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Alternative tobacco product

Stéphanie Boué, Walter K Schlage, David Page, Julia Hoeng, Manuel C Peitsch
Offering safer alternatives to cigarettes, such as e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products, to smokers who are not willing to quit could reduce the harm caused by smoking. Extensive and rigorous scientific studies are conducted to assess the relative risk of such potentially modified risk tobacco products compared with that of smoking cigarettes. In addition to the peer review of publications reporting individual studies, we aimed to gauge the plausibility of the evidence to the scientific community and appreciate likely necessary additions prior to regulatory submission, we sponsored a two-tier peer review organized by an independent third party who identified, recruited, and managed 7 panels of 5-12 experts whose identity remains unknown to us...
March 13, 2019: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Sophia Barhdadi, Bart Desmedt, Patricia Courselle, Vera Rogiers, Tamara Vanhaecke, Eric Deconinck
The electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) has emerged as a popular alternative to the traditional hazardous tobacco cigarette. The substantial increase in e-cigarette use also urgently calls for controlling the quality of e-cigarette refill liquid products (e-liquids). Currently, the most important quality indicator of e-liquid products is the quantification of nicotine and its related impurities. Although different methods have been published to measure nicotine and impurity levels, the majority of them use a targeted LC-MS/MS approach...
March 2, 2019: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Yiming Bi, Shitou Li, Lili Zhang, Yongsheng Li, Wenmiao He, Jinxin Tie, Fu Liao, Xianwei Hao, Yunong Tian, Liang Tang, Jizhong Wu, Hui Wang, Qingquan Xu
Herein we propose near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy as a rapid method of evaluating the quality of agricultural products. Unlike existing quantitative or qualitative models, quality similarity is characterised using spectral similarity. Key factors of the spectral similarity method were investigated, including variable selection, pre-processing and similarity measures. Sophisticated techniques were developed to ensure the reliability of similarity algorithm. The proposed method was tested by quality similarity of flue-cured tobacco samples...
March 6, 2019: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Sandeep Kumar, Priyanka Kumari, Ruchika Gupta, Siddharth Kumar Singh, Shruti Sinha, Palkin Mehta, Simran Kumari Chourasia
Background Oral cancer is most common cancer globally and is one of the most life-threatening conditions worldwide. Aim To assess the knowledge and awareness of oral cancer and the impact of pictorial warnings on the willingness to quit tobacco in young tobacco consumers in India. Methods This cross-sectional study included 250 young tobacco consumers from Ranchi, Jharkhand. A pretested validated questionnaire was used that collected information on knowledge and awareness of oral cancer from the respondents...
December 22, 2018: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
William Brady DeHart, Alexandra M Mellis, Brent A Kaplan, Derek A Pope, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: The Experimental Tobacco Marketplace (ETM) is a digital storefront in which participants can purchase tobacco products using an account balance that reflects their typical tobacco product purchasing. The ETM is also an ideal resource to investigate the harm-reduction potential of alternative nicotine products such as e-cigarettes. In a series of experiments, we explored the effects of harm-reduction narratives that encouraged e-cigarette substitution of conventional cigarettes in the ETM...
February 19, 2019: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Georgia Skotsimara, Alexios S Antonopoulos, Evangelos Oikonomou, Gerasimos Siasos, Nikolaos Ioakeimidis, Sotirios Tsalamandris, Georgios Charalambous, Nikos Galiatsatos, Charalambos Vlachopoulos, Dimitris Tousoulis
AIMS: The electronic cigarette is marketed as a safe alternative to tobacco smoking, but electronic cigarette cardiovascular effects remain largely unknown. We systematically reviewed and meta-analysed published literature to investigate the cardiovascular effects and associated risk from electronic cigarette use. METHODS AND RESULTS: We searched PubMed from January 2000 to November 2017 for published studies assessing the cardiovascular effects of the electronic cigarette...
