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Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation and TMS

Leon O H Kroczek, Thomas C Gunter, Anna U Rysop, Angela D Friederici, Gesa Hartwigsen
Sentence comprehension requires the rapid analysis of semantic and syntactic information. These processes are supported by a left hemispheric dominant fronto-temporal network, including left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG) and posterior superior temporal gyrus/sulcus (pSTG/STS). Previous electroencephalography (EEG) studies have associated semantic expectancy within a sentence with a modulation of the N400 and syntactic gender violations with increases in the LAN and P600. Here, we combined focal perturbations of neural activity by means of short bursts of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) with simultaneous EEG recordings to probe the functional relevance of pIFG and pSTG/STS for sentence comprehension...
January 28, 2019: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Tamara May, Saxby Pridmore
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of a four-week course of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on the following symptoms of major depressive episode (MDE): mood, work activities, health concerns, guilt, anxiety and retardation. METHOD: Patients underwent 20 daily sessions of 10 Hz TMS (two sets of 10 daily treatments separated by two days of rest). The six-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD-6) was administered before and after treatment...
February 18, 2019: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Federico Ranieri, Gianluca Coppola, Gabriella Musumeci, Fioravante Capone, Giovanni Di Pino, Vincenzo Parisi, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro
BACKGROUND: Repetitive convergent inputs to a single post-synaptic neuron can induce long-term potentiation (LTP) or depression (LTD) of synaptic activity in a spike timing-dependent manner. OBJECTIVE: Here we set a protocol of visual paired associative stimulation (vPAS) of the primary visual cortex (V1) in humans to induce persistent changes in the excitatory properties of V1 with a spike timing rule. METHODS: We provided convergent inputs to V1 by coupling transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses of the occipital cortex with peripheral visual inputs, at four interstimulus intervals of -50/-25/+25/+50 ms relative to the visual evoked potential (VEP) P1 latency...
February 1, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Sara Tremblay, Nigel C Rogasch, Isabella Premoli, Daniel M Blumberger, Silvia Casarotto, Robert Chen, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Faranak Farzan, Fabio Ferrarelli, Paul B Fitzgerald, Jeanette Hui, Risto J Ilmoniemi, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Pantelis Lioumis, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Maria Concetta Pellicciari, Tarek Rajji, Gregor Thut, Reza Zomorrodi, Ulf Ziemann, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography (TMS-EEG) has emerged as a powerful tool to non-invasively probe brain circuits in humans, allowing for the assessment of several cortical properties such as excitability and connectivity. Over the past decade, this technique has been applied to various clinical populations, enabling the characterization and development of potential TMS-EEG predictors and markers of treatments and of the pathophysiology of brain disorders. The objective of this article is to present a comprehensive review of studies that have used TMS-EEG in clinical populations and to discuss potential clinical applications...
January 19, 2019: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Evan J Lockyer, Anna P Nippard, Kaitlyn Kean, Nicole Hollohan, Duane C Button, Kevin E Power
BACKGROUND: The present study compared corticospinal excitability to the biceps brachii muscle during arm cycling at a self-selected and a fixed cadence (SSC and FC, respectively). We hypothesized that corticospinal excitability would not be different between the two conditions. METHODS: The SSC was initially performed and the cycling cadence was recorded every 5 s for one minute. The average cadence of the SSC cycling trial was then used as a target for the FC of cycling that the participants were instructed to maintain...
