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Neonate, newborn

Godfrey Ja Walker, Damian Walker, Daniel Molano Franco, Carlos F Grillo-Ardila
BACKGROUND: Congenital syphilis continues to be a substantial public health problem in many parts of the world. Since the first use of penicillin for the treatment of syphilis in 1943, which was a notable early success, it has remained the preferred and standard treatment including for congenital syphilis. However, the treatment of congenital syphilis is largely based on clinical experience and there is extremely limited evidence on the optimal dose or duration of administration of penicillin or the use of other antibiotics...
February 15, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carmen Rey-Santano, Victoria E Mielgo, Miguel A Gomez-Solaetxe, Fabrizio Salomone, Elena Gastiasoro, Begoña Loureiro
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous-positive airway pressure (nCPAP) with the INSURE (INtubation-SURfactant-Extubation) or LISA (Less-Invasive Surfactant Administration) procedures are increasingly being chosen as the initial treatment for neonates with surfactant deficiency. Our objective was to compare the effects on cerebral oxygenation of different methods for surfactant administration: INSURE and LISA, using a nasogastric tube (NT) or a LISAcath® catheter, in spontaneously breathing SF-deficient newborn piglets...
February 18, 2019: Pediatric Pulmonology
Antonio Segado-Arenas, Lidia Atienza-Cuevas, José Roman Broullón-Molanes, Moisés Rodríguez-González, Simón Pedro Lubián-López
Listeriosis is a sporadic infectious disease, which affects high-risk populations, such as the elderly, pregnant women, newborns, and immunocompromised patients. During pregnancy, listeriosis usually presents like a mild non-specific infection, but it may be responsible for fetal loss, preterm labor, early onset neonatal sepsis, and neonatal death. We report the case of a late stillbirth secondary to maternal chorioamnionitis. Listeria monocytogenes was isolated from the amniotic fluid and the fetal pleural fluid...
October 2018: Autopsy & Case Reports
Supram Hosuru Subramanya, Rajesh Amberpet, Dinesh Chaudhary, Niranjan Nayak, Shashiraja Padukone, Indira Bairy, Shishir Gokhale
Background: Vancomycin-resistant enterococcal infections in the neonatal ICU are growing global problems. We report a case of neonatal septicemia by multidrug-resistant vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE), the source of infection being the mother's gut. Case presentation: A newborn male child admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was diagnosed to have mild meconium aspiration syndrome, early onset neonatal septicemia, and bacteremia by multidrug and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium ...
2019: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Asmaa A El-Madbouly, Asmaa A El Sehemawy, Noha A Eldesoky, Heba Mohammed Abd Elgalil, Amal M Ahmed
Background: Neonatal sepsis (NS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality among newborns. Its diagnosis depends mainly on blood culture that takes at least 48 hours to give results. Therefore, searching for biomarkers for early diagnosis is of value. We aimed to assess presepsin, soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (sTREM-1), and neutrophil CD64 (nCD64) as early diagnostic biomarkers in NS, and to compare them individually and in combination. Methods: This hospital-based case-control study has been conducted on 60 full-term neonates recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit, Al-Zahraa Hospital, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt...
2019: Infection and Drug Resistance
Sema Baki Yildirim, Özlem Koşar Can
The aim of this study is to investigate vitamin D deficiency and the associated risk factors in pregnant women and their infants in the Black Sea region of Turkey. One hundred and twenty healthy pregnant women in the last trimester and their healthy newborn pairs were observed between June and August 2017 in Giresun province. The serum 25(OH)D3 and calcium levels were measured through the samples collected from maternal and neonatal cord blood. The effects of maternal lifestyle on the maternal vitamin D levels were assessed by multiple regression analysis...
February 16, 2019: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Ryan Paul, Carissa Murugesh, Lynne Chepulis, Jade Tamatea, Louise Wolmarans
Babies born to mothers with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at a greater risk of developing respiratory complications and hypoglycaemia than those born to mothers without diabetes. However, there is currently insufficient evidence as to whether these risks are altered by antenatal corticosteroids after 37 weeks gestation. This retrospective study suggests that antenatal corticosteroids probably reduce respiratory admissions to the newborn intensive care unit with a mild increase in neonatal hypoglycaemia in women with GDM who deliver via caesarean section after 37 weeks gestation...
