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Chenlu Li, Simon C Moore, Jesse Smith, Sarah Bauermeister, John Gallacher
AIMS: Research demonstrates a negative relationship between alcohol use and affect, but the value of deprecation is unknown and thus cannot be included in estimates of the cost of alcohol to society. This paper aims to examine this relationship and develop econometric techniques to value the loss in affect attributable to alcohol consumption. METHODS: Cross-sectional (n = 129,437) and longitudinal (n = 11,352) analyses of alcohol consumers in UK Biobank data were undertaken, with depression and neuroticism as proxies of negative affect...
2019: PloS One
David C Cicero, Katherine G Jonas, Kaiqiao Li, Greg Perlman, Roman Kotov
The associations among normal personality and many mental disorders are well established, but it remains unclear whether and how symptoms of schizophrenia and schizotypal traits align with the personality taxonomy. This study examined the joint factor structure of normal personality, schizotypy, and schizophrenia symptoms in people with psychotic disorders (n = 288) and never-psychotic adults (n = 257) in the Suffolk County Mental Health Project. First, we evaluated the structure of schizotypal (positive schizotypy, negative schizotypy, and mistrust) and normal traits...
February 9, 2019: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Maxim B Freidin, Yakov A Tsepilov, Melody Palmer, Lennart C Karssen, Pradeep Suri, Yurii S Aulchenko, Frances Mk Williams
Back pain (BP) is a common condition of major social importance and poorly understood pathogenesis. Combining data from the UK Biobank and CHARGE consortium cohorts allowed us to perform a very large GWAS (total N = 509,070) and examine the genetic correlation and pleiotropy between BP and its clinical and psychosocial risk factors. We identified and replicated three BP associated loci, including one novel region implicating SPOCK2/CHST3 genes. We provide evidence for pleiotropic effects of genetic factors underlying BP, height, and intervertebral disc problems...
February 6, 2019: Pain
Hui-Ling Lai, Chun-I Chen, Chu-Yun Lu, Yu-Chun Yao, Chiung-Yu Huang
BACKGROUND: Theory has suggested that personality plays an important role related to health behavior and results in health outcomes, but inconsistent with the findings exist. Moreover, limited research has focused on style of coping with personality traits and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) for patients with breast cancer. We tested how ways of coping and personality traits are associated with HRQOL in patients with breast cancer, after controlling for age, education, disease severity, and sleep disorders...
February 12, 2019: Breast Cancer: the Journal of the Japanese Breast Cancer Society
Michael L Crowe, Donald R Lynam, W Keith Campbell, Joshua D Miller
OBJECTIVE: Despite decades of work on narcissism there remain many active areas of exploration and debate including a clear and consensual description of its underlying components. Understanding narcissism's factor structure is necessary for precise measurement and investigation of specific psychological and behavioral processes. The aim of the current study was to explore the structure of narcissism by examining it at varying hierarchical levels. METHOD: Participants recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk (N = 591) completed 303 narcissism items encompassing 46 narcissism scales and subscales...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Personality
Sanish Sathyan, Tao Wang, Emmeline Ayers, Joe Verghese
OBJECTIVE: To examine polygenic inheritance of motoric cognitive risk syndrome (MCR), a predementia syndrome characterized by the presence of subjective cognitive complaints and slow gait. METHODS: We analyzed 4,915 individuals, age 65 years and above, with European ancestry (mean age 75.0 ± 6.8 years, 56.6% women) in the Health and Retirement Study. Polygenic scores (PGS) were calculated as weighted sums of the effect of single nucleotide polymorphisms, with effect sizes derived from genome-wide association studies...
February 8, 2019: Neurology
Daniel Zaborski, Teresa Rzepa, Maciej Pastucha, Andrzej Modrzejewski, Wilhelm Grzesiak
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to verify the relationship between the level of neuroticism and selected aspects of life satisfaction in women undergoing breast augmentation surgery. METHODS: The study group included 109 women, aged 18-46 years, who completed the self-developed survey measuring selected psychological traits before and after (1 year) surgery. Four questions in this survey were related to the level of neuroticism and two pertained to the self-assessment of leading character traits and the level of life satisfaction...
