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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30738010/zinc-induced-activation-of-gpr39-regulates-glucose-homeostasis-through-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-k-cells
#1
Brian M Moran, Michael G Miskelly, Yasser H A Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt, Aine M McKillop
The role of Zn2+-sensing receptor GPR39 on glucose homeostasis and incretin regulation was assessed in enteroendocrine L- and K-cells. Anti-hyperglycaemic, insulinotropic and incretin secreting properties of Zn2+ were explored in normal, diabetic and incretin receptor knockout mice. Compared to intraperitoneal injection, oral administration of Zn2+ (50 μmol/kg body weight) with glucose (18 mmol/kg) in lean mice reduced the glycaemic excursion by 25-34% (p<0.05-p<0.001) and enhanced glucose-induced insulin release by 46-48% (p<0...
December 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30683904/stc-1-ameliorates-renal-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy-by-inhibiting-the-expression-of-bnip3-through-the-ampk-sirt3-pathway
#2
Zhiwen Liu, Hong Liu, Li Xiao, Guoyong Liu, Lin Sun, Liyu He
Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals with diabetes, and it is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) worldwide. Stanniocalcin-1 (STC-1) is present in various tissues, and it has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities, which play a role in kidney protection, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). However, the mechanism that underlies these effects remains unknown. This study suggests that STC-1 ameliorates oxidative stress and cell apoptosis in the kidneys of db/db mice and high glucose (HG)-treated BUMPT cells by inhibiting Bnip3 expression through AMPK/Sirt3 pathway activation...
January 25, 2019: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30669676/hdac1-and-hdac2-double-knockout-triggers-cell-apoptosis-in-advanced-thyroid-cancer
#3
Ching-Ling Lin, Ming-Lin Tsai, Chun-Yu Lin, Kai-Wen Hsu, Wen-Shyang Hsieh, Wei-Ming Chi, Li-Chi Huang, Chia-Hwa Lee
Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) and squamous thyroid carcinoma (STC) are both rare and advanced thyroid malignancies with a very poor prognosis and an average median survival time of 5 months and less than 20% of affected patients are alive 1 year after diagnosis. The clinical management of both ATC and STC is very similar because they are not particularly responsive to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. This inspired us to explore a novel and effective clinically approved therapy for ATC treatment. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) drugs are recently FDA-approved drug for malignancies, especially for blood cell cancers...
January 21, 2019: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30607691/4-phenylbutyric-acid-attenuates-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-mediated-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis-in-rats-with-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#4
Yun-Dong You, Wen-Hong Deng, Wen-Yi Guo, Liang Zhao, Fang-Chao Mei, Yu-Pu Hong, Yu Zhou, Jia Yu, Sheng Xu, Wei-Xing Wang
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to determine whether intestinal epithelial cell (IECs) apoptosis could be induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and the role of chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) in SAP-associated intestinal barrier injury. METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: the sham operation group, the SAP group, and the SAP model plus 4-PBA treatment group (4-PBA group)...
January 4, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30536761/farnesoid-x-receptor-interacts-with-camp-response-element-binding-protein-to-modulate-glucagon-like-peptide-1-7-36-amide-secretion-by-intestinal-l-cell
#5
Pengzhou Li, Liyong Zhu, Xiangwu Yang, Weizheng Li, Xulong Sun, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
Type II diabetes is a complex, chronic, and progressive disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone released from the L cells which stimulate insulin secretion and promotes insulin gene expression and β-cell growth and differentiation. Elevated levels of hormones secreted by L cells are an essential reason for diabetes improvement. GLP-1 secretion has been reported to be regulated by farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a transcriptional sensor for bile acids which also acts on glucose metabolism...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30226521/in-vitro-effect-of-green-tea-and-turmeric-extracts-on-glp-1-and-cck-secretion-the-effect-of-gastrointestinal-digestion
#6
David Planes-Muñoz, Rubén López-Nicolás, Carlos A González-Bermúdez, Gaspar Ros-Berruezo, Carmen Frontela-Saseta
Plant extract activity can be modified by the digestion process. In order to assess the satiety effect of green tea and turmeric extracts, an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process was performed and the STC-1 cell line was used. The enteroendocrine cell line was incubated (for 30, 60 and 120 minutes) with the digested and non-digested extracts measuring the secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The release of satiety hormones by the STC-1 cells showed similar or higher results for plant extracts compared to the positive controls reported as satiatogenic (proteins and short chain fatty acids)...