February 18, 2019: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Marta Costa Romero, Paula Lalaguna Mallada, Nieves Marta Díaz Gómez
Skin to skin contact (SSC) between mother and child immediately after birth is now considered to be an indicator of good clinical practice as it offers multiple benefits for both: it reduces stress levels of the mother, it facilitates affective bonding, breastfeeding and the newborns adaptation to extra-uterine life. However, in the vast majority of hospitals, mother and child are separated until complete recovery following a caesarean section, which can be several hours. In this article the advantages of SSC after a caesarean section, were analyzed, as well as the main difficulties in order to carry it out, which include maternal or neonatal instability and the reticence of the professionals themselves...
February 19, 2019: Revista Española de Salud Pública
E Blevrakis, S Xenaki, E Chrysos
Discovery of an apparent scrotal mass is a non common entity in neonates. Testicular torsion is rare in newborn infants and is an urologic emergency that requires emergency surgical management. We present a rare case of testicular torsion in a neonate.
January 2019: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Constanze Buus-Gehrig, Thomas Lehrnbecher, Luciana Porto, Martina Becker, Thomas Freiman, Michel Mittelbronn, Konrad Bochennek
Tumors of the central nervous system represent the largest group of solid tumors found in pediatric patients. Pilocytic astrocytoma is the most common pediatric glioma, mostly located in the posterior fossa. The majority of brainstem tumors, however, are classified as highly aggressive diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) and their prognosis is dismal.The authors report on the case of a neonate in whom MRI and neuropathological assessment were used to diagnose DIPG. Before initiation of the planned chemotherapy, the tumor regressed spontaneously, and the newborn exhibited a normal neurological development...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Alejandro Gonzalez-Candia, Marcelino Veliz, Catalina Carrasco-Pozo, Rodrigo L Castillo, J Cesar Cárdenas, Germán Ebensperger, Roberto V Reyes, Aníbal J Llanos, Emilio A Herrera
Chronic hypobaric hypoxia during fetal and neonatal life induces neonatal pulmonary hypertension. Hypoxia and oxidative stress are driving this condition, which implies an increase generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and/or decreased antioxidant capacity. Melatonin has antioxidant properties that decrease oxidative stress and improves pulmonary vascular function when administered postnatally. However, the effects of an antenatal treatment with melatonin in the neonatal pulmonary function and oxidative status are unknown...
January 29, 2019: Redox Biology
Hao Yan, Jia Wen, Tuo Zhang, Wenying Zheng, Meina He, Kun Huang, Qirui Guo, Qian Chen, Yi Yang, Guangcun Deng, Jinrui Xu, Zhiqing Wei, Hua Zhang, Guoliang Xia, Chao Wang
In mammals, female fecundity is determined by the size of the primordial follicle (PF) pool, which is established during the perinatal period. As a non-renewable resource, the preservation of dormant PFs is crucial for sustaining female reproduction throughout life. Although studies have revealed that several oocyte-derived functional genes and pathways, such as newborn ovary homeobox (NOBOX) and 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1, participate in maintaining the PF pool, our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is still incomplete...
February 15, 2019: Cell Death & Disease
Yasser Medlej, Houssein Salah, Lara Wadi, Sarah Saad, Bashir Bashir, Jad Allam, Zahraa Atoui, Nora Darwish, Nabil Karnib, Hala Darwish, Firas Kobeissy, Kevin K W Wang, Eva Hamade, Makram Obeid
Hypoxic encephalopathy of the newborn is a major cause of long-term neurological sequelae. We have previously shown that CEP-701 (lestaurtinib), a drug with an established safety profile in children, attenuates short-term hyperexcitability and tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptor activation in a well-established rat model of early life hypoxic seizures (HS). Here, we investigated the potential long-term neuroprotective effects of a post-HS transient CEP-701 treatment. Following exposure to global hypoxia, 10 day old male Sprague-Dawley pups received CEP-701 or its vehicle and were sequentially subjected to the light-dark box test (LDT), forced swim test (FST), open field test (OFT), Morris water maze (MWM), and the modified active avoidance (MAAV) test between postnatal days 24 and 44 (P24-44)...
