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Brain biopsy

Kalgi D Baxi, Raju G Chaudhary, Santoshdev P Rathod, Ashish Jagati
Scleromyxoedema is a rare generalized cutaneous mucinosis, which in absence of thyroid disease, occurs almost invariably in patients with monoclonal gammopathies. A 54-year-old female patient presented with complaint of tightening of skin on the extremities, abdomen, forehead, gradually progressive since 1 year, episodes of generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, and acute psychosis since 5 days. Cutaneous examination revealed nonpitting edema over the face and sclerodermoid changes over extremities. Laboratory investigations showed presence of M-band on serum-protein electrophoresis and monoclonal spike of IgG lambda component on immunofixation...
January 2019: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Véronique Hofman, Paul Hofman
Patients with advanced or metastatic forms of lung cancer with an activating mutation in epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) are given tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeted therapies that are more efficient than chemotherapy. These patients are excluded from first-line immunotherapy. After a phase of regression these tumors develop systematically resistance requiring a rapid change in therapy. At present two strategies are being discussed. The first strategy, so called "historical' sequential treatment strategy, is based on the administration of first- or second-generation TKIs until the emergence of therapeutic resistance and, in the case of a EGFR T790M mutation, on the administration of third-generation TKIs...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Suheil Albert Atallah-Yunes, Jackson Clark, Shazia Samanani, Myat Soe
BACKGROUND Pituitary gland metastasis is rarely the initial presentation of metastatic cancer. Most cases of pituitary gland metastasis are asymptomatic with diabetes insipidus being the most common symptomatic presentation. It can rarely present with symptoms of hormone underproduction such as secondary adrenal insufficiency. Although pituitary gland metastasis is rare, it is underestimated, as it is commonly misdiagnosed with pituitary gland adenoma due to the lack of clear radiological criteria differentiating between both...
February 17, 2019: American Journal of Case Reports
Constanze Buus-Gehrig, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Luciana Porto, Martina Becker, Thomas Freiman, Michel Mittelbronn, Konrad Bochennek
Tumors of the central nervous system represent the largest group of solid tumors found in pediatric patients. Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common pediatric glioma, mostly located in the posterior fossa. The majority of brainstem tumors, however, are classified as highly aggressive diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and their prognosis is dismal.The authors report on the case of a neonate in whom MRI and neuropathological assessment were used to diagnose DIPG. Before initiation of the planned chemotherapy, the tumor regressed spontaneously, and the newborn exhibited a normal neurological development...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Krzysztof Stachura, Ewelina Grzywna, Roger M Krzyżewski, Borys M Kwinta, Dariusz Adamek, Marek M Moskała
Introduction: Selection of the optimal treatment method of intra- and paraventricular tumors often requires histopathological verification that can be obtained by endoscopic biopsy. Aim: To discuss the usefulness of the method in their own experience. Material and methods: The results of 32 biopsies carried out during a 15-year period were reviewed retrospectively. All tumors were located supratentorially, 25 of them were intraventricular and 7 paraventricular...
January 2019: Wideochirurgia i Inne Techniki Mało Inwazyjne, Videosurgery and Other Miniinvasive Techniques
Chin Taweesomboonyat, Thara Tunthanathip, Sakchai Sae-Heng, Thakul Oearsakul
Background: With the advancement of neuronavigation technologies, frameless stereotactic brain biopsy has been developed. Previous studies proved that frameless stereotactic brain biopsy was as effective and safe as frame-based stereotactic brain biopsy. The authors aimed to find the factors associated with diagnostic yield and complication rate of frameless intracranial biopsy. Materials and Methods: Frameless stereotactic brain biopsy procedures, between March 2009 and April 2017, were retrospectively reviewed from medical records including imaging studies...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Murat Şakir Ekşi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Veronica C Wong, Grace Yung, Robert Russo, Stephen W Reddel, Robert Mansberg
A 34-year-old woman presented with a 3-month history of right-sided headaches associated with photophobia and pulsatile tinnitus. Investigations including lumbar puncture revealed elevated opening CSF pressure, increased protein, and presence of monocytosis consistent with an inflammatory/infective process. Brain MRI showed an area of thickened enhancing dura around the venous sinus posteriorly. Ga scintigraphy demonstrated focal intracranial uptake in the posterior occipital region, and biopsy confirmed a chronic inflammatory infiltrate with no granulomas...
