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Plants And Pest

Maliheh Safari, Matthew J Ferrari, Marilyn J Roossinck
Plants are frequently infected with cytoplasmic RNA viruses that persist for many generations through nearly 100% vertical transmission without producing any symptoms. Movement between plant cells and horizontal transmission has not been observed in these viruses; instead they are distributed to all host cells through host cell division. Jalapeño peppers ( Capsicum annuum ) are all infected with Pepper cryptic virus 1 (PCV 1, family Partitiviridae ). We compared the effect of odor cues from PCV 1 infected (J+) and virus free (J-) Jalapeño pepper on the aphid Myzus periscae , a common vector of acute plant viruses...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virology
Émilie D Tremblay, Troy Kimoto, Jean A Bérubé, Guillaume J Bilodeau
Studying the means of dispersal of plant pathogens is crucial to better understand the dynamic interactions involved in plant infections. On one hand, entomologists rely mostly on both traditional molecular methods and morphological characteristics, to identify pests. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is becoming the go-to avenue for scientists studying phytopathogens. These organisms sometimes infect plants, together with insects. Considering the growing number of exotic insect introductions in Canada, forest pest-management efforts would benefit from the development of a high-throughput strategy to investigate the phytopathogenic fungal and oomycete species interacting with wood-boring insects...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Miriam F Cooperband, Jacob Wickham, Kaitlin Cleary, Sven-Erik Spichiger, Longwa Zhang, John Baker, Isaiah Canlas, Nathan Derstine, Daniel Carrillo
The spotted lanternfly, Lycorma delicatula (White), is an invasive phloem feeder recently introduced into North America that attacks a broad range of woody plants. When feeding in large numbers, they can seriously damage or kill a tree. Their preferred host is the invasive tree-of-heaven, Ailanthus altissima Swingle (Sapindales: Simaroubaceae), but they are serious pests of grape, Vitis vinifera L. (Vitales: Vitaceae) and a number of other commercially important host plants. Volatile collections were conducted on tree-of-heaven and grape, and the most abundant compounds from these plants present in samples and indicated in the literature were tested for attraction in the laboratory and field...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Muhammad Saad Waqas, Lixin Qian, Ali Ahmed Zaky Shoaib, Xinlai Cheng, Qianqian Zhang, Asem Saad Saad Elabasy, Zuhua Shi
Acetamiprid and imidacloprid are two important neonicotinoid insecticides that are widely utilized under field conditions for the management of sucking insect pests, including the solenopsis mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Although some information is available regarding their lethal effects, nothing is currently known about the sublethal effects of these insecticides. We, therefore, performed a series of experiments to test the lethal and sublethal effects of these chemicals on oviposition duration and fecundity...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dale W Spurgeon, Colin S Brent
Thermal environments of the arid western United States are often harsh compared with the ranges of temperatures favorable for development and survival of crop insect pests. In cotton [Gossypium spp. (Malvales: Malvaceae)], new irrigation practices such as deficit irrigation may impact populations of pest and beneficial arthropods by temporarily altering temperature profiles within the plant canopy. Most information regarding the temperature-dependent development and survival of an important cotton pest, the western tarnished plant bug (Lygus hesperus Knight), is derived from constant temperature studies...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Insect Science
Priyanka Mittapelly, Raman Bansal, Andy Michel
Cytochrome (CYP) P450s are a superfamily of enzymes that detoxify xenobiotics and regulate numerous physiological processes in insects. The genomes of phytophagous insects usually contain large numbers of P450s, especially within the CYP3 clan. Within this clan, CYP6 subfamily members help detoxify plant host secondary metabolites. In this study, we analyzed three CYP6 genes in the highly polyphagous invasive pest, Halyomorpha halys (Stål), commonly known as brown marmorated stink bug. We characterized and validated the expression of HhCYP6BQ27, HhCYP6BK13, and HhCYP6BK24 among sexes, tissues (gut, fat body, and Malpighian tubules) and hosts (apple, corn, soybean)...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Katia Plouznikoff, Maria J Asins, Hervé Dupré de Boulois, Emilio A Carbonell, Stéphane Declerck
Background and Aims: Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play an important role in plant nutrition and protection against pests and diseases, as well as in soil structuration, nutrient cycling and, generally speaking, in sustainable agriculture, particularly under drought, salinity and low input or organic agriculture. However, little is known about the genetics of the AMF-plant association in tomato. The aim of this study was the genetic analysis of root AMF colonization in tomato via the detection of the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) involved...