February 12, 2019: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Shubhangi Singh, Mario Isaac Lumbreras-Marquez, Michaela K Farber, Xinling Xu, Prashant Singh, Terri Gorman, Arvind Palanisamy
BACKGROUND: The risk for transient tachypnea of newborns, a common cause of respiratory distress in the neonatal period, is 2- to 6-fold higher during elective cesarean delivery compared to vaginal delivery. Here, we evaluated the association between transient tachypnea of newborns and the degree and duration of predelivery maternal hypotension during spinal anesthesia for elective cesarean delivery. METHODS: Demographic data, details of anesthetic management, blood pressure measurements, and vasopressor requirement preceding delivery were compared between transient tachypnea newborns (n = 30) and healthy neonates (n = 151) with normal respiratory function born via elective cesarean delivery between July 2015 and February 2016...
February 12, 2019: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Brooke Gertz, Emily DeFranco
This study compared predictors of breastfeeding non-initiation between infants who were and were not admitted to the NICU so that interventions can target high-risk mothers whose infants desperately need breastmilk. This was a population-based retrospective cohort study of singleton Ohio live births using birth certificates, 2006-2015. In babies who were and were not admitted to the NICU, a multivariable logistic regression model assessed the association between breastfeeding non-initiation and predictors relating to the mother, neonate, and labor and delivery events while adjusting for covariables...
February 14, 2019: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Joanna Jaworska, Teresa Zalewska, Joanna Sypecka, Malgorzata Ziemka-Nalecz
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury likely represents the major cause of long-term neurodevelopmental disabilities in surviving babies. Despite significant investigations, there is not yet any known reliable treatment to reduce brain damage in suffering infants. Our recent studies in an animal model of HI revealed the therapeutic potential of a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi). The neuroprotective action was connected with the stimulation of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone. In the current study, we investigated whether HDACi-sodium butyrate (SB)-would also lead to neurogenesis in the subventricular zone (SVZ)...
February 14, 2019: Molecular Neurobiology
Ifeanyichukwu Offor, Olufunsho Awodele, Kazeem A Oshikoya
Birth defects are important causes of neonatal morbidity and mortality. A good understanding of the etiology is a vital step toward developing improved treatment and preventive strategies. We conducted an audit of medical records of newborns with birth abnormalities in a tertiary hospital over a 10-year period, using a Pro forma designed to collect information on obstetric history, antenatal history, sociodemographics of parents, and the type of birth abnormality. Of the 180 medical records reviewed, female babies were 92 (51...
February 2019: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
Teje Adane, Berihun Assefa Dachew
Background: Low birth weight is one of the public health problems in the globe and it is an indicator of the health of the newborn survival and the mother's nutrition and health status. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of low birth weight and its associated factors among mothers who gave birth at Bahir Dar Felege Hiwot referral hospital. Methods: A cross-sectional facility based study was conducted from March 18 to May 18 / 2015. A total of 662 mothers were included in the study...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Zhijun Zeng, Xia Huo, Yu Zhang, Machteld N Hylkema, Yousheng Wu, Xijin Xu
This study explored the effects of maternal exposure to e-waste environmental heavy metals on neonatal DNA methylation patterns. Neonatal umbilical cord blood (UCB) samples were collected from participants that resided in an e-waste recycling area, Guiyu and a nearby non-e-waste area, Haojiang in China. The concentrations of UCB lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), manganese (Mn) and chromium (Cr) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation at 473, 844 CpG sites (CpGs) were assessed by Illumina 450 K BeadChip...
January 6, 2019: Environmental Research
Seohyuk Lee, Nicholas Czuzoj-Shulman, Haim Arie Abenhaim
Background Behcet's disease (BD) is a rare, multi-systemic inflammatory disorder for which only limited and contradictory data exists in the context of pregnancy. Our objective was to estimate the prevalence of BD in pregnancy and to evaluate maternal and fetal outcomes associated with pregnant women living with BD. Methods Using the 1999-2013 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project-Nationwide Inpatient Sample from the United States, we performed a population-based retrospective cohort study consisting of pregnancies that occurred during this time period...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
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