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Tobacco smoking

Ewa Jaszczak, Krystyna Kozioł, Bogumiła Kiełbratowska, Żaneta Polkowska
Cyanide (CN) is the biomarker of exposure to the components of tobacco smoke, although its presence in biological samples is also due to the consumption of products containing cyanogenic glycosides. In this work, we determine the concentration of the free cyanide in urine, saliva and breast milk matrices, using ion chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (IC-PAD). IC-PAD is an emerging method, with only few documented applications in urine and saliva, and the presented determination in breast milk is its first published report for any method...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Chen-Chou Wu, Wen-Jing Wang, Lian-Jun Bao, Lei Shi, Shu Tao, Eddy Y Zeng
Vapor-phase constituents of tobacco smoke are known to accumulate on clothing surfaces; however, the significance of texture properties, such as specific surface area, porosity, and surface roughness, and airborne particles to the sorption capacity of fabrics has not been adequately addressed. In the present study, cotton (t-shirt) and polyester (pajama and lab coat) fabrics were exposed to cigarette smoke containing gaseous and particulate tobacco-derived compounds (e.g., N-nitrosamines). Fabric-air distribution coefficients and particle deposition fluxes were then determined to evaluate the accumulation of the target analytes...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Cecilia L Bergeria, Sarah H Heil, Danielle R Davis, Joanna M Streck, Stacey C Sigmon, Janice Y Bunn, Jennifer W Tidey, Chris A Arger, Derek D Reed, Thomas Gallagher, John R Hughes, Diann E Gaalema, Maxine L Stitzer, Stephen T Higgins
BACKGROUND: Nicotine is the addictive component in cigarettes that maintain cigarette smoking that subsequently leads to morbidity and mortality. Methods for assessing the abuse liability of cigarettes are essential to inform new tobacco product standards. This secondary analysis evaluated the utility of one subjective effects measure, the modified Cigarette Evaluation Questionnaire (mCEQ), and one behavioral economic task, the Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT), for predicting acute relative reinforcing efficacy measured by concurrent choice Self-Administration (SA)...
February 13, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Subhashini Arimilli, Patrudu Makena, Gang Liu, G L Prasad
Cigarette smoking exerts diverse physiological effects including immune suppression. To better characterize the biological effects of different categories of tobacco products, a genome-wide gene expression study was performed. Transcriptomic profiling was performed in PBMCs treated with different equi-nicotine units of aqueous extracts of cigarette smoke (termed Whole Smoke-Conditioned Medium, or WS-CM), or a single dose smokeless tobacco extract (STE) prepared from reference tobacco products. WS-CM induced dose-dependent changes in the expression of several genes...
February 15, 2019: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
Nicole E Nicksic, Andrew J Barnes
E-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among youth. In addition to harm potential, e-cigarette use is associated with initiating cigarette smoking. Limited research exists whether susceptibility to e-cigarette use is a risk factor for future tobacco and other substance use initiation. This study examined associations between baseline e-cigarette susceptibility and initiation and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes as well as initiation of marijuana and alcohol one year later, after adjusting for other risk factors and sociodemographic confounders...
February 15, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Ruth Peters, Nicole Ee, Jean Peters, Andrew Booth, Ian Mudway, Kaarin J Anstey
BACKGROUND: Both air pollution and dementia are current and growing global issues. There are plausible links between exposure to specific air pollutants and dementia. OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the evidence base with respect to the relationship between air pollution and later cognitive decline and dementia. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and PsychINFO® were searched from their inception to September 2018, for publications reporting on longitudinal studies of exposure to air pollution and incident dementia or cognitive decline in adults...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Hui G Cheng, Dukernse Augustin, Eric H Glass, James C Anthony
Background: There is limited evidence about the effects of United States (US) nation-level policy changes on the incidence of alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking. To investigate the potential primary prevention effects on precocious drug use and to clarify lag-time issues, we estimated incidence rates for specified intervals anticipating and lagging after drug policy enactment. Our hypotheses are (a) reductions in underage drinking or smoking onset and (b) increases of incidence at the legal age (i...