March 1, 2019: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Naushad Ahmad Khan, Shaiesh Yogeswaran, Qixin Wang, Thivanka Muthumalage, Isaac K Sundar, Irfan Rahman
The use of emerging tobacco products, such as waterpipe or hookah and electronic cigarettes (e-cigs), has gained significant popularity and are promoted as safer alternatives to conventional cigarettes. Circadian systems are internal biological oscillations that are considered important regulators of immune functions in mammals. Tobacco induced inflammatory lung diseases frequently exhibit time-of-day/night variation in lung function and symptom severity. We investigated the impact of inhaled e-cig vapor and waterpipe smoke (WPS) on pulmonary circadian molecular clock disruption by determining the changes in expression levels and abundance of core clock component genes (BMAL1, CLOCK) and clock-controlled output genes (Rev-erbα, Per2, Rev-erbβ, Cry2, Rorα) in mouse lungs...
2019: PloS One
Elizabeth R Aston, Rachel N Cassidy
Behavioral economics in the addictions is the application of both economics and psychology to study multifaceted components of substance use decision-making behavior. One such component is demand: the relative value of a substance for a user (i.e., the association between drug use and cost). The degree to which a user values a substance can be measured via performance on hypothetical purchase tasks which replicate drug purchase and consumption. Demand has been evaluated across substances, including alcohol, marijuana, tobacco, and alternative tobacco products...
January 28, 2019: Current Opinion in Psychology
Miguel Vasconcelos Almeida, António Miguel de Jesus Domingues, Hanna Lukas, Maria Mendez-Lago, René F Ketting
RNA interference was first described in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans . Ever since, several new endogenous small RNA pathways have been described and characterized to different degrees. The very prominent secondary small interfering RNAs, also called 22G-RNAs, bear a 5' triphosphate group after loading into an Argonaute protein. This creates a technical issue, since 5'PPP groups decrease cloning efficiency for small RNA sequencing. To increase cloning efficiency of these small RNA species, a common practice in the field is the treatment of RNA samples, prior to library preparation, with Tobacco Acid pyrophosphatase (TAP)...
2019: MethodsX
Nicole E Nicksic, Andrew J Barnes
E-cigarettes are the most commonly used tobacco product among youth. In addition to harm potential, e-cigarette use is associated with initiating cigarette smoking. Limited research exists whether susceptibility to e-cigarette use is a risk factor for future tobacco and other substance use initiation. This study examined associations between baseline e-cigarette susceptibility and initiation and past 30-day use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes as well as initiation of marijuana and alcohol one year later, after adjusting for other risk factors and sociodemographic confounders...
February 15, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Julia Hoeng, Serge Maeder, Patrick Vanscheeuwijck, Manuel C Peitsch
Smoking is the major cause of lung cancer. While the risk of lung cancer increases with the number of cigarettes smoked and the duration of smoking, it also decreases upon smoking cessation. The development of candidate modified risk tobacco products (cMRTP) is aimed at providing smokers who will not quit with alternatives to cigarettes that present less risk of harm and smoking-related disease. It is necessary to assess the risk reduction potential of cMRTPs, including their potential to reduce the risk of lung cancer...
February 14, 2019: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Mary Rezk-Hanna, Zab Mosenifar, Neal L Benowitz, Florian Rader, Mohamad Rashid, Katherine Davoren, Norma B Moy, Lynn Doering, Wendie Robbins, Linda Sarna, Ning Li, L Cindy Chang, Robert M Elashoff, Ronald G Victor
BACKGROUND: Hookah smoking is marketed to youth as a harmless alternative to cigarettes. While cigarette smoking acutely impairs endothelial function, the effect of smoking fruit flavored hookah tobacco is unknown. Because charcoal traditionally is used to heat the hookah tobacco in the waterpipe, hookah smoke delivers tobacco toxicants and nicotine plus charcoal combustion products: not only carbon-rich nanoparticles-oxidants that may destroy nitric oxide and impair endothelial function-but also large amounts of carbon monoxide (CO), a putative vasodilator molecule...
February 15, 2019: Circulation
Milen Babic, Mirjam Schuchardt, Markus Tölle, Markus van der Giet
BACKGROUND: Smoking remains the most important avoidable cause of global mortality. Even though the number of cigarette smokers declines in first world countries, the uses of alternative nicotine delivery products increase and may even surpass the sells of cigarettes. In this light, the explicit role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular diseases should be elucidated. OBJECTIVES: This narrative review attempts to connect current literature about possible effects of nicotine on the environement of the vasculature to the pathogenesis of vascular calcification, focusing on the tunica media of the vessel wall...