February 9, 2019: Annals of Botany
Nicky Wybouw, Olivia Kosterlitz, Andre H Kurlovs, Sabina Bajda, Robert Greenhalgh, Simon Snoeck, Huyen Bui, Astrid Bryon, Wannes Dermauw, Thomas Van Leeuwen, Richard M Clark
Pesticide resistance arises rapidly in arthropod herbivores, as can host plant adaptation, and both are significant problems in agriculture. These traits have been challenging to study as both are often polygenic and many arthropods are genetically intractable. Here, we examined the genetic architecture of pesticide resistance and host plant adaptation in the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, a global agricultural pest. We show that the short generation time and high fecundity of T. urticae can be readily exploited in experimental evolution designs for high-resolution mapping of quantitative traits...
February 11, 2019: Genetics
Moataza A Dorrah, Amr A Mohamed, El-Sayed H Shaurub
The tetranortriterpenoid azadirachtin (Aza) is a well-known insect growth disruptor of plant origin. Although its actions on insects have been extensively studied; fragmentary reports are available from the immunological point of view. Therefore, in the present study, total (THC) and differential hemocyte counts (DHC), nodulation, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, immune-reactive lysozymes and inducible nitric oxide (NO) were assessed, as measures of immune responses, in Sarcophaga argyrostoma 3rd instars challenged individually with M...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Xin-Ru Li, Yue Li, Wei Wang, Ning He, Xiao-Ling Tan, Xue-Qing Yang
Lambda-cyhalothrin has long been recommended as an effective insecticide to control the oriental armyworm, Mythimna separata (Walker), a notorious migratory pest of agricultural plants. Previous researches have suggested that survival, development, and reproduction of insects are influenced by sublethal concentrations of insecticides. However, the effects of sublethal concentrations of lambda-cyhalothrin on M. separata are less known. In this study, we determined the toxicity and effects of LC20 and LC50 concentration of lambda-cyhalothrin on development and reproduction of M...
January 2019: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Fei Yang, José C Santiago González, Jayme Williams, Donald C Cook, Ryan T Gilreath, And David L Kerns
The corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), is a major pest of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize and cotton in the U.S.. Reduced efficacy of Bt plants expressing Cry1 and Cry2 against H. zea has been reported in some areas of the U.S.. In this study, we evaluated the occurrence and ear damage of H. zea on transgenic Bt maize expressing Cry proteins or a combination of Vip3A and Cry proteins in the field in Texas in 2018. We found that the occurrence of H. zea larvae and the viable kernel damage area on the ear were not different between non-Bt maize and Bt maize expressing Cry1A...
February 9, 2019: Toxins
Mohamed A A Omar, Yan Ao, Meizhen Li, Kang He, Le Xu, Haojie Tong, Jiang Mingxing, Fei Li
The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a polyphagous insect that attacks tens of plant and causes substantial economic loss. Insect chitinases are required to remove the old cuticle to allow for continued growth and development. Though insect chitinases have been well-studied in tens of insects, their functions in mealybug are still not addressed. Here, we sequenced the transcriptomes of adult males and females, from which eight chitinase genes were identified. We then used the method of rapid amplification of cDNA ends to amplify their full-length...
February 9, 2019: Insect Molecular Biology
Kazuki Togashi, Mifumi Goto, Hojun Rim, Sayaka Hattori, Rika Ozawa, Gen-Ichiro Arimura
Mint plants could theoretically serve as companion plants (CPs) that attract enemies of herbivores in tritrophic interactions. In order to explore the traits of mint volatiles as attractant cues for enemies of two-spotted spider mites, we performed Y-tube olfactometer assays of predatory mites, Phytoseiulus persimilis and Neoseiulus californicus, towards three mint species, apple mint, candy mint, and spearmint, as odor source. Clean candy mint and spearmint were attractive to P. persimilis, when compared with clean air and undamaged Phaseolus vulgaris plants serving as the target crop...