2019: PeerJ
Federica Pezzuto, Francesco Fortarezza, Francesca Lunardi, Fiorella Calabrese
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC), an aggressive lung tumour with a poor prognosis, has a high load of somatic mutations, mainly induced by tobacco carcinogens given the strong association with smoking. Advances in genomic, epigenetic and proteomic profiling have significantly improved our understanding of the molecular and cellular biology of SCLC. Given the high mutational burden of SCLC the immune microenvironment is another exciting area under investigation even if it seems to be quite distinct from that of other solid tumours...
January 2019: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Kelly Buettner-Schmidt, Donald R Miller, Brody Maack
Tobacco use and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) remain leading causes of preventable disease, disability, and mortality in the United States. Rural populations are among those being left behind in the recent declining smoking rates and have become a focus of discussions on tobacco-related disparities. This article describes tobacco-related disparities in rural populations including tobacco use, exposure to SHS, smoke-free policies, and tobacco taxes. Nurses, as social justice and tobacco control policy advocates, are needed especially at the local level, where much of the policy work occurs and where nursing's voice is respected and can be powerful...
February 17, 2019: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Anna E Epperson, Jan L Wallander, Anna V Song, Sarah Depaoli, Melissa F Peskin, Marc N Elliott, Mark A Schuster
Dual-process theories may be effective at predicting adolescent smoking; however, little is known about the effectiveness of these models across race/ethnicity and gender. Adolescents ( N = 4035) completed biopsychosocial and tobacco-related perception measures in Grade 7 and reported on smoking initiation in Grade 10. Using structural equation modeling and comparing models by gender and race/ethnicity showed differences, where both intentions and willingness predicted smoking initiation for only Black and male adolescents, compared to their Latino and White and female counterparts...
February 17, 2019: Journal of Health Psychology
Maria Grau-Perez, Golareh Agha, Yuanjie Pang, Jose D Bermudez, Maria Tellez-Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Epigenetic modifications are environmentally responsive and may play a mechanistic role in the development of disease. Mendelian randomization uses genetic variation to assess the causal effect of modifiable exposures on health outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of Mendelian randomization studies evaluating the causal role of DNA methylation (DNAm) changes on the development of health states, emphasizing on studies that formally evaluate exposure-DNAm, in addition to DNAm-outcome, causal associations...
February 18, 2019: Current Environmental Health Reports
Luisa Ponzoni, Milena Moretti, Daniela Braida, Michele Zoli, Francesco Clementi, Paola Viani, Mariaelvina Sala, Cecilia Gotti
Cigarette (CIG) smoking often precedes the use of illegal drugs. Electronic-cigarettes (e-CIGs) have been promoted as a means of stopping smoking and reducing the harmful effects of CIGs on the population. However, although e-CIGs eliminate some of the morbidity associated with combustible tobacco, they are still nicotine-delivery devices. In order to study whether the nicotine delivered via e-CIG acts as "a gateway drug" to the use of cannabis, we analysed the behavioural and molecular effects of 7 weeks' pre-exposure to air (AIR), e-CIGs or CIGs on addiction-related conditioned place preference (CPP) in mice using a sub-threshold (0...
February 14, 2019: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Chandra Sekhar Amara, Venkatrao Vantaku, Yair Lotan, Nagireddy Putluri
Metabolomics is a chemical process, involving the characterization of metabolites and cellular metabolism. Recent studies indicate that numerous metabolic pathways are altered in bladder cancer (BLCA), providing potential targets for improved detection and possible therapeutic intervention. We review recent advances in metabolomics related to BLCA and identify various metabolites that may serve as potential biomarkers for BLCA. Areas covered. In this review, we describe the latest advances in defining the BLCA metabolome and discuss the possible clinical utility of metabolic alterations in BLCA tissues, serum, and urine...
February 16, 2019: Expert Review of Proteomics
Muralidhar M Kulkarni, Veena Ganesh Kamath, Joanne Cranwell, John Britton, Gaurang P Nazar, Monika Arora, Kirthinath Ballal, Asha Kamath
BACKGROUND: Exposure to smoking in films causes smoking uptake among adolescents. Investigation of the extent to which tobacco imagery appears, or tobacco control laws are complied with in Indian films is limited, and especially so for films in regional languages. This study presents an analysis of tobacco content and compliance with tobacco control laws in popular films in several languages from the Karnataka state of India. METHODS: We used 5 min interval coding to measure actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia and tobacco branding in the top 10 films identified from national box office ratings and regional distributor reports in Karnataka in 2015 and 2016...
