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Adipokines Bone

Soo Im Chung, Xingyue Jin, Mi Young Kang
Background: Menopause induces various metabolic disorders due to the rapid decrease of the ovarian hormone estrogen. It is involved in increased risk of obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and osteoporosis. The pigmented giant embryo cultivar is a promising food product for menopause-induced metabolic disorders. Objective: The effects of non-germinated and germinated Keunnunjami, a new blackish purple pigmented rice with a giant embryo, on glucose and bone metabolisms in ovariectomized rats were investigated...
2019: Food & Nutrition Research
Yujue Li, Yang Meng, Xijie Yu
Bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) is distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) or brown adipose tissue (BAT) for its location, feature and function. As a largely ignored adipose depot, it is situated in bone marrow space and resided with bone tissue side-by-side. MAT is considered not only as a regulator of bone metabolism through paracrine, but also as a functionally particular adipose tissue that may contribute to global metabolism. Adipokines, inflammatory factors and other molecules derived from bone marrow adipocytes may exert systematic effects...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Giovanni Lombardi, Ewa Ziemann, Giuseppe Banfi
Bone tissue can be seen as a physiological hub of several stimuli of different origin (e.g., dietary, endocrine, nervous, immune, skeletal muscle traction, biomechanical load). Their integration, at the bone level, results in: (i) changes in mineral and protein composition and microarchitecture and, consequently, in shape and strength; (ii) modulation of calcium and phosphorous release into the bloodstream, (iii) expression and release of hormones and mediators able to communicate the current bone status to the rest of the body...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jun Hung, Layla Al-Nakkash, Tom L Broderick, Monica Castro, Jeffrey H Plochocki
Background: Leptin is an adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis and is also needed for normal bone growth and maintenance. Mutation in the lep gene, which characterizes the ob/ob mouse model, results in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as well as reduced limb bone length and increased fracture risk. However, the relationship between limb bone length and growth plate cartilage structure in obese diabetic adolescents is incompletely understood. Here, we tested the hypothesis that leptin deficiency affects the microstructure of growth plate cartilage in juvenile ob/ob mice...
2019: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Joya E Nahon, Menno Hoekstra, Silvia van Hulst, Calin Manta, Sergij Goerdt, Janine J Geerling, Cyrill Géraud, Miranda Van Eck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Stabilin-1 (STAB1) is a scavenger receptor expressed on alternatively activated macrophages and sinusoidal endothelial cells. Its ligands include oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and the extracellular matrix glycoprotein SPARC and it is present in both human and murine atherosclerotic lesions. We aimed to investigate the effect of specific deletion of STAB1 in bone marrow-derived cells, including macrophages on atherosclerotic lesion formation in mice. METHODS: Lethally irradiated hypercholesterolemic LDL receptor knockout mice received either wildtype (WT) or STAB1 knockout (STAB1 KO) bone marrow...
December 30, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Shiou-Sheng Chen, Chih-Hsin Tang, Meng-Ju Chie, Chun-Hao Tsai, Yi-Chin Fong, Yung-Chang Lu, Wei-Cheng Chen, Cheng-Ta Lai, Chuan-Yen Wei, Huai-Ching Tai, Wen-Yi Chou, Shih-Wei Wang
Resistin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity, inflammation, and various cancers. Chondrosarcomas are primary malignant bone tumors that have a poor prognosis. VEGF-A is a critical angiogenic factor that is known to promote angiogenesis and metastasis in chondrosarcoma. It is unknown as to whether resistin affects human chondrosarcoma angiogenesis. In this study, we show how resistin promotes VEGF-A expression and subsequently induces angiogenesis of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). Resistin treatment activated the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt signaling pathways, while PI3K and Akt inhibitors or siRNA diminished resistin-induced VEGF-A expression...
January 10, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Jessica L Berlier, Malini Rethnam, A'Qilah Banu Binte Abdul Majeed, Toshio Suda
Multiple myeloma (MM) is a hematological malignancy characterized by clonal proliferation of abnormal plasma cells. MM dysregulates the homeostasis of the bone niche cells like osteoclasts and osteoblasts, responsible for the bone maintenance leading to bone loss and hypercalcemia, as well as the normal immune cells leading to immunodeficiency and anemia. Osteoblasts are part of the cell population differentiating from mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). MSC also gives rise to other cell types such as adipocytes and chondrocytes...