February 6, 2019: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
Kenneth S Kendler, Steven H Aggen, Nathan Gillespie, Robert F Krueger, Nikolai Czajkowski, Eivind Ystrom, T Reichborn-Kjennerud
BACKGROUND: Can the structure of genetic and environmental influences on normative personality traits (NPTs), abnormal personality traits (APTs), and DSM-IV criteria for personality disorders (PD) fit a high or low congruence model positing, respectively, close or more limited etiologic continuity? METHOD: Exploratory factor analysis was applied to transformed correlation matrices from Cholesky twin decompositions obtained in OpenMx. In 2801 adult twins from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Twin Panel, NPTs and APTs were assessed by self-report using the Big Five Inventory (BFI) and PID-5-Norwegian Brief Form (PID-5-NBF), respectively...
February 6, 2019: Psychological Medicine
Lauren R Finka, Joanna Ward, Mark J Farnworth, Daniel S Mills
Human personality may substantially affect the nature of care provided to dependants. This link has been well researched in parents and children, however, relatively little is known about this dynamic with regards to humans' relationships with non-human animals. Owner interactions with companion animals may provide valuable insight into the wider phenomenon of familial interactions, as owners usually adopt the role of primary caregiver and potentially surrogate parent. This study, using cats as an exemplar, explored the relationship between owner personality and the lifestyles to which cats are exposed...
2019: PloS One
Chiara Concetta Incerti, Ornella Argento, Giuseppe Magistrale, Giancarlo Di Battista, Elisabetta Ferraro, Carlo Caltagirone, Valerio Pisani, Ugo Nocentini
Recent studies suggest that patients with Multiple Sclerosis (MS) might be at risk of unemployment due to physical and psychological symptoms. Furthermore, MS patients appear to be more exposed to a higher level of occupational stress, which might be linked to some personality characteristics. Our aim was to ascertain, by means of a longitudinal study, whether changes in occupational stress can be predicted by some personality traits, which could thereby become potential targets of therapeutic interventions...
February 5, 2019: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Juan Carlos Meléndez, Encarna Satorres, Maria-Angelica Cujiño, Maria-Fernanda Reyes
The goal of the current study was to investigate the relationships between the Five Factor Model of personality and the dimensions of subjective well-being (positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction), and psychological well-being (self-acceptance, personal growth, environmental mastery, autonomy, positive relations with others, and purpose in life). Participants included 618 Colombian adults aged 60-92 years. Multiple linear regression analyses were conducted. Regarding the subjective well-being, neuroticism was associated with lower scores on life satisfaction, and positively associated with negative affect, whereas extroversion and conscientiousness were associated with higher scores on life satisfaction and positive affect...
January 29, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Feng Kong, Kairong Yang, Sonia Sajjad, Wenjing Yan, Xuewen Li, Jingjing Zhao
Social well-being reflects the perception of one's social functioning, which plays an important role in physical and psychological health. However, the exact neuroanatomical substrate for social well-being remains unclear. To address the issue, we employed the voxel-based morphometry (VBM) method to probe the neuroanatomical basis of individual variation in social well-being in young healthy adults (n =136). The results revealed a significant negative association between social well-being and regional gray matter density (rGMD) in an anatomical cluster that mainly includes the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that has been involved in emotion regulation and social cognition...
February 1, 2019: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
Joan Emien Enabulele, Ehigiator Okokhue Adayonfo
OBJECTIVE: Facial appearance has been found to have an important social and psychological effect on the human personality. Hence, this cross-sectional analytic questionnaire-based study of dental patients assessed the satisfaction with dental appearance and personality traits among a group of dental patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire sought information on the sociodemographic characteristics of the participants; satisfaction with teeth in general and with tooth color in particular; the presence of caries, tooth-colored fillings, and tooth fractures; and desired treatment to improve appearance...
2019: International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2019: Psychological Science
Yasmin B Kofman, Zoe E Eng, David Busse, Sophia Godkin, Belinda Campos, Curt A Sandman, Deborah Wing, Ilona S Yim
Perinatal depression negatively impacts mother-infant health and well-being. Previous work has linked cortisol reactivity to perinatal depressive symptoms, but moderating effects including social support and neuroticism, have not been studied. Forty-nine pregnant women (9 - 30 weeks' gestational age; GA) provided saliva samples in response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and to awakening (cortisol awakening response, CAR), and completed questionnaires on perceived social support, personality, and depressive symptoms...
