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Olivia Arizmendi, Prashant Kumar, Qi Zheng, Jason P Stewart, William D Picking, Wendy Picking, Francisco J Martinez-Becerra
Diarrheal diseases are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. They are most prevalent in settings with inadequate sanitation, poor hygiene and contaminated water. An important diarrheal pathogen in such settings is Shigella . No commercially available vaccine exists against shigellosis and immunity to the pathogen is serotype-restricted. We have previously shown that a polypeptide fusion of the Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA) proteins IpaB and IpaD (named DBF) was efficacious as a vaccine against Shigella ...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
I-Ning Gan, Hock Siew Tan
OBJECTIVES: Shigella is a human pathogen that causes shigellosis, an acute invasive intestinal infection. Recent studies in the model bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli) provided evidence that small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) can contribute to antimicrobial resistance or susceptibility. One of the sRNAs is SdsR, which increases sensitivity of E. coli against fluoroquinolone by repressing the drug efflux pump, TolC. However, no reports exist about the effect of SdsR on fluoroquinolone resistance in Shigella sonnei (S...
February 21, 2019: BMC Research Notes
Cristina Carias, Eduardo A Undurraga, Jacqueline Hurd, Emily B Kahn, Martin I Meltzer, Anna Bowen
BACKGROUND: In the event of a shigellosis outbreak in a childcare setting, exclusion policies are typically applied to afflicted children to limit shigellosis transmission. However, there is scarce evidence of their impact. METHODS: We evaluated five exclusion policies: Children return to childcare after: i) two consecutive laboratory tests (either PCR or culture) do not detect Shigella, ii) a single negative laboratory test (PCR or culture) does not detect Shigella, iii) seven days after beginning antimicrobial treatment, iv) after being symptom-free for 24 h, or v) 14 days after symptom onset...
February 19, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh, Mojtaba Moosavian, Mahtab Abdi, Mohsen Heidary, Fatemeh Shahi, Nabi Jomehzadeh, Sakineh Seyed-Mohammadi, Morteza Saki, Saeed Khoshnood
Introduction: Shigellosis is a significant global human health problem, and Shigella is in charge of almost 165 million cases of this disease annually, of whom 163 million cases are in developing countries and 1.5 million cases are in developed countries. The main aims of the current survey were to identify Shigella spp. isolated from diarrheal patients by conventional biochemical tests, determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles by disk diffusion method, and detect the ipaH gene using the PCR assay...
2019: Infection and Drug Resistance
Pawan Parajuli, Lachlan P Deimel, Naresh K Verma
Shigella flexneri is a major etiological agent of shigellosis in developing countries, primarily occurring in children under five years of age. We have sequenced, for the first time, the complete genome of S. flexneri serotype 3b (strain SFL1520). We used a hybrid sequencing method--both long-read MinION Flow (Oxford Nanopore Technologies) and short-read MiSeq (Illumina) sequencing to generate a high-quality reference genome. The SFL1520 chromosome was found to be approximately 4.58 Mb long, with 4,729 coding sequences (CDS)...
February 1, 2019: Genome Biology and Evolution
Yun Wu, Henry K Lau, Teresa Lee, David K Lau, Justin Payne
The bacteria Shigella spp., consisting of 4 species and >50 serotypes, cause shigellosis, a foodborne disease of significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss worldwide. Classical Shigella identification based on selective media and serology is tedious, time-consuming, expensive, and not always accurate. Molecular diagnostic assay does not distinguish Shigella at species level or from enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC). We inspected genomic sequence from 221 Shigella isolates and observed low concordance rate between conventional designation and molecular serotyping: 86...
February 1, 2019: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Muna Salah, Issa Shtayeh, Raed Ghneim, Randa Al-Qass, Ali Sabateen, Hiyam Marzouqa, Musa Hindiyeh
Azithromycin has been recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics for treatment of shigellosis in children. In this study 502 Shigella species isolated between 2004-2014 were tested for azithromycin epidemiological cutoff values (ECV) by disk diffusion. Azithromycin MIC and the presence of the macrolide resistance genes [ erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), ere(A), ere(B), mph(A), mph(B), mph(D), mef(A), msr(A )] were determined on all 56 (11.1%) isolates with azithromycin ≤15mm disk diffusion diameter. The distribution of azithromycin ECV MIC's was also determined on 186 Shigella isolates with disk diffusion diameter ≥16 mm...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Vladimir A Ledov, Marina E Golovina, Anna A Markina, Yuriy A Knirel, Vyacheslav L L'vov, Alexander L Kovalchuk, Petr G Aparin
Shigellosis, a major cause of diarrhea worldwide, exhibits high morbidity and mortality in children. Specificity of Shigella immunity is determined by the structure of the main protective O-antigen polysaccharide component incorporated into the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecule. Endotoxicity, however, precludes LPS clinical use. Thus, there is still no vaccine against the most prevalent shigellosis species (serotype S. flexneri 2a), despite ongoing efforts focused on inducing serotype-specific immunity. As LPS is highly heterogenous, we hypothesized that more homogenous pools of LPS might be less toxic...