December 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Chao Tu, Jieyu He, Bei Wu, Wanchun Wang, Zhihong Li
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent form of aging-related joint diseases, and its etiology is still not fully understood. Obesity has been recognized as one of the most significant and potentially preventable risk factors for osteoarthritis. Beyond mechanical loading, adipokines, including leptin, visfatin, adiponectin, resistin and others, are demonstrated to have metabolic implications in the pathogenesis and progression in obesity-induced osteoarthritis by modulating the pro/anti-inflammatory and anabolic/catabolic balance, apoptosis, matrix remodeling and subchondral bone ossification...
January 2019: Cytokine
Xiaoliang Liang, Kushagra Gupta, Joselyn Rojas Quintero, Manuela Cernadas, Lester Kobzik, Helen Christou, Gerald B Pier, Caroline A Owen, Sule Çataltepe
Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), an intracellular lipid chaperone and adipokine, is expressed by lung macrophages, but the function of macrophage-FABP4 remains elusive. We investigated the role of FABP4 in host defense in a murine model of Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. Compared with wild-type (WT) mice, FABP4-deficient (FABP4-/- ) mice exhibited decreased bacterial clearance and increased mortality when challenged intranasally with P. aeruginosa. These findings in FABP4-/- mice were associated with a delayed neutrophil recruitment into the lungs and were followed by greater acute lung injury and inflammation...
November 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Junji Takaya, Sohsaku Yamanouchi, Jiro Kino, Yuko Tanabe, Kazunari Kaneko
Calcium (Ca) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance syndrome. Osteocalcin (OC), a bone formation biomarker, acts directly on β-cells and increases insulin secretion. We determined the effects of Ca deficiency during pregnancy and/or lactation on insulin resistance in offspring. Female Wistar rats consumed either a Ca-deficient or control diet ad libitum from three weeks preconception to 21 days postparturition. Pups were allowed to nurse their original mothers until weaning. The offspring were fed a control diet beginning at weaning and were killed on day 180...
November 13, 2018: Nutrients
Huashan Zhao, Dewen Yan, Liang Xiang, Chen Huang, Jian Li, Xiangfang Yu, Binbin Huang, Baobei Wang, Jie Chen, Tianxia Xiao, Pei-Gen Ren, Jian V Zhang
The adipokine Chemerin and its receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1), are associated with osteoblastogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and osteoclastogenic differentiation of osteoclast precursors in vitro, suggesting that CMKLR1 would affect the bone mineral density (BMD). However, the role of CMKLR1 on BMD in vivo remains unknown. Here, using CMKLR1 knockout mouse model, we unveiled that CMKLR1 effected the amount of Leydig cells in testis and regulated androgen-dependent bone maintenance in male mice, which exhibited lower serum testosterone levels, thereby reducing the trabecular bone mass...
October 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Rim Cherif, Feten Mahjoub, Hela Sahli, Elhem Cheour, Mohsen Sakly, Nebil Attia
The purpose of this study was to determine the predictors of bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and bone turnover markers in obese postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 81 postmenopausal women aged 58.40 ± 6.08 years were analyzed. Anthropometric parameters were recorded. Serum glucose parameters, serum lipid profiles, adipokines, renal, hepatic parameters, and bone markers concentrations were determined by well-validated laboratory routine methods. BMD, BMC, and body composition were measured by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry...
October 19, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Tiantian Wang, Chengqi He
Osteoarthritis (OA), characterized by joint malfunction and chronic disability, is the most common form of arthritis. Clinical and animal experiments reveal that age-related OA is associated with many factors such as age, sex, trauma, and obesity. One of the most influential and modifiable risk factors is obesity. Obesity not only increases mechanical stress on the tibiofemoral cartilage, but also leads to a higher prevalence of OA in non-weight-bearing areas. There is a link between obesity and inflammation...
