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Smoking prevention

Andrew M Zarnke, Sujeenthar Tharmalingam, Douglas R Boreham, Antone L Brooks
The National Academy of Sciences (USA) conducted an extensive review on the health effects of radon (BEIR VI). This was a well written and researched report which had impact on regulations, laws and remediation of radon in homes. There were a number of problems with the interpretation of the report and three are focused on here. First, most of the radiation dose used to estimate risk was from homes with radon levels below the US Environmental Protection Agency's action level so that remediation had minor impact on total calculated attributable risk...
December 3, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yanbin Bai, Xiong Zhang, Ye Tian, Dehu Tian, Bing Zhang
Surgical-site infection (SSI) is a common complication in orthopedic surgery; however, SSI after surgically managed