February 8, 2019: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
Zenshi Miyake, Yasushi Tomidokoro, Takao Tsurubuchi, Akira Matsumura, Noriaki Sakamoto, Masayuki Noguchi, Akira Tamaoka
RATIONALE: Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a type of malignant lymphoma in which neoplastic B cells proliferate selectively within the lumina of small- and medium-sized vessels. Patients with IVLBCL frequently develop neurological manifestations during their disease course. Patients are known to often develop various neurological manifestations, but there are only a few reports of IVLBCL whose initial symptoms are deafness and/or disequilibrium. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 66-year-old Japanese man was provisionally diagnosed with sudden sensorineural hearing loss...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Li-Li Lou, Ying Zhang, Xu Huang, Li-Xia Zhang, Hui-Fan Ji, Xu Li, Xiao-Lin Guo
RATIONALE: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer and third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Nasopharyngeal metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma is very rare. This is the first report of posttransplantation nasopharyngeal metastasis. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 45-year-old man with a history of hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the right segment of the liver received an orthotopic liver transplant. Two year after the transplantation, he suffered from severe headache, and head contrast enhanced CT scans did not show clues for brain or skull metastasis...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Natália Emerim Lemos, Cristine Dieter, Rodrigo Carlessi, Jakeline Rheinheimer, Letícia de Almeida Brondani, Cristiane Bauermann Leitão, Andrea Carla Bauer, Daisy Crispim
Organ transplantation is the gold standard therapy for the majority of patients with terminal organ failure. However, it is still a limited treatment especially due to the low number of brain death (BD) donors in relation to the number of waiting list recipients. Strategies to increase the quantity and quality of donor organs have been studied, and the administration of exendin-4 (Ex-4) to the donor may be a promising approach. Male Wistar rats were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control, without central nervous system injury; (2) BD induced experimentally, and (3) BD induced experimentally + Ex-4 administered immediately after BD induction...
February 13, 2019: Molecular Biology Reports
Jennifer Abbasi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 12, 2019: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Carlos G Romo, Doreen N Palsgrove, Ananyaa Sivakumar, Christen R Elledge, Lawrence R Kleinberg, Kaisorn L Chaichana, Christopher D Gocke, Fausto J Rodriguez, Matthias Holdhoff
BACKGROUND: Gliomas with 1p/19q-codeletion as well as mutation of isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) 1 are typically characterized as oligodendrogliomas with comparatively good response to treatment with radiation and chemotherapy. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 28-year-old man with an IDH1 and TP53 mutant high grade glioma with abnormalities in chromosomes 1 and 19 suggestive of anaplastic oligodendroglioma that rapidly progressed to widespread metastatic disease...
February 9, 2019: Diagnostic Pathology
Toshikazu Baba, Koji Shinoda, Mitsuru Watanabe, Shoko Sadashima, Dai Matsuse, Noriko Isobe, Ryo Yamasaki, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Toru Iwaki, Jun-Ichi Kira
We report a 60-year-old male with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibody who developed progressive cognitive deterioration and behavioral changes, with no other focal signs, over 9 months. MRI showed numerous T2-hyperintense lesions with partial contrast enhancement in white and grey matter of cerebrum, cerebellum and spinal cord. A brain biopsy revealed perivascular inflammatory cell infiltration, disturbed vascular continuity and no demyelination, indicative of a lymphocytic pattern of primary CNS vasculitis (PCNSV)...
February 2, 2019: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Irene Bertolini, Andrea Terrasi, Cristina Martelli, Gabriella Gaudioso, Andrea Di Cristofori, Alessandra Maria Storaci, Miriam Formica, Paola Braidotti, Katia Todoerti, Stefano Ferrero, Manuela Caroli, Luisa Ottobrini, Thomas Vaccari, Valentina Vaira
BACKGROUND: The V-ATPase proton pump controls acidification of intra and extra-cellular milieu in both physiological and pathological conditions. We previously showed that some V-ATPase subunits are enriched in glioma stem cells and in patients with poor survival. In this study, we investigated how expression of a GBM-like V-ATPase pump influences the non-neoplastic brain microenvironment. METHODS: Large oncosome (LO) vesicles were isolated from primary glioblastoma (GBM) neurospheres, or from patient sera, and co-cultured with primary neoplastic or non-neoplastic brain cells...