October 11, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
Rebecca L McCullough, Megan R McMullen, Kyle L Poulsen, Adam Kim, M Edward Medof, Laura E Nagy
Background and aims: Chronic ethanol exposure results in inflammation in adipose tissue; this response is associated with activation of complement as well as the development of alcohol-related liver disease (ALD). Adipose communicates with other organs, including liver, via the release of soluble mediators, such as adipokines and cytokines, characterized as the "adipose secretome." Here we investigated the role of the anaphaylatoxin receptors C3aR and C5aR1 in the development of adipose tissue inflammation and regulation of the adipose secretome in murine ALD (mALD)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Jiyin Zhou, Zuo Zhang, Guisheng Qian
Diabetes impairs the bone marrow (BM) architecture and function as well as the mobilization of immature cells into the bloodstream and number of potential regenerative cells. Circadian regulation of bone immature cell migration is regulated by β-adrenergic receptors, which are expressed on haematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and osteoblasts in the BM. Diabetes is associated with a substantially lower number of sympathetic nerve terminal endings in the BM; thus, diabetic neuropathy plays a critical role in BM dysfunction...
October 5, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Yanxia Lu, Gianni Monaco, Xavier Camous, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Olaf Rotzschke, Tze Pin Ng, Anis Larbi
Novel wide array blood biomarkers of multisystem dysregulation, compared to conventional clinical and blood biomarkers, are potentially able to provide more accurate prognostic information of long-term mortality risks. We identified biomarker signatures of all-cause and disease-specific mortality from a comprehensive range of analytes related to six major physiological functions: cytokine, chemokine, and growth factors; glucose metabolism regulators and adipokines; adhesion molecules; acute phase response; pathogen-specific antibodies; and bone remodeling...
August 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Carina Cristina Montalvany-Antonucci, Marina Campos Zicker, Adaliene Versiani Matos Ferreira, Soraia Macari, Erivan Schnaider Ramos-Junior, Ricardo Santiago Gomez, Thaís Santos Ferreira Pereira, Mila Fernandes Moreira Madeira, Sandra Yasuyo Fukada, Ildeu Andrade, Tarcília Aparecida Silva
A high-fat (HF) diet leads to detrimental effects on alveolar bone (AB); however, the mechanisms linking adiposity to bone loss are poorly understood. This study investigated if AB resorption induced by an HF diet is associated with the regulation of inflammatory gene expression and if adipocytes can directly interfere with osteoclastogenesis. We also evaluated the effects of diet restriction (DR) on bone phenotype. C57BL6/J mice were fed normal chow or an HF diet for 12 weeks. Samples of maxillae, femur, blood and white adipose tissue were analyzed...
September 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Paul Dimitri
The risk of fracture secondary to low-impact trauma is greater in obese children, suggesting obese children are at risk of skeletal fragility. However, despite this finding, there is a lack of agreement about the impact of excessive adiposity on skeletal development. The combination of poor diet, sedentary lifestyle, greater force generated on impact through falls, and greater propensity to falls may in part explain the increased risk of fracture in obese children. To date, evidence suggests that in early childhood years, obesity confers a structural advantage to the developing skeleton...
June 2018: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
Ryuichi Sakamoto, Yoshihiro Ogawa
Since leptin was discovered in 1994, we considered the adipose tissue was not a "stockroom" with energy and being the endocrine-organ which secretes a various hormone, as called adipokine, which has various physiological activity. Much research was done about the effect of adipokine to each organ and disease concept of metabolic syndrome was established that induces metabolic disorders and atherosclerotic diseases by dysregulation of adipokine following visceral fat accumulation. Also, role of adipokine in bone metabolism becomes clear gradually...
2018: Clinical Calcium
Marita Westhrin, Siv Helen Moen, Ida Bruun Kristensen, Glenn Buene, Anne Kærsgaard Mylin, Ingemar Turesson, Niels Abildgaard, Anders Waage, Therese Standal
Chemerin is a recently discovered adipokine shown to be involved in both inflammatory and metabolic processes. Here, we demonstrate that chemerin serum levels are elevated in patients with multiple myeloma and that it increases with disease progression. We found that chemerin is expressed by stromal cells and preadipocytes, whereas its receptor CCRL2 is expressed by primary myeloma cells, suggesting a paracrine signaling loop between bone marrow stromal cells/adipocytes and myeloma cells. This is the first study exploring chemerin and its receptors in multiple myeloma...
2018: Biomarker Research
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