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Electromyogram and EMG

Linard Filli, Christian Meyer, Tim Killeen, Lilla Lörincz, Beat Göpfert, Michael Linnebank, Vinzenz von Tscharner, Armin Curt, Marc Bolliger, Björn Zörner
Locomotion relies on the fine-tuned coordination of different muscles which are controlled by particular neural circuits. Depending on the attendant conditions, walking patterns must be modified to optimally meet the demands of the task. Assessing neuromuscular control during dynamic conditions is methodologically highly challenging and prone to artifacts. Here we aim at assessing corticospinal involvement during different locomotor tasks using non-invasive surface electromyography. Activity in tibialis anterior (TA) and gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscles was monitored by electromyograms (EMGs) in 27 healthy volunteers (11 female) during regular walking, walking while engaged in simultaneous cognitive dual tasks, walking with partial visual restriction, and skilled, targeted locomotion...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Filipe O Barroso, Bryan Yoder, David Tentler, Josephine Wallner, Amina Kinkhabwala, Maria K Jantz, Robert D Flint, Pablo Tostado, Evonne Pei, Ambika Satish, Sarah Brodnick, Aaron Suminski, Justin C Williams, Lee E Miller, Matthew Tresch
OBJECTIVE: Recovery of voluntary gait after spinal cord injury (SCI) requires the restoration of effective motor cortical commands, either by means of a mechanical connection to the limbs, or by restored functional connections to muscles. The latter approach might use functional electrical stimulation (FES), driven by cortical activity, to restore voluntary movements. Moreover, there is evidence that this peripheral stimulation, synchronized with patients' voluntary effort, can strengthen descending projections and recovery...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neural Engineering
Lidiane L Florencio, Gabriela N Ferracni, Thais C Chaves, María Palacios-Ceña, Carlos Ordás-Bandera, José G Speciali, Debora Belilaqua Grossi, César Fernández-de-Las-Peñas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between head and neck posture and superficial neck flexor and extensor activity during performance of the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT) in women with migraine and healthy controls. METHODS: Fifty-two women with episodic migraine, 16 with chronic migraine, and 23 healthy controls participated. Head and neck posture were determined by assessing the craniovertebral (CV) angle and cervical lordosis angle...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics
Sun-Woo Yuk, In-Ho Hwang, Hyeon-Rae Cho, Sang-Geon Park
The form of the collection of bio-signals is becoming increasingly integrated and smart to meet the demands of the age of smart healthcare and the Fourth Industrial Revolution. In addition, the movement patterns of human muscles are also becoming more complex due to diversification of the human living environment. An analysis of the movement patterns of normal people's muscles contracting with age and that of patients who are being treated in a hospital, including the disabled, will help improve life patterns, medical treatment patterns, and quality of life...
October 29, 2018: Micromachines
Katia Monte-Silva, Daniele Piscitelli, Nahid Norouzi-Gheidari, Marc Aureli Pique Batalla, Philippe Archambault, Mindy F Levin
BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have demonstrated some benefits of electromyogram-triggered/controlled neuromuscular electrical stimulation (EMG-NMES) on motor recovery of upper limb (UL) function in patients with stroke. However, EMG-NMES use in clinical practice is limited due to a lack of evidence supporting its effectiveness. OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effects of EMG-NMES on stroke UL recovery based on each of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) domains...
February 1, 2019: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Akira Furui, Hideaki Hayashi, Toshio Tsuji
OBJECTIVE: Surface electromyogram (EMG) signals have typically been assumed to follow a Gaussian distribution. However, the presence of non-Gaussian signals associated with muscle activity has been reported in recent studies, and there is no general model of the distribution of EMG signals that can explain both non-Gaussian and Gaussian distributions within a unified scheme. METHODS: In this paper, we describe the formulation of a non-Gaussian EMG model based on a scale mixture distribution...