February 14, 2019: Brain Sciences
Sung Ho Jang, Chul Hoon Chang, Young Jin Jung, You Sung Seo
RATIONALE: A few mechanisms of recovery from an injured corticospinal tract (CST) in stroke patients have been reported: recovery of an injured CST through (1) normal CST pathway, (2) peri-lesional reorganization, and (3) shifting of the cortical origin area of an injured CST from the other areas to the primary motor cortex. However, it has not been clearly elucidated so far. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 57-year-old male patient presented with complete weakness of the right extremities due to an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) in the left basal ganglia...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jacqueline A Palmer, Alice Halter, Whitney Gray, Steven L Wolf, Michael R Borich
Repeated pairing of electrical stimulation of a peripheral nerve with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over the primary motor cortex (M1) representation for a target muscle can induce neuroplastic adaptations in the human brain related to motor learning. The extent to which the motor state during this form of paired associative stimulation (PAS) influences the degree and mechanisms of neuroplasticity or motor learning is unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of volitional muscle contraction during PAS on: (1) measures of general corticomotor excitability and intracortical circuit excitability; and (2) motor performance and learning...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jee In Kang, Deog Young Kim, Chang-il Lee, Chan-Hyung Kim, Se Joo Kim
Background: Deficits in cortical inhibitory processes have been suggested as underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We examined whether patients with OCD have altered cortical excitability using paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). We also tested associations between TMS indices and OCD-related characteristics, including age of onset and response inhibition in the go/no-go paradigm, to examine whether altered cortical excitability contributes to symptom formation and behavioural inhibition deficit in patients with OCD...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Venkataram Shivakumar, Damodharan Dinakaran, Janardhanan C Narayanaswamy, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder with a chronic course, contributing to significant socio-occupational dysfunction. Forty percent of patients remain treatment refractive despite mainstream treatment options such as serotonin-reuptake inhibitors and cognitive behavior therapy. Noninvasive brain stimulation approaches such as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have piqued interest as add-on treatment options in OCD...
January 2019: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ricci Hannah, Anna Iacovou, John C Rothwell
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have shown that neurophysiological outcomes of transcranial direct current stimulation (TDCS) are influenced by current flow in brain regions between the electrodes, and in particular the orientation of current flow relative to the cortical surface. OBJECTIVE: We asked whether the directional effects of TDCS on physiological measures in the motor system would also be observed on motor behaviours. METHODS: We applied TDCS during the practice of a ballistic movement task to test whether it affected learning or the retention of learning 48 h later...
January 28, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Bernadette Hippmann, Ivo Kuhlemann, Tobias Bäumer, Jörg Bahlmann, Thomas F Münte, Sarah Jessen
Although an enhancing effect of reward on cognitive performance has been observed consistently, its neural underpinnings remain elusive. Recent evidence suggests that the inferior frontal junction (IFJ) may be a key player underlying such an enhancement by integrating motivational processes and cognitive control. However, its exact role and in particular a potential causality of IFJ activation is still unclear. In the present study, we therefore investigated the causal contributions of the left IFJ in motivated task switching by temporarily disrupting its activity using continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS, Exp...
February 2, 2019: Neuropsychologia
Stephanie S Buss, Peter J Fried, Alvaro Pascual-Leone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease without effective pharmacological treatment. Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial electrical stimulation (tES), are increasingly being investigated for their potential to ameliorate the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD). RECENT FINDINGS: A comprehensive literature review for primary research reports that investigated the ability of TMS/tES to improve cognition in ADRD patients yielded a total of 20 reports since 2016...
January 31, 2019: Current Opinion in Neurology
Kate E Hoy, Susan McQueen, David Elliot, Sally Herring, Jerome J Maller, Paul B Fitzgerald
Depression following a Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is common and difficult to treat using standard approaches. The current study investigated, for the first time, Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for the treatment of post TBI depression. We specifically assessed the safety, tolerability and efficacy of TMS in this patient population. We also explored cognitive outcomes. 21 patients with a current episode of major depression subsequent to a TBI participated in a randomized double blind placebo controlled trial of rTMS...
February 2, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
Thanuja Dharmadasa, José M Matamala, James Howells, Neil G Simon, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
PURPOSE: Clinical application of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has rapidly increased but the majority of studies have targeted upper limb muscles, with few exploring the lower-limb. Differences of coil choice have added to methodological difficulties of lower-limb studies and have challenged consistent interpretation of these parameters. The aims of this study were to determine the optimal coil choice for assessing lower-limb cortical excitability and assess laterality of normal cortical function...
