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Cancer Ai

Simon Heeke, Hervé Delingette, Youta Fanjat, Elodie Long-Mira, Sandra Lassalle, Véronique Hofman, Jonathan Benzaquen, Charles-Hugo Marquette, Paul Hofman, Marius Ilié
Histopathology is the fundamental tool of pathology used for more than a century to establish the final diagnosis of lung cancer. In addition, the phenotypic data contained in the histological images reflects the overall effect of molecular alterations on the behavior of cancer cells and provides a practical visual reading of the aggressiveness of the disease. However, the human evaluation of the histological images is sometimes subjective and may lack reproducibility. Therefore, computational analysis of histological imaging using so-called "artificial intelligence" (AI) approaches has recently received considerable attention to improve this diagnostic accuracy...
February 13, 2019: Annales de Pathologie
Cong Wang, Zhenglin Wang, Wei Liu, Zhilong Ai
CD133+ cancer stem cells are responsible for thyroid cancer initiation. The regulatory pathways essential for sustaining the self-renewal of thyroid cancer stem cells remain largely unknown. Glutamate signaling regulates the self-renewal ability of stem cells. In the present study, we found that the level of glutamate was higher in CD133+ thyroid cancer cells than in CD133- thyroid cancer cells. The transcriptional level of glutamate aspartate transporter SLC1A3 was high in CD133+ thyroid cancer cells. Activation of NF-κB signaling by CD133 was responsible for SLC1A3 high transcription level in CD133+ thyroid cancer cells...
February 13, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yutaka Hattori, Masaya Nakauchi, Yasuhiro Tsuru, Sayaka Amano, Ai Goto, Makoto Tomatsu, Kenichi Nakamura, Kenji Kikuchi, Shinichi Kadoya, Kazuki Inaba, Yutaro Kato, Tsunekazu Hanai, Atsushi Sugioka, Ichiro Uyama
This case involved a 69-year-old female patient with peritoneal dissemination of an advanced gastric cancer. She underwent chemotherapy comprisingintravenous and intraperitoneal paclitaxel combined with S-1. After 20 courses, a staging laparoscopy was performed, and pathological analysis of the peritoneal dissemination and cytologic analysis of ascites fluid yielded negative results. A radical robot-assisted total gastrectomy was successfully performed. The pathological stage was determined to be ypT4aN2M0, ypStage ⅢB...
January 2019: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Jian Xu, Yan Su, Aoshuang Xu, Fengjuan Fan, Shidai Mu, Lei Chen, Zhangbo Chu, Bo Zhang, Haifan Huang, Jiasi Zhang, Jun Deng, Lisha Ai, Chunyan Sun, Yu Hu
Inherent or acquired resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs is still an obstacle for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). MicroRNA dysregulation is related to the development of chemoresistance in cancers. However, its role in chemoresistance of MM is largely unknown. Here we demonstrated that miR-221/222 were upregulated in plasma cells from patients with MM, especially those with relapsed or refractory disease. Moreover, expression levels of miR-221/222 were inversely correlated with dexamethasone (Dex) sensitivity of human MM cell lines...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Taisuke Matsuoka, Yoichiro Yoshida, Naoya Aisu, Teppei Yamada, Ai Mogi, Akira Komono, Ryohei Sakamoto, Daibo Kojima, Gumpei Yoshimatsu, Fumiaki Kiyomi, Shohta Kodama, Suguru Hasegawa
Oxaliplatin is a key chemotherapy drug in patients with colorectal cancer. Administration of oxaliplatin via a peripheral vein often causes vascular pain. However, no studies have evaluated vascular pain in patients with colorectal cancer in relation to peripheral venous administration of chemotherapy with or without oxaliplatin. We evaluated oxaliplatin-induced vascular pain using subjective and objective methods. We determined if oxaliplatin induced vascular pain in patients with colorectal cancer using a Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and a PainVision PS-2100 device...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Joseph L Jilek, Qian-Yu Zhang, Mei-Juan Tu, Pui Yan Ho, Zhijian Duan, Jing-Xin Qiu, Ai-Ming Yu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths, warranting better therapies. Restoration of tumor-suppressive microRNAs depleted in hepatocellular carcinoma represents a new therapeutic strategy. Herein, we sought to identify a potent microRNA (miRNA) agent that could alleviate HCC tumor burden and improve survival. Among a collection of bioengineered noncoding RNA molecules produced through bacterial fermentation, we identified let-7c agent as the most potent inhibitor of HCC cell viability...