January 28, 2019: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Kengo Maeda, Yoshiki Shimizu, Yoshiko Sugihara, Naomi Kanazawa, Takahiro Iizuka
A 48-year-old woman with a 3-month history of spontaneously resolving stiff leg symptom at the age of 43 years presented with progressive onset of leg rigidity, walking difficulty, and myoclonic jerks. On admission she had marked stiffness in her foot joints with symmetric sustained dorsiflexion of the ankles and toes, with spontaneous and reflex myoclonic jerks easily provoked by knee tendon tap. She appeared to have a spastic gait due to stiffness in her legs. Needle electromyogram (EMG) examination revealed continuous motor unit activity in the tibialis anterior muscle at rest even when voluntary contraction of the gastrocnemius muscle was instructed, but no myokimic discharge or acute denervation sign was seen...
January 31, 2019: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Danqian Liu, Yang Dan
Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep are characterized by distinct electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and autonomic profiles. The circuit mechanism coordinating these changes during sleep-wake transitions remains poorly understood. The past few years have witnessed rapid progress in the identification of REM and NREM sleep neurons, which constitute highly distributed networks spanning the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Here we propose an arousal-action circuit for sleep-wake control in which wakefulness is supported by separate arousal and action neurons, while REM and NREM sleep neurons are part of the central somatic and autonomic motor circuits...
January 30, 2019: Annual Review of Neuroscience
Gao Huang, Marco Ceccarelli, Qiang Huang, Weimin Zhang, Zhangguo Yu, Xuechao Chen, Jingeng Mai
The muscles of the lower limbs directly influence leg motion, therefore, lower limb muscle exercise is important for persons living with lower limb disabilities. This paper presents a medical assistive robot with leg exoskeletons for locomotion and leg muscle exercises. It also presents a novel pedal-cycling actuation method with a crank-rocker mechanism. The mechanism is driven by a single motor with a mechanical structure that ensures user safety. A control system is designed based on a master-slave control with sensor fusion method...
January 28, 2019: Sensors
Jie Liu, Sheng Li, Faezeh Jahanmiri-Nezhad, William Zev Rymer, Ping Zhou
With the aim of developing a flexible and reliable procedure for superficial muscle innervation zone (IZ) localization, we proposed a method to estimate IZ location using surface electromyogram (EMG) based on robust linear regression. Regression lines were used to model the bidirectional propagation pattern of a single motor unit action potential (MUAP) and visualize the trajectory of the MUAP propagation. IZ localization was performed by identifying the origin of the bidirectional MUAP propagation. Robust linear regression and MUAP peak detection, combined with propagation phase reversal identification, may provide an efficient way to estimate IZ location...
January 14, 2019: Computers in Biology and Medicine
David González-Ortega, Francisco Javier Díaz-Pernas, Mario Martínez-Zarzuela, Míriam Antón-Rodríguez
In this paper, we present an Android application to control and monitor the physiological sensors from the Shimmer platform and its synchronized working with a driving simulator. The Android app can monitor drivers and their parameters can be used to analyze the relation between their physiological states and driving performance. The app can configure, select, receive, process, represent graphically, and store the signals from electrocardiogram (ECG), electromyogram (EMG) and galvanic skin response (GSR) modules and accelerometers, a magnetometer and a gyroscope...
January 19, 2019: Sensors
Alex Gabrielli, Albert B Poje, Ann Manzardo, Merlin G Butler
Background: Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a complex genetic neurodevelopmental disorder with endocrine disturbances, hyperphagia and often life-threatening obesity as key features. We investigated emotional-processing of food and eating behavior in PWS using startle response-modulation. Startle eyeblink response is an involuntary reflex activated by the autonomic nervous system in response to sudden or disturbing auditory/visual stimuli which may be modulated by the emotional valence of concurrently viewed visual stimuli...
October 2018: Journal of Rare Disorders
Pierluigi Carbonara, Maria Dioguardi, Matteo Cammarata, Walter Zupa, Mirella Vazzana, Maria Teresa Spedicato, Giuseppe Lembo
The effects of social hierarchies (dominant/subordinate individuals), such as aggressiveness, feeding order, and territoriality, are some of the characteristics used for describing fish behaviour. Social hierarchy patterns are still poorly understood in European-reared sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). In this work, we examine the social interactions among captive fish integrating behavioural and physiological profiles. Groups of three fish with EMG (electromyogram) radio transmitters were monitored for two weeks via video recording...