January 30, 2019: Neuroscience Letters
Marko Mikkonen, Ilkka Laakso
The brain moves when the orientation of the head changes. This inter-postural motion has been shown to affect the distribution of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). As CSF layer thickness affects the distribution of electric fields (EF) in non-invasive brain stimulation methods such as transcranial direct current (TDCS) and magnetic (TMS) stimulation, possible differences in body position between sessions could affect the stimulation efficacy. Additionally, inter-postural differences might distort the modeling results of TDCS and TMS, as the models are usually built based on magnetic resonance images (MRI) obtained while the subject is in the supine position, whereas the actual stimulation is given while the subject is in an upright position...
February 1, 2019: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Tobias Schwippel, Philipp A Schroeder, Andreas J Fallgatter, Christian Plewnia
Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a neuromodulatory treatment intervention, which can be used to alleviate symptoms of mental disorders. Theta-burst stimulation (TBS), an advanced, patterned form of TMS, features several advantages regarding applicability, treatment duration and neuroplastic effects. This clinical review summarizes TBS studies in mental disorders and tinnitus and discusses effectivity and future directions of clinical TBS research. Following the PRISMA guidelines, the authors included 47 studies published until July 2018...
January 29, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Kimiya Fujio, Hiroki Obata, Noritaka Kawashima, Kimitaka Nakazawa
The prediction of upcoming perturbation modulates postural responses in the ankle muscles. The effects of this prediction on postural responses vary according to predictable factors. When the amplitude of perturbation can be predicted, the long-latency response is set at an appropriate size for the required response, whereas when the direction of perturbation can be predicted, there is no effect. The neural mechanisms underlying these phenomena are poorly understood. Here, we examined how the corticospinal excitability of the ankle muscles [i...
2019: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
D A E Bolton, S E Schwartz, M Mansour, G Rydalch, D W McDannald
Merely viewing objects within reachable space can activate motor cortical networks and potentiate movement. This holds potential value for smooth interaction with objects in our surroundings, and could offer an advantage for quickly generating targeted hand movements (e.g. grasping a support rail to maintain stability). The present study investigated if viewing a wall-mounted safety handle resulted in automatic activation of motor cortical networks, and if this effect changes with age. Twenty-five young adults (18-30 years) and seventeen older adults (65+ years) were included in this study...
March 2019: Maturitas
Dalia Khammash, Molly Simmonite, Thad A Polk, Stephan F Taylor, Sean K Meehan
BACKGROUND: Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive method to stimulate localized brain regions. Despite widespread use in motor cortex, TMS is seldom performed in sensory areas due to variable, qualitative metrics. OBJECTIVE: Assess the reliability and validity of tracing phosphenes, and to investigate the stimulation parameters necessary to elicit decreased visual cortex excitability with paired-pulse TMS at short inter-stimulus intervals. METHODS: Across two sessions, single and paired-pulse recruitment curves were derived by having participants outline elicited phosphenes and calculating resulting average phosphene sizes...
January 20, 2019: Brain Stimulation
Roscoe O Brady, Irene Gonsalvez, Ivy Lee, Dost Öngür, Larry J Seidman, Jeremy D Schmahmann, Shaun M Eack, Matcheri S Keshavan, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Mark A Halko
OBJECTIVE: The interpretability of results in psychiatric neuroimaging is significantly limited by an overreliance on correlational relationships. Purely correlational studies cannot alone determine whether behavior-imaging relationships are causal to illness, functionally compensatory processes, or purely epiphenomena. Negative symptoms (e.g., anhedonia, amotivation, and expressive deficits) are refractory to current medications and are among the foremost causes of disability in schizophrenia...
January 30, 2019: American Journal of Psychiatry
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