February 16, 2019: Tobacco Control
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Dong Hoon Lee, Maria Laura da Costa Louzada, Mingyang Song, Edward Giovannucci, José Eluf-Neto
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle risk factors (tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption, overweight and obesity, unhealthy diet, and lack of physical activity) have been associated with increased risk of at least 20 types of cancer. We estimated the proportion of cancer cases and deaths that could be potentially avoided by eliminating or reducing lifestyle risk factors in Brazil. METHODS: We obtained the distribution of lifestyle risk factors by sex and age groups from recent representative health surveys in Brazil; relative risks from pooled analyses of prospective studies and meta-analyses; and cancer cases and deaths in 2012 from GLOBOCAN...
February 14, 2019: Cancer Epidemiology
Yoon Suk Jung, Nam Hee Kim, Mi Yeon Lee, Jung Ho Park, Dong Il Park, Chong Il Sohn
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Previous assessments of colorectal neoplasia (CRN) recurrence after polypectomy used self-report to determine smoking status. We evaluated the association between change in smoking status and metachronous CRN risk after polypectomy using cotinine level in urine to determine tobacco exposure. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of participants in the Kangbuk Samsung Health Study, in Korea, who underwent a screening colonoscopy examination and measurement of cotinine in urine samples...
February 14, 2019: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Girija Syamlal, Brian A King, Jacek M Mazurek
INTRODUCTION: Workplace tobacco control interventions reduce smoking and secondhand smoke exposure among U.S. workers. Data on smoke-free workplace policy coverage and cessation programs by industry and occupation are limited. This study assessed smoke-free workplace policies and employer-offered cessation programs among U.S. workers, by industry and occupation. METHODS: Data from the 2014-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey, a random sample of the civilian, non-institutionalized population, were analyzed in 2018...
February 14, 2019: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
L Licari, G Salamone, S Campanella, F Carfì, T Fontana, N Falco, R Tutino, P De Marco, A Comelli, D Cerniglia, G Petrucci, S Vitabile, G Gulotta
BACKGROUND: Incisional hernia is one of the most common complications after abdominal surgery with an incidence rate of 11 to 20% post laparotomy. Many different factors can be considered as risk factors of incisional hernia recurrence. The aim of this study is to confirm and to validate the incisional hernia recurrence risk factors and to identify and to validate new ones. METHODS: In the period from July 2007 to July 2017, 154 patients were selected and subjected to incisional hernia repair...
January 2019: Il Giornale di Chirurgia
Àurea Cartanyà-Hueso, Cristina Lidón-Moyano, Marcela Fu, Raúl Perez-Ortuño, Montse Ballbè, Nuria Matilla-Santander, Juan Carlos Martín-Sánchez, José A Pascual, Esteve Fernández, Jose M Martínez-Sánchez
OBJECTIVE: To compare tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) measured in saliva according to different types of tobacco smoked in a sample of smokers of the city of Barcelona (Spain). METHODS: We used data from a cross-sectional study of a sample of the adult smoking population of Barcelona, Spain in 2013-2014 (n = 165). We classified smokers in five groups according to the type of tobacco smoked: a) manufactured cigarettes only, b) roll-your-own (RYO) cigarettes only, c) dual smokers (both manufactured and RYO cigarettes), d) manufactured plus other types of tobacco products different from RYO and e) other types of tobacco products different from manufactured and RYO cigarettes...
December 6, 2018: Environmental Research
Karen Sugden, Eilis J Hannon, Louise Arseneault, Daniel W Belsky, Jonathan M Broadbent, David L Corcoran, Robert J Hancox, Renate M Houts, Terrie E Moffitt, Richie Poulton, Joseph A Prinz, W Murray Thomson, Benjamin S Williams, Chloe C Y Wong, Jonathan Mill, Avshalom Caspi
Large-scale epigenome-wide association meta-analyses have identified multiple 'signatures'' of smoking. Drawing on these findings, we describe the construction of a polyepigenetic DNA methylation score that indexes smoking behavior and that can be utilized for multiple purposes in population health research. To validate the score, we use data from two birth cohort studies: The Dunedin Longitudinal Study, followed to age-38 years, and the Environmental Risk Study, followed to age-18 years. Longitudinal data show that changes in DNA methylation accumulate with increased exposure to tobacco smoking and attenuate with quitting...
February 15, 2019: Translational Psychiatry
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