January 24, 2019: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Landry K Kamdem, Jingyue Xi, Brandi L Clark, Bryana J Gregory, Kelley M Kidwell, Ana-Maria Storniolo, Vered Stearns, Daniel F Hayes, Christina L Gersch, James M Rae, N Lynn Henry, Daniel L Hertz
PURPOSE: UGT2B17 gene deletion (UGT2B17*2) has been reported to affect bone health as well as the pharmacokinetics of aromatase inhibitor (AI) drugs such as exemestane. The goal of this study was to assess associations between UGT2B17 gene deletion and bone health prior to and after 24 months of AI treatment in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor positive (HR+) breast cancer. METHODS: Bone health in women with HR+ breast cancer enrolled on the prospective randomized Exemestane and Letrozole Pharmacogenetics (ELPh) trial was determined by measuring bone turnover markers (BTM) and bone mineral density (BMD) pre-treatment and after 3 BTM and 24 BMD months of treatment with either the steroidal AI exemestane or the nonsteroidal AI letrozole...
February 12, 2019: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Hao Gao, Xiao-Yan Meng, Hong-Qian Wang, Feng-Feng Zhu, Ai-Ling Guo, Mei Zhu, Jin-Chao Song, Wei-Feng Yu
Background: Recently published studies suggest that the anaesthetic technique used during oncologic surgery can improve patient outcomes. Therefore, the authors evaluated the survival of patients with resected colorectal carcinoma liver metastases (CRCLMs) who received either EGA (general anaesthesia [GA] combined with epidural anaesthesia [EA]) or GA alone. Methods: We conducted an ambispective cohort study including 225 post-surgical CRCLM patients between May 2007 and July 2012 and performed a follow-up investigation of survival in July 2017...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Matthew Ruffalo, Roby Thomas, Jian Chen, Adrian V Lee, Steffi Oesterreich, Ziv Bar-Joseph
Prediction of response to specific cancer treatments is complicated by significant heterogeneity between tumors in terms of mutational profiles, gene expression, and clinical measures. Here we focus on the response of Estrogen Receptor (ER)+ post-menopausal breast cancer tumors to aromatase inhibitors (AI). We use a network smoothing algorithm to learn novel features that integrate several types of high throughput data and new cell line experiments. These features greatly improve the ability to predict response to AI when compared to prior methods...
February 11, 2019: PLoS Computational Biology
Ai Kubo, Andrea Altschuler, Elaine Kurtovich, Sarah Hendlish, Cecile A Laurent, Tatjana Kolevska, Yan Li, Andrew Avins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Mindfulness
Vibha Singh, Praveen Kumar Jaiswal, Ishita Ghosh, Hari K Koul, Xiuping Yu, Arrigo De Benedetti
Standard therapy for advanced Prostate Cancer (PCa) consists of anti-androgens, which provide respite from disease progression, but ultimately fail resulting in the incurable phase of the disease: mCRPC. Targeting PCa cells before their progression to mCRPC would greatly improve the outcome. Combination therapy targeting the DNA Damage Response (DDR) has been limited by general toxicity, and a goal of clinical trials is how to target the DDR more specifically. We now show that androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of LNCaP cells results in increased expression of TLK1B, a key kinase upstream of NEK1 and ATR and mediating the DDR that typically results in a temporary cell cycle arrest of androgen responsive PCa cells...
February 9, 2019: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Tung-Yi Lin, Ai-Jung Tseng, Wei-Lun Qiu, Chi-Hsein Chao, Mei-Kuang Lu
SGA is a sulfated glucan from Antrodia cinnamomea. In this study, we showed that SGA suppressed tumor growth in vitro and in vivo. SGA also potentiated cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells. TGFβ signaling and overexpression of Slug are regarded as the critical events in lung tumor malignancy. Functional studies revealed that SGA inhibited the TGFβ/FAK/AKT axis by inducing lipid-raft-mediated lysosome-dependent TGFβ receptor degradation, resulting in suppressing cancer cell viability and migration...
April 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Ai Kohata, P K Hashim, Kou Okuro, Takuzo Aida
Transferrin (Tf) is known to induce transcytosis, which is a consecutive endocytosis/exocytosis event. We developed a Tf-appended nanocaplet (Tf NC⊃siRNA) for the purpose of realizing siRNA delivery into deep tissues and RNA interference (RNAi) subsequently. For obtaining Tf NC⊃siRNA, a macromonomer (Az Gu) bearing multiple guanidinium ion (Gu+ ) units, azide (N3 ) groups, and trityl (Trt)-protected thiol groups in the main chain, side chains, and termini, respectively, was newly designed. Because of a multivalent Gu+ -phosphate salt-bridge interaction, Az Gu can adhere to siRNA along its strand...