October 17, 2018: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30103430/enhanced-antibacterial-activity-of-silver-doped-titanium-dioxide-chitosan-composites-under-visible-light
#7
Jie Li, Bing Xie, Kai Xia, Yingchun Li, Jing Han, Chunmao Zhao
Nano titanium dioxide (TiO₂) with photocatalytic activity was firstly modified by diethanolamine, and it was then doped with broad spectrum antibacterial silver (Ag) by in situ method. Further, both Ag doped TiO₂-chitosan (STC) and TiO₂-chitosan (TC) composites were prepared by the inverse emulsion cross-linking reaction. The antibacterial activities of STC composites were studied and their antibacterial mechanisms under visible light were investigated. The results show that in situ doping and inverse emulsion method led to good dispersion of Ag and TiO₂ nanoparticles on the cross-linked chitosan microsphere...
August 10, 2018: Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30091426/stimulation-of-cck-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression-in-stc-1-cells-by-human-jejunal-contents-and-in-vitro-gastrointestinal-digests-from-casein-and-whey-proteins
#8
Marta Santos-Hernández, Daniel Tomé, Claire Gaudichon, Isidra Recio
The present study evaluates casein and whey protein gastrointestinal digests as inducers of CCK and GLP-1 secretion and expression in STC-1 cells. In vitro digests were characterized regarding protein, peptide and free amino acid content. Digests from the intestinal phase containing small size peptides and free amino acids behaved as more potent CCK inducers than digests from the gastric phase. However, GLP-1 release was maximized with casein gastric digests and whey protein intestinal digests. Human jejunal digests from the same substrates showed a comparable response, except for casein jejunal digests which exerted a higher effect than in vitro casein gastrointestinal digests...
September 19, 2018: Food & Function
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30036756/gene-profiles-to-characterize-the-combined-toxicity-induced-by-low-level-co-exposure-of-silica-nanoparticles-and-benzo-a-pyrene-using-whole-genome-microarrays-in-zebrafish-embryos
#9
Collins Otieno Asweto, Hejing Hu, Shuang Liang, Lijing Wang, Mengdi Liu, Han Yang, Junchao Duan, Zhiwei Sun
Several studies have suggested that air pollutants combine exposure have greater adverse effects. However, limited studies were available on the combined toxicity of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) and benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P). The study was to evaluate the toxic effect and mechanisms of low-dose exposure of SiNPs, B[a]P and co-exposure in zebrafish embryos. In this study, zebrafish embryos received intravenous microinjection of SiNPs and B[a]P, and then was used to select differentially expressed genes by microarray analysis...
November 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29992577/ovine-vital-neutrophil-extracellular-traps-bind-and-impair-haemonchus-contortus-l3-in-a-breed-dependent-manner
#10
Javier J Garza, Scott P Greiner, Scott A Bowdridge
This study aimed to characterize neutrophil response to Haemonchus contortus (Hc) in vitro using cells from parasite-resistant St. Croix (STC) and parasite-susceptible Suffolk (SUF) sheep. Neutrophils from Hc-primed and naive STC and SUF sheep were incubated with Hc larval antigen (HcLA), Hc worm antigen (HcWA) or complete media (CM). After HcLA exposure, neutrophils from STC and SUF formed extracellular traps composed of DNA. Stimulation with HcLA induced a 35-fold increase in extracellular DNA compared to CM controls...