February 8, 2019: Scientific Reports
Daniela Bulgari, Matteo Montagna, Emanuela Gobbi, Franco Faoro
The recent and massive revival of green strategies to control plant diseases, mainly as a consequence of the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) rules issued in 2009 by the European Community and the increased consumer awareness of organic products, poses new challenges for human health and food security that need to be addressed in the near future. One of the most important green technologies is biocontrol. This approach is based on living organisms and how these biocontrol agents (BCAs) directly or indirectly interact as a community to control plant pathogens and pest...
February 6, 2019: Microorganisms
Savitha Veeraragavan, Ramamoorthy Duraisamy, Sudhakaran Mani
In the present study, two pod borer larvae were found to damage pods of the host plant Senna alata. As pods (seeds) are commercially important, it prompted the investigators to find out the adult of pod borer larvae by molecular sequencing and reported in this article for the first time from S. alata. Successful amplification was achieved for chloroplast DNA isolated from leaves of host plant S. alata and tissue DNA from unknown larvae and sequenced. The sequences were submitted to NCBI domain, and the taxonomic position of host plant of pod borer larvae was confirmed as S...
February 8, 2019: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
Milan Milenovic, Everlyne Nafula Wosula, Carmelo Rapisarda, James Peter Legg
Whiteflies of the Bemisia tabaci species complex are economically important pests of cassava. In Africa, they cause greatest damage through vectoring viruses responsible for cassava mosaic disease and cassava brown streak disease. Several cryptic species from the B. tabaci complex colonize cassava and neighboring crops, but the feeding interactions between the different crops and B. tabaci species are unknown. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique makes it possible to conduct detailed feeding studies of sap-sucking insects by creating an electric circuit through the insect and the plant...
2019: Frontiers in Plant Science
Qilin Li, Zhongxiang Sun, Qi Shi, Rumeng Wang, Cuicui Xu, Huanhuan Wang, Yuanyuan Song, Rensen Zeng
Plants produce secondary metabolites to provide chemical defense against herbivorous insects, whereas insects can induce the expression of detoxification metabolism-related unigenes in counter defense to plant xenobiotics. Tomatine is an important secondary metabolite in tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum L.) that can protect the plant from bacteria and insects. However, the mechanism underlying the adaptation of Spodoptera litura , a major tomato pest, to tomatine in tomato is largely unclear. In this study, we first found that the levels of tomatine in tomatoes subjected to S...
2019: Frontiers in Physiology
T McKay, M P Bowombe-Toko, L A Starkus, F H Arthur, J F Campbell
The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), is a common pest in rice mills. With limited information in the literature addressing T. castaneum in rice processing facilities, we examined the spatial and temporal distribution of T. castaneum inside and outside of three commercial rice milling facilities and one rice packaging plant from June 2012 to August 2014 using pheromone-baited dome traps. Each mill had very different population trends with fewer numbers collected in rough rice storage areas...
February 4, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
Birhanu Sisay, Tadele Tefera, Mulatu Wakgari, Gashawbeza Ayalew, Esayas Mendesil
Fall armyworm (FAW) was reported for the first time in Africa in 2016. FAW is widely distributed in Ethiopia, causing significant damage to maize. Nine synthetic insecticides belonging to different chemical groups and 11 pesticidal plants (botanicals) were tested for their efficacy against FAW under laboratory, greenhouse, and field conditions. In the laboratory, Radiant, Tracer, Karate, and Ampligo caused over 90% larval mortality 72 h after application. Malathion had moderate activity, causing 51.7% mortality 72 h after application, while Carbaryl was less effective, causing 28% mortality 72 h after application...
February 1, 2019: Insects
Tatyana A Rand, Ellen F Titus, Debra K Waters
Leveraging floral resources to promote biological control requires carefully screening prospective floral species for their suitability not just for natural enemies, but also for targeted pests. Here we examined the influence of access to various sugar resources on Cephus cinctus Norton (Hymenoptera: Cephidae), a major pest of wheat in the northern Great Plains of North America. We conducted greenhouse studies to examine the effect of access to a honey-sucrose solution, three flowering plant species, and aphid honeydew, on the longevity and potential fecundity of C...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Economic Entomology
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