January 19, 2019: Vaccine
Benjamin J Koestler, Cara M Ward, C R Fisher, Anubama Rajan, Anthony W Maresso, Shelley M Payne
The enteric bacterium and intracellular human pathogen Shigella causes hundreds of millions of cases of the diarrheal disease shigellosis per year worldwide. Shigella is acquired by ingestion of contaminated food or water; upon reaching the colon, the bacteria invade the colonic epithelial cells, replicate intracellularly, spread to adjacent cells, and provoke an intense inflammatory response. There is no animal model that faithfully recapitulates human disease, thus cultured cells have been used to model Shigella pathogenesis...
January 14, 2019: Infection and Immunity
Michel Archange Fokam Tagne, Paul Aimé Noubissi, Gaëtan Olivier Fankem, René Kamgang
Aim: Oxalis barrelieri is a medicinal plant commonly used in Cameroon, for the treatment of many diarrheal diseases. The antibacterial properties of O barrelieri aqueous extract (WOb) against Shigella dysenteriae type 1 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Methods: A ntibacterial activity was evaluated in vitro by disc diffusion method and by macrodilution method. S dysenteriae type 1 at a dose of 1.2 × 109  CFU was administrated orally to rats to induce shigellosis...
February 2018: Health Science Reports
Tanushree Mukherjee, Vibha A V Udupa, Praveen Prakhar, Kasturi Chandra, Dipshikha Chakravortty, Kithiganahalli N Balaji
The resolution of S. flexneri infection-associated hyperinflammation is crucial for host survival. Using in vitro and in vivo models of Shigellosis, we find that S. flexneri induces the expression of indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) through NOD2 and Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling pathway. Congruently, abrogation of NOD2 or EGFR compromises the ability of S. flexneri to induce IDO1 expression. We observed that the loss of IDO1 function in vivo exacerbates Shigellosis by skewing inflammatory cytokine response, disrupting colon epithelial barrier integrity and consequently limiting host life span...
January 7, 2019: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Danielle J Ingle, Marion Easton, Mary Valcanis, Torsten Seemann, Jason C Kwong, Nicola Stephens, Glen P Carter, Anders Gonçalves da Silva, James Adamopoulos, Sarah L Baines, Kathryn E Holt, Eric P F Chow, Christopher K Fairley, Marcus Y Chen, Martyn Kirk, Benjamin P Howden, Deborah A Williamson
Background: In urban Australia, the burden of shigellosis is either in returning travellers from shigellosis-endemic regions, or in men who have sex with men (MSM). Here, we combine genomic data with comprehensive epidemiological data on sexual exposure and travel to describe the spread of multidrug-resistant Shigella lineages. Methods: A population-level study of all cultured Shigella isolates in the state of Victoria, Australia was undertaken from 1 January 2016 through to 31 March 2018...
January 7, 2019: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Md Amran Gazi, Sultan Mahmud, Shah Mohammad Fahim, Mohammad Golam Kibria, Parag Palit, Md Rezaul Islam, Humaira Rashid, Subhasish Das, Mustafa Mahfuz, Tahmeed Ahmeed
Shigella spp. constitutes some of the key pathogens responsible for the global burden of diarrhoeal disease. With over 164 million reported cases per annum, shigellosis accounts for 1.1 million deaths each year. Majority of these cases occur among the children of the developing nations and the emergence of multi-drug resistance Shigella strains in clinical isolates demands the development of better/new drugs against this pathogen. The genome of Shigella flexneri was extensively analyzed and found 4,362 proteins among which the functions of 674 proteins, termed as hypothetical proteins (HPs) had not been previously elucidated...
December 2018: Genomics & Informatics
Jayanthi Gangiredla, Mark K Mammel, David W Lacher, Carmen Tartera, Scott A Jackson, Isha R Patel, Christopher A Elkins, Amit Mukherjee
Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative enteric pathogenic bacteria which has four species, Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri, S. boydii, and S. sonnei. Shigella species are clinically important bacteria because they cause shigellosis or dysentery. Here we report the genome sequences of 72 Shigella isolates from these four species.
