair characteristics, but this remains to be elucidated...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Hongjuan He, Xiaojuan Zhao, Ziqing Zhu, Le Du, Erfei Chen, Shuzhen Liu, Qiqi Li, Jing Dong, Jin Yang, Lei Lei
Mutations in transforming growth factor beta receptor II (TGFBR2) are detected in up to 30% of overall colorectal cancer (CRC). Dysregulation of some microRNAs participated in the CRC pathogenesis. In this study, we used the gene ontology analyses, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analyses and gene set enrichment analysis to indicate that miR-3191 was involved in the regulation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-BETA) signal pathway in CRC. These bioinformatics results were supported by data obtained from CRC samples and experiments in vitro...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
N N Chattergoon, S Louey, T Scanlan, I Lindgren, G D Giraud, K L Thornburg
KEY POINTS: Plasma thyroid hormone (T3 ) concentrations rise near the end of gestation and are known to inhibit proliferation and stimulate maturation of cardiomyocytes before birth. Thyroid hormone receptors are required for thyroid hormone action in fetal cardiomyocytes. Loss of TRα1 abolishes T3 signalling through ERK and AKT in fetal cardiomyocytes. The expression of thyroid receptors alpha 1 (TRα1) and beta 1 (TRβ1) in ovine fetal myocardium increases with age, though TRα1 levels always remain higher than those of TRβ1...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Carlos M Minutti, Rucha V Modak, Felicity Macdonald, Fengqi Li, Danielle J Smyth, David A Dorward, Natalie Blair, Connor Husovsky, Andrew Muir, Evangelos Giampazolias, Ross Dobie, Rick M Maizels, Timothy J Kendall, David W Griggs, Manfred Kopf, Neil C Henderson, Dietmar M Zaiss
The epidermal growth factor receptor ligand Amphiregulin has a well-documented role in the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury; however, the mechanism by which Amphiregulin contributes to wound repair remains unknown. Here we show that Amphiregulin functioned by releasing bioactive transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) from latent complexes via integrin-αV activation. Using acute injury models in two different tissues, we found that by inducing TGF-β activation on mesenchymal stromal cells (pericytes), Amphiregulin induced their differentiation into myofibroblasts, thereby selectively contributing to the restoration of vascular barrier function within injured tissue...
February 6, 2019: Immunity
Qi Gao, Yuqiang Fang, Shiqing Zhang, Ho Sze Hersey Wong, Yee Edward Chan, Samantha Sze Man Wong, Ken K L Yung, King W C Lai
Aβ1-42 , which is highly toxic to neural cells, is commonly present in the brains of people with Alzheimer's disease. In this study, dynamic changes in cell mechanics were monitored under Aβ-induced toxicity. To investigate the changes in cellular mechanical properties, we used Aβ1-42 oligomer at different concentrations to treat human neuroblastoma SH-SY5H cells. Results demonstrated a two-stage dynamic change in cell mechanics during neurodegeneration. Additionally, Young's modulus (YM) of the treated cells increased in a short period...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Chien-Liang Chao, Hsin-Wen Huang, Hui-Chi Huang, Hsin-Fan Chao, Shuen-Wen Yu, Muh-Hwan Su, Chao-Jih Wang, Hang-Ching Lin
Cistanche tubulosa aqueous extract (CTE) is already used as a botanical prescription drug for treating dementia in China. Our previous studies reported that phenylethanoid glycosides of CTE have anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activity by inhibiting amyloid β peptide (Aβ) aggregation and deposition. However, recent studies considered that the phenylethanoid glycosides may be metabolized by intestinal bacteria, because all analysis results showed that the bioavailability of phenylethanoid glycosides is extremely low...
February 14, 2019: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Arthelma C Tyson, Shailraj Parikh, Kuldeep Singh, Saqib Zia, Jonathan S Deitch, Jonathan A Schor
BACKGROUND: Routine laboratory testing to rule out myocardial infarction (MI) after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is common in many centers. Its utility in this patient population has not been thoroughly investigated. We hypothesize that routine testing for MI in post-CEA patients is of low-yield and not cost-effective. METHODS: A retrospective review of 291 consecutive CEAs from February, 2011 to July, 2015 was performed. Two patients were excluded: one for postoperative non-cardiac death and one for preoperative MI...
February 12, 2019: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Andrew E Blum, Srividya Venkitachalam, Durgadevi Ravillah, Aruna K Chelluboyina, Ann Marie Kieber-Emmons, Lakshmeswari Ravi, Adam Kresak, Apoorva K Chandar, Sanford D Markowitz, Marcia I Canto, Jean S Wang, Nicholas J Shaheen, Yan Guo, Yu Shyr, Joseph E Willis, Amitabh Chak, Vinay Varadan, Kishore Guda
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) is resistant to standard chemoradiation treatments and few targeted therapies are available. We used large-scale tissue profiling and pharmacogenetic analyses to identify deregulated signaling pathways in EAC tissues that might be targeted to slow tumor growth or progression. METHODS: We collected 397 biopsy specimens from patients with EAC and non-malignant Barrett's esophagus (BE), with or without dysplasia...
February 12, 2019: Gastroenterology
S M Naqvi, J Gansau, D Gibbons, C T Buckley
Priming towards a discogenic phenotype and subsequent cryopreservation of microencapsulated bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) may offer an attractive therapeutic approach for disc repair. It potentially obviates the need for in vivo administration of exogenous growth factors, otherwise required to promote matrix synthesis, in addition to providing 'off-the-shelf' availability. Cryopreserved and primed BMSC microcapsules were evaluated in an in vitro surrogate co-culture model system with nucleus pulposus (NP) cells under intervertebral disc (IVD)-like culture conditions and in an ex vivo bovine organ culture disc model...
February 15, 2019: European Cells & Materials
Nimesh A Jayasuriya, Alice E Hughes, Ulla Sovio, Emma Cook, D Stephen Charnock-Jones, Gordon C S Smith
CONTEXT: Previous studies have shown reduced placental levels of 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-type 2 (11βHSD2) in preeclampsia. However, it is not known if the maternal cortisol to cortisone ratio is predictive of placental complications of pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between the maternal serum cortisol to cortisone ratio at different stages of pregnancy and the risk of preeclampsia or fetal growth restriction (FGR). DESIGN: Women from the Pregnancy Outcome Prediction (POP) study experiencing preeclampsia (n=194) or FGR (n=185) plus a random sample of healthy controls (n=279) were studied...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
N Rafiee Tari, E Arranz, M Corredig
An increasing body of evidence demonstrates that differences in protein composition in the food matrix can significantly affect its biological functionality. The present research hypothesized that a matrix containing the same level of dairy protein, but with different composition, even when showing similar properties during digestion, may have a different biological functionality. To test this hypothesis, three matrices, containing 2.8% protein and similar amounts of fat and solid were prepared, either with 100% whey proteins, or with a ratio of caseins to whey protein of 40 : 60, but differing in β-casein ratio...
February 15, 2019: Food & Function
Erick Sierra-Díaz, Cesar J Hernández-Ríos, Alejandro Bravo-Cuellar
Objective: The objective of this study was to describe the prevalence, microbiological profile, bacterial resistance, and the sensitivity to antibiotics of microorganisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI) at a single-site tertiary referral hospital in the western region of Mexico. Methods: A total of 5895 culture samples processed at the microbiology laboratory from August 1, 2014, to July 31, 2015, were analyzed. Results: A total of 5895 samples for urine cultures (UC) were collected, of which 3363 were taken in women (57...
2019: Cirugia y Cirujanos
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