September 2018: Parasite Immunology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29940597/farnesoid-x-receptor-fxr-interacts-with-camp-response-element-binding-protein-creb-to-modulate-glucagon-like-peptide-1-7-36-amide-glp-1-secretion-by-intestinal-l-cell
#11
Pengzhou Li, Liyong Zhu, Xiangwu Yang, Weizheng Li, Xulong Sun, Bo Yi, Shaihong Zhu
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Type II diabetes is a complex, chronic, and progressive disease. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-6) amide (GLP-1) is a gut hormone released from the L cells which stimulates insulin secretion, and promotes insulin gene expression and β-cell growth and differentiation. Elevated levels of hormone secreted by L cells are an important reason for diabetes improvement. GLP-1 secretion has been reported to be regulated by farnesoid X receptor (FXR), a transcriptional sensor for bile acids which also acts on glucose metabolism...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29938900/novel-mechanism-of-fatty-acid-sensing-in-enteroendocrine-cells-specific-structures-in-oxo-fatty-acids-produced-by-gut-bacteria-are-responsible-for-cck-secretion-in-stc-1-cells-via-gpr40
#12
Tohru Hira, Shono Ogasawara, Asuka Yahagi, Minami Kamachi, Jiaxin Li, Saki Nishimura, Masayoshi Sakaino, Takatoshi Yamashita, Shigenobu Kishino, Jun Ogawa, Hiroshi Hara
SCOPE: The secretion of gut hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CCK) is stimulated by fatty acids. Although a chain length-dependent mechanism has been proposed, other structural relationships to releasing activity remain unclear. We aimed to elucidate specific structures in fatty acids that are responsible for their CCK-releasing activity, and related sensing mechanisms in enteroendocrine cells. METHODS AND RESULTS: CCK secretory activities were examined in a murine CCK-producing cell line STC-1 by exposing the cells to various modified fatty acids produced by gut lactic acid bacteria...
October 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29925160/-establishment-of-a-canine-slow-transit-constipation-model-and-evalution-of-defecation-gastrointestinal-transit-and-pathological-sections
#13
D Zhu, S Chen, S K Yao, Y M Li, S X Chen
Objective: To establish a canine model of slow transit constipation (STC), and to test the changes in defecation, gastrointestinal transit time and pathology sections. Methods: Baseline information was measured in 8 beagle dogs, and these dogs were randomly divided into the control group and the model group. The dogs in model group were given a diet of canned meat, as well as a combination of compound diphenoxylate and alosetron hydrochloride for 5 weeks. Dogs in control group were given normal diet with no special intervention...
June 12, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29859856/takeda-g-protein-coupled-receptor-5-mechanistic-target-of-rapamycin-complex-1-signaling-contributes-to-the-increment-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-production-after-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#14
Hening Zhai, Zhi Li, Miao Peng, Zhaoqi Huang, Tingfeng Qin, Linxi Chen, Hanbing Li, Heng Zhang, Weizhen Zhang, Geyang Xu
BACKGROUND: The mechanism by which Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) increases the secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) remains incompletely defined. Here we investigated whether TGR5-mTORC1 signaling mediates the RYGB-induced alteration in GLP-1 production in mice and human beings. METHODS: Circulating bile acids, TGR5-mTORC1 signaling, GLP-1 synthesis and secretion were determined in lean or obese male C57BL/6 mice with or without RYGB operation, as well as in normal glycemic subjects, obese patients with type 2 diabetes before and after RYGB...
June 2018: EBioMedicine
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29800682/pancreatic-cancer-derived-exosomes-suppress-the-production-of-gip-and-glp-1-from-stc-1-cells-in-vitro-by-down-regulating-the-pcsk1-3
#15
Yuefeng Zhang, Shifei Huang, Pengping Li, Qing Chen, Yongzhou Li, Yizhao Zhou, Lantian Wang, Muxing Kang, Bo Zhang, Bin Yang, Xin Dong, Yulian Wu
One hallmark of pancreatic cancer (PC) is the high prevalence of pancreatic cancer-associated diabetes mellitus (PC-DM), but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Patients with PC who are diagnosed with new-onset diabetes/prediabetes have recently been shown to display significantly lower levels of glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP) secreted mainly by enteroendocrine cells. We hypothesized that PC-derived exosomes are responsible for the decreased levels of incretins in patients with PC-DM. In this study, exosomes were successfully isolated from PANC-1, MIA PaCa-2 and SW620 cells and characterized...