2019: PloS One
Kazuko Hayashi, Teiji Sawa
The electromyogram (EMG) activity has been reported to falsely increase BIS. Conversely, EMG seems necessary to constitute the high BIS indicative of an awake condition, and may play a fundamental role in calculating BIS, rather than distorting the appropriate BIS. However, exactly how EMG is associated with a high BIS remains unclear. We intended to clarify the respective contributions of EMG and various electroencephalogram (EEG) parameters to high BIS. In 79 courses of anaesthesia, BIS monitor-derived EMG parameters (EMGLOW), and other processed EEG parameters [SEF95 (spectral edge frequency 95%), SynchFastSlow (bispectral parameter), BetaRatio (frequency parameter), total power subtypes in five frequency range], were obtained simultaneously with BIS, every 3 s...
January 3, 2019: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Eiji Fujita, Dennis R Taaffe, Yasuhide Yoshitake, Hiroaki Kanehisa
PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a conditioning program consisting of repeated sit-to-stand exercise on knee extensor strength and muscular activities during body mass-based squat movement in physically frail elders. METHODS: Fourteen men and women aged 75 to 88 years who used the long-term care insurance system participated in the 12-week training program (48 reps/session, 3 sessions/week). Isometric knee extension torque (KET) during a maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) and electromyogram (EMG) activities of the rectus femoris and vastus lateralis muscles during the MVC and a body mass-based squat task were determined at baseline, and following 4 and 12 weeks training...
February 2019: Experimental Gerontology
Asako Noguchi, Tetsuya Sakaguchi, Mototsugu Sato, Hide Aikawa, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Yuji Ikegaya
The behavioral state of animals is essential information for functional recordings of neuronal activity; practically, the exact timing when animals recover from anesthesia is important information. Recordings of cortical local field potentials and dorsal neck electromyograms (EMGs), a widely used method to identify behavioral states, requires at least two recording electrodes, one of which also requires a craniotomy procedure. In the present study, recordings of whisker EMGs alone are sufficient to detect the state switch from anesthesia to awakening in head-fixed mice...
December 26, 2018: Neuroscience Research
David P Burns, Kevin H Murphy, Eric F Lucking, Ken D O'Halloran
KEY POINTS: Respiratory muscle weakness is a major feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), yet little is known about the neural control of the respiratory muscles in DMD and animal models of dystrophic disease. Substantial diaphragm muscle weakness is apparent in young (8-week-old) mdx mice, but ventilatory capacity in response to maximum chemostimulation in conscious mice is preserved. Peak volume- and flow-related measures during chemoactivation are equivalent in anaesthetized, vagotomized wild-type and mdx mice...
December 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Seda Senay
Time-frequency (TF) representations are very important tools to understand and explain circumstances, where the frequency content of non-stationary signals varies in time. A variety of biosignals such as speech, electrocardiogram (ECG), electroencephalogram (EEG), and electromyogram (EMG) show some form of non-stationarity. Considering Priestley's evolutionary (time-dependent) spectral theory for analysis of non-stationary signals, the authors defined a TF representation called evolutionary Slepian transform (EST)...
December 2018: Healthcare Technology Letters
Zhen-Xin Feng, Hui Dong, Wei-Min Qu, Wei Zhang
Dexmedetomidine, a highly selective α2-adrenergic agonist, is widely used in clinical anesthesia and ICU sedation. Recent studies have found that dexmedetomidine-induced sedation resembles the recovery sleep that follows sleep deprivation, but whether orally delivered dexmedetomidine can be a candidate for the treatment of insomnia remains unclear. In this study, we estimated the sedative effects of orally delivered dexmedetomidine by spontaneous locomotor activity (LMA), and then evaluated the hypnotic effects of dexmedetomidine on sleep-wake profiles during the dark and light phase using electroencephalography/electromyogram (EEG/EMG), respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
A Botter, M Beltrandi, G L Cerone, M Gazzoni, T M M Vieira
In this manuscript we describe the development and testing of a bipolar electrode for the simultaneous acquisition of ultrasound (US) images and surface electromyograms (EMGs) from the same muscle region. The developed electrode (bEMG-US) consists of two circular sensing regions (20 mm diameter) with fixed inter-electrode distance (3.5 cm, center-to-center). Both the sensing regions and the external structure of the electrode are made of hydrogel layers separated by insulating materials. The electrical properties (i...
December 13, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
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