January 28, 2019: Biological Psychology
Eleanor M Wigmore, Jonathan D Hafferty, Lynsey S Hall, David M Howard, Toni-Kim Clarke, Chiara Fabbri, Cathryn M Lewis, Rudolf Uher, Lauren B Navrady, Mark J Adams, Yanni Zeng, Archie Campbell, Jude Gibson, Pippa A Thomson, Caroline Hayward, Blair H Smith, Lynne J Hocking, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Ian J Deary, David J Porteous, Ole Mors, Manuel Mattheisen, Kristin K Nicodemus, Andrew M McIntosh
Antidepressants demonstrate modest response rates in the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD). Despite previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of antidepressant treatment response, the underlying genetic factors are unknown. Using prescription data in a population and family-based cohort (Generation Scotland: Scottish Family Health Study; GS:SFHS), we sought to define a measure of (a) antidepressant treatment resistance and (b) stages of antidepressant resistance by inferring antidepressant switching as non-response to treatment...
January 31, 2019: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Jennifer Ritonja, Kristan J Aronson, Raymond W Matthews, Diane B Boivin, Thomas Kantermann
There is no standard definition of shift work universally, and no validated reports of complete biological adjustment to shift work in workers. Similarly, the evidence for shift work tolerance is limited due to a small number of studies and a narrow range of outcome measures This paper discusses evidence to date regarding individual differences in shift work tolerance and highlights areas for future research and recommendations for workplace practice. The few factors that are consistently associated with perceived or actual tolerance of shift work tolerance are young age, low scores of morningness or being a late chronotype, low scores of languidity and neuroticism, high scores on extraversion, internal locus of control and flexibility and male sex...
January 31, 2019: Industrial Health
Allen Liao, Robrina Walker, Thomas J Carmody, Crystal Cooper, Meredith A Shaw, Bruce D Grannemann, Phil Adams, Gerard E Bruder, Melvin G McInnis, Christian A Webb, Daniel G Dillon, Diego A Pizzagalli, Mary L Phillips, Benji T Kurian, Maurizio Fava, Ramin V Parsey, Patrick J McGrath, Myrna M Weissman, Madhukar H Trivedi
BACKGROUND: Despite the fact that higher levels of anxiety and anhedonia in Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) are linked to poorer treatment outcomes, mechanisms contributing to these clinical presentations remain unclear. Neuroticism, impaired cognitive control, and blunted reward learning may be critical processes involved in MDD and may help to explain symptoms of anxiety and anhedonia. METHODS: Using baseline data from patients with early-onset MDD (N = 296) in the Establishing Moderators and Biosignatures of Antidepressant Response in Clinical Care (EMBARC) trial, we conducted a path analysis to model relationships between neuroticism, cognitive control, and reward learning to levels of anxiety and anhedonia...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Xinran Wu, Hong He, Liang Shi, Yunman Xia, Kaixiang Zuang, Qiuyang Feng, Yao Zhang, Zhiting Ren, Dongtao Wei, Jiang Qiu
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most well-known psychiatric disorders, which can be destructive for its damage to people's normal cognitive, emotional and social functions. Personality refers to the unique and stable character of thinking and behavior style of an individual, which has long been thought as a key influence factor for MDD. Although some knowledge about the common neural basic between MDD and personality traits has been acquired, there are few studies exploring dynamic neural mechanism behind them, which changes brain connectivity pattern rapidly to adapt to the environment over time...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Affective Disorders
Ying Tang, Yun Huang
An emerging focus in the emotion regulation (ER) literature is to consider the importance of context for people's ER strategy choice, given that ER responses that adapt to situational demands have been found to be highly beneficial. However, it remains unclear what (and in what way) contextual factors impact people's ER strategy selections. Also, only a limited number of ER strategies have been extensively studied and little is known about people's selection of broad ER strategy categories (we focus on covert vs...
January 30, 2019: British Journal of Social Psychology
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