September 1, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29721098/capg-enhances-breast-cancer-metastasis-by-competing-with-prmt5-to-modulate-stc-1-transcription
#16
Sheng Huang, Yayun Chi, Yi Qin, Ziliang Wang, Bingqiu Xiu, Yonghui Su, Rong Guo, Liang Guo, Hefen Sun, Chujia Zeng, Shuling Zhou, Xin Hu, Sheng Liu, Zhimin Shao, Zhaohui Wu, Wei Jin, Jiong Wu
Macrophage-capping protein (CAPG) has been shown to promote cancer cell metastasis, although the mechanism remains poorly understood. Methods: Breast cancer (BC) tissue microarray was used to test the role of CAPG in the prognosis of BC patients. Xenograft mice model was used to validate the metastasis promotion role of CAPG in vivo. Gene expression array, chromatin immunoprecipitation and luciferase report assay were performed to search for the target genes of CAPG. Protein immunoprecipitation, MS/MS analysis, tissue microarray and histone methyltransferase assay were used to explore the mechanism of CAPG regulating stanniocalcin 1 (STC-1) transcription...
2018: Theranostics
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29627317/intestinal-cart-is-a-regulator-of-gip-and-glp-1-secretion-and-expression
#17
L Shcherbina, A Lindqvist, A-H Thorén Fischer, E Ahlqvist, E Zhang, S E Falkmer, E Renström, J Koffert, H Honka, N Wierup
Impaired incretin effect is a culprit in Type 2 Diabetes. Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) is a regulatory peptide controlling pancreatic islet hormone secretion and beta-cell survival. Here we studied the potential expression of CART in enteroendocrine cells and examined the role of CART as a regulator of incretin secretion and expression. CART expression was found in glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP)-producing K-cells and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-producing L-cells in human duodenum and jejunum and circulating CART levels were increased 60 min after a meal in humans...
November 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29487524/free-total-rhubarb-anthraquinones-protect-intestinal-injury-via-regulation-of-the-intestinal-immune-response-in-a-rat-model-of-severe-acute-pancreatitis
#18
Yuxia Xiong, Li Chen, Ling Fan, Lulu Wang, Yejiang Zhou, Dalian Qin, Qin Sun, Jianming Wu, Shousong Cao
Intestinal mucosal immune barrier dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Rhubarb is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine as a laxative in China. It markedly protects pancreatic acinar cells from trypsin-induced injury in rats. Free total rhubarb anthraquinones (FTRAs) isolated and extracted from rhubarb display the beneficial effects of antibacteria, anti-inflammation, antivirus, and anticancer. The principal aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of FTRAs on the protection of intestinal injury and modification of the intestinal barrier function through regulation of intestinal immune function in rats with SAP...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29478546/a-casein-hydrolysate-increases-glp-1-secretion-and-reduces-food-intake
#19
Fiona O'Halloran, Christine Bruen, Brian McGrath, Harriët Schellekens, Brian Murray, John F Cryan, Alan L Kelly, Paul L H McSweeney, Linda Giblin
In an effort to control weight gain, much attention has focused on the identification of bioactive peptides from food sources that induce satiety hormone secretion and increase the feeling of fullness. In this study, a screening platform identified a sodium caseinate hydrolysate, LFC25, that significantly increased calcium signalling in the enteroendocrine cell line, STC-1, and as a result increased secretion of the satiety hormone, GLP-1, in a dose-dependent manner. Administration of this hydrolysate to mice reduced the cumulative food intake over an eight hour period...
June 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29473020/functional-analysis-of-the-chaperone-usher-fimbrial-gene-clusters-of-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhi
#20
Karine Dufresne, Julie Saulnier-Bellemare, France Daigle
The human-specific pathogen Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi causes typhoid, a major public health issue in developing countries. Several aspects of its pathogenesis are still poorly understood. S . Typhi possesses 14 fimbrial gene clusters including 12 chaperone-usher fimbriae ( stg, sth, bcf , fim, saf , sef , sta, stb, stc, std, ste , and tcf ). These fimbriae are weakly expressed in laboratory conditions and only a few are actually characterized. In this study, expression of all S . Typhi chaperone-usher fimbriae and their potential roles in pathogenesis such as interaction with host cells, motility, or biofilm formation were assessed...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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