February 5, 2019: EBioMedicine
Davide Barbagallo, Angela Caponnetto, Duilia Brex, Federica Mirabella, Cristina Barbagallo, Giovanni Lauretta, Antonio Morrone, Francesco Certo, Giuseppe Broggi, Rosario Caltabiano, Giuseppe M Barbagallo, Vittoria Spina-Purrello, Marco Ragusa, Cinzia Di Pietro, Thomas B Hansen, Michele Purrello
Circular RNAs are a large group of RNAs whose cellular functions are still being investigated. We recently proposed that circSMARCA5 acts as sponge for the splicing factor Serine and Arginine Rich Splicing Factor 1 (SRSF1) in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). After demonstrating by RNA immunoprecipitation a physical interaction between SRFS1 and circSMARCA5, we assayed by real-time PCR in a cohort of 31 GBM biopsies and 20 unaffected brain parenchyma controls (UC) the expression of total, pro-angiogenic (Iso8a) and anti-angiogenic (Iso8b) mRNA isoforms of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGFA), a known splicing target of SRSF1...
February 7, 2019: Cancers
Takashi Mamiya, Shinji Shimato, Toshihisa Nishizawa, Takashi Yamanouchi, Kojiro Ishikawa, Makoto Ito, Masato Abe, Kyozo Kato
Malignant glioma, the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults, usually occurs in supratentorial space as a single mass lesion, and cerebellar location and multiple appearance are uncommon. We report a case of a 69-year-old female with three lesions simultaneously found in the cerebellum on magnetic resonance images (MRIs) after suffering from gait disturbance. Two lesions were around 15 mm in size and the other one was observed as a spotty enhancement. Although MRI findings suggested brain metastases, whole body examinations denied any primary malignancies...
2019: Case Reports in Oncological Medicine
John D Kriesel, Preetida Bhetariya, Zheng-Ming Wang, David Renner, Cheryl Palmer, Kael F Fischer
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by multiple lesions in the brain and spinal cord. We used RNA sequencing to identify microbial sequences and characterize human gene expression patterns in 30 human brain biopsy specimens. RNAs which aligned to known microbial taxa, were significantly enriched in 10 of 12 primary demyelination (MS) brain specimens compared to a group of 15 epilepsy controls, leading to a list of 29 MS microbial candidate genera from 11 different phyla. Most of the candidate MS microbes are anaerobic bacteria...
February 4, 2019: Scientific Reports
R Ursu, L Thomas, D Psimaras, O Chinot, E Le Rhun, D Ricard, M Charissoux, S Cuzzubbo, F Sejalon, V Quillien, K Hoang-Xuan, F Ducray, J-J Portal, A Tibi, E Mandonnet, C Levy-Piedbois, E Vicaut, A F Carpentier
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas (GBMs) induce a peritumoural vasogenic oedema impairing functional status and quality of life. Steroids reduce brain tumour-related oedema but are associated with numerous side-effects. It was reported in a retrospective series that angiotensin receptor blockers might be associated with reduced peritumoural oedema. The ASTER study is a randomised, placebo-controlled trial to assess whether or not the addition of Losartan to standard of care (SOC) can reduce steroid requirement during radiotherapy (RT) in patients with newly diagnosed GBM...
February 1, 2019: European Journal of Cancer
Ling-Yan Ma, Gen-Liang Liu, Dong-Xu Wang, Mei-Mei Zhang, Wen-Yi Kou, Tao Feng
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder. To date, the diagnosis of PD relies mainly on clinical manifestations whereas neuropathological confirmation of the brain is only possible with postmortem studies. Neuronal loss in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) associated with Lewy bodies/neurites is the pathological hallmark feature of PD. The major component of Lewy pathology (LP) is misfolded alpha-synuclein (α-SYN). There is evidence that the distribution of LP is not only limited to the brain but extending to peripheral tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, salivary glands, olfactory mucosa, skin, retina, adrenal gland and heart...
February 4, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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