February 6, 2019: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Wenya Linda Bi, Ahmed Hosny, Matthew B Schabath, Maryellen L Giger, Nicolai J Birkbak, Alireza Mehrtash, Tavis Allison, Omar Arnaout, Christopher Abbosh, Ian F Dunn, Raymond H Mak, Rulla M Tamimi, Clare M Tempany, Charles Swanton, Udo Hoffmann, Lawrence H Schwartz, Robert J Gillies, Raymond Y Huang, Hugo J W L Aerts
Judgement, as one of the core tenets of medicine, relies upon the integration of multilayered data with nuanced decision making. Cancer offers a unique context for medical decisions given not only its variegated forms with evolution of disease but also the need to take into account the individual condition of patients, their ability to receive treatment, and their responses to treatment. Challenges remain in the accurate detection, characterization, and monitoring of cancers despite improved technologies. Radiographic assessment of disease most commonly relies upon visual evaluations, the interpretations of which may be augmented by advanced computational analyses...
February 5, 2019: CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians
Yuh-Shyan Tsai, Yeong-Chin Jou, Hsin-Tzu Tsai, Ai-Li Shiau, Chao-Liang Wu, Tzong-Shin Tzai
Prothymosin-α (PTMA) is a small, acidic protein that is usually transported into the nucleus and involves many cellular and immunologic functions. Previous studies demonstrated that aberrant location of PTMA expression exists in human bladder cancer, but the role of PTMA protein expression remains elusive. In this study, we created ectopic nuclear or cytoplasmic PTMA expression in human bladder cancer cells by infecting lentiviruses carrying wild-type, or deleted nuclear localization signal of PTMA gene. The in vivo tumorigenesis assay showed PTMA protein with deleted nuclear localization signal promotes J82 xenograft tumor growth in mice and shortens their survival than does the wild-type one...
February 4, 2019: Cancer Science
Xueli Zhang, Xiao-Feng Sun, Bairong Shen, Hong Zhang
In order to find out the most valuable biomarkers and pathways for diagnosis, therapy and prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) we have collected the published CRC biomarkers and established a CRC biomarker database (CBD: In this study, we analysed the single and multiple DNA, RNA and protein biomarkers as well as their positions in cancer related pathways and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks to describe their potential applications in diagnosis, therapy and prognosis...
February 1, 2019: Cancers
Dongmei Ai, Hongfei Pan, Rongbao Han, Xiaoxin Li, Gang Liu, Li C Xia
The imbalance of human gut microbiota has been associated with colorectal cancer. In recent years, metagenomics research has provided a large amount of scientific data enabling us to study the dedicated roles of gut microbes in the onset and progression of cancer. We removed unrelated and redundant features during feature selection by mutual information. We then trained a random forest classifier on a large metagenomics dataset of colorectal cancer patients and healthy people assembled from published reports and extracted and analysed the information from the learned decision trees...
February 1, 2019: Genes
Ai-Jun Ma, Joseph M Ready
The kigamicins are polycyclic aromatic natural products featuring a tetrahydroxanthone and up to four sugar residues. They are toxic to human cancer cells under nutrient-poor conditions. A synthesis of the natural product skeleton has been achieved from chiral pool materials. Key steps include a regioselective hydration of a diarylalkyne and two oxidative cyclizations.
February 4, 2019: Organic Letters
Ruth M Ayling, Stephen J Lewis, Finbarr Cotter
Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is the most common cause of anaemia and a frequent indication for colonoscopy, although the prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in IDA is low. Measurement of faecal haemoglobin by immunochemical techniques (FIT) is used to detect symptomatic patients. We studied FIT in patients with anaemia attending a gastroenterology clinic in Plymouth and looked at an artificial intelligence (AI) learning algorithm (ColonFlag™) in these patients, together with a cohort who had undergone colonoscopy for IDA in London...
February 3, 2019: British Journal of Haematology
J I Arraras, J J Illarramendi, A Manterola, G Asin, E Salgado, P Arrondo, M A Dominguez, V Arrazubi, E Martinez, A Viudez, S de la Cruz, R Vera
PURPOSE: In this paper we study the quality of life (QoL) of elderly breast cancer patients receiving endocrine treatment (ET). More QoL data on elderly patients treated with ET are needed. Our aims are to study QoL in early-stage breast cancer patients throughout the treatment period and compare the QoL of ET groups. METHODS: 148 patients > 65 years who began ET with either tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor (AI) completed the EORTC QLQ-C30 and QLQ-BR23 and the Interview for Deterioration in Daily Living Activities in Dementia (IDDD) questionnaires three times over 3 years of ET...
February 2, 2019: Clinical & Translational Oncology
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