November 2018: Microbiology Resource Announcements
Valeria Ciancarella, Luigi Lembo-Fazio, Ida Paciello, Anna-Karin Bruno, Sébastien Jaillon, Sara Berardi, Marialuisa Barbagallo, Shiri Meron-Sudai, Dani Cohen, Antonio Molinaro, Giacomo Rossi, Cecilia Garlanda, Maria Lina Bernardini
Shigella spp. are pathogenic bacteria that cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading the colonic and rectal mucosa where they induce dramatic inflammation. Here, we have analyzed the role of the soluble PRR Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), a key component of the humoral arm of innate immunity. Mice that had been intranasally infected with S. flexneri were rescued from death by treatment with recombinant PTX3. In vitro PTX3 exerts the antibacterial activity against Shigella, impairing epithelial cell invasion and contributing to the bactericidal activity of serum...
December 7, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Emma Quinn, Zeina Najjar, Esther Huhtinen, Edward Jegasothy, Leena Gupta
OBJECTIVE: To review the epidemiological differences between culture-positive and culture-negative (but ipaH PCR-positive) cases of shigellosis in Sydney Local Health District (SLHD), NSW, to inform whether changes to the national case definition for shigellosis are required. METHODS: An audit of all cases of shigellosis (culture-positive vs. culture-negative/PCR-positive) in SLHD from 1 January 2013 to 30 June 2015 was conducted and demographic, clinical and risk factors were analysed and compared between these groups...
December 5, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Delfino Vubil, Sozinho Acácio, Llorenç Quintò, Clara Ballesté-Delpierre, Tacilta Nhampossa, Karen Kotloff, Myron M Levine, Pedro Alonso, James P Nataro, Tamer H Farag, Jordi Vila, Inacio Mandomando
Objectives: During the period from December 2007 to November 2012, the epidemiology of diarrhea caused by Shigella was studied among children <5 years of age residing in Manhiça District, Southern Mozambique. Materials and methods: Children from 0 to 5 years with moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) and less severe diarrhea (LSD) were enrolled along with matched controls (by age, gender, and neighborhood). Age-stratified logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify clinical features and risk factors associated with Shigella positivity in cases of diarrhea...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Riya Mukherjee, Debanjan Dutta, Mousumi Patra, Biplab Chatterjee, Tarakdas Basu
We reported earlier about nano-formulation of tetracycline through its entrapment within calcium-phosphate nano-particle (CPNP) and about killing of pathogenic bacterium Shigella flexnari 2a, resistant to tetracycline (and 9 other antibiotics), by the nanonized antibiotic (Tet-CPNP). Here, we report on therapeutic role of Tet-CPNP against deadly diarrheal disease 'shigellosis' in mice, caused by Shigella infection. Our findings revealed that occurrence of mushy-stool excretion, colon-length shortening, weight-loss and bacterial colonization in gastrointestinal tract of mice due to shigellosis was significantly reduced by Tet-CPNP treatment...
November 15, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Min Jung Kim, Young-Hye Moon, Heejoo Kim, Semi Rho, Young Kee Shin, Manki Song, Richard Walker, Cecil Czerkinsky, Dong Wook Kim, Jae-Ouk Kim
Shigella is a highly prevalent bacterium causing acute diarrhea and dysentery in developing countries. Shigella infections are treated with antibiotics but Shigellae are increasingly resistant to these drugs. Vaccination can be a countermeasure against emerging antibiotic-resistant shigellosis. Because of the structural variability in Shigellae O-antigen polysaccharides (Oag), cross-protective Shigella vaccines cannot be derived from single serotype-specific Oag. We created an attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a strain with one rather than multiple Oag units by disrupting the Oag polymerase gene (Δ wzy ), which broadened protective immunogenicity by exposing conserved surface proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Paramita Sarkar, Tultul Saha, Irshad Ali Sheikh, Subhra Chakraborty, Joydeep Aoun, Manoj Kumar Chakrabarti, Vazhaikkurichi M Rajendran, Nadia A Ameen, Shanta Dutta, Kazi Mirajul Hoque
Whether zinc(Zn2+ ) regulates barrier functions by modulating tight junction (TJ) proteins when pathogens such as Shigella alter epithelial permeability is still un-resolved. We investigated the potential benefits of Zn2+ in restoring impaired barrier function in vivo in Shigella infected mouse tissue and in vitro T84 cell monolayers. Basolateral Shigella infection triggered time dependent decrease in trans-epithelial resistance (TER) followed by an increase in paracellular permeability of FITC-labelled dextran and altered ion selectivity...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
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