February 5, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kahlia McCausland, Bruce Maycock, Tama Leaver, Jonine Jancey
BACKGROUND: There has been a rapid rise in the popularity of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) over the last decade, with growth predicted to continue. The uptake of these devices has escalated despite inconclusive evidence of their efficacy as a smoking cessation device and unknown long-term health consequences. As smoking rates continue to drop or plateau in many well-developed countries, transnational tobacco companies have transitioned into the vaping industry and are now using social media to promote their products...
February 5, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Ying Mu, Benjamin J Patters, Narasimha M Midde, Hui He, Santosh Kumar, Theodore J Cory
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking increases systemic oxidative stress, inflammation, and viral replication in individuals with HIV. Macrophages are infected during HIV infection and serve as an important reservoir throughout the process. Macrophages exist in two phenotypes, the classically activated M1 macrophage and alternatively activated M2 macrophage. The expression of drug efflux transporters and metabolic enzymes, which have direct effects on intracellular drug concentrations, differ between the pro-inflammatory M1 macrophage and the anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage...
January 29, 2019: Current HIV Research
Claire E Otero, Jacob A Noeker, Mary M Brown, Florence D M Wavreil, Wendy A Harvey, Kristen A Mitchell, Sara J Heggland
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are nicotine delivery devices advertised as a healthier alternative to conventional tobacco products, but their rapid rise in popularity outpaces research on potential health consequences. As conventional tobacco use is a risk factor for osteoporosis, this study examines whether exposure to electronic liquid (e-liquid) used in e-cigarettes affects bone-forming osteoblasts. Human MG-63 and Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells were treated for 48 hours with 0.004%-4.0% dilutions of commercially available e-liquids of various flavors with or without nicotine...
January 28, 2019: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Qing Li, Peter Magati, Raphael Lencucha, Ronald Labonte, Donald Makoka, Jeffrey Drope
Introduction: The narrative of prosperous economic livelihood of tobacco farmers in Kenya as alleged by the tobacco industry deserves challenge as evidence increasingly suggests that smallholder tobacco farmers are making little or no profits. Article 17 of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) encourages viable alternative livelihoods for tobacco farmers. There is little evidence, however, on how tobacco farmers make livelihood choice decisions...
January 25, 2019: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Daniel S Kreitzberg, Josephine T Hinds, Keryn E Pasch, Alexandra Loukas, Cheryl L Perry
BACKGROUND: Factors associated with marijuana use in electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS) are largely unknown. ENDS advertising, through subtle normative cues as well as explicit and implicit messages suggesting ENDS products are socially condoned and healthier alternatives, may influence the use of marijuana in ENDS. The aim of our study was to examine the association between exposure to ENDS advertising and subsequent use of ENDS with marijuana among college students. METHODS: Data for this study were from waves 2 and 4 of the Marketing and Promotions across Colleges in Texas (M-PACT) study...
January 17, 2019: Addictive Behaviors
Verena Angerer, Florian Franz, Bjoern Moosmann, Philippe Bisel, Volker Auwärter
Purpose: In recent years e-liquids used in electronic cigarettes have become an attractive alternative to smoking tobacco. A new trend is the use of e-liquids containing synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) instead of smoking cannabis or herbal mixtures laced with SCs. In the frame of a systematic monitoring of the online market of 'legal high' products, e-liquids from online retailers who also sell herbal blends were bought. Methods: The products were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2019: Forensic Toxicology
Matthew Stevenson, Lukasz Czekala, Liam Simms, Nicole Tschierske, Olivia Larne, Tanvir Walele
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are an increasingly popular alternative to combustible tobacco cigarettes among smokers worldwide. A growing body of research indicates that flavours play a critical role in attracting and retaining smokers into the e-cigarette category, directly contributing to declining smoking rates and tobacco harm reduction. The responsible selection and inclusion levels of flavourings in e-liquids must be guided by toxicological principles. Some flavour ingredients, whether natural extracts or synthetic, are known allergens...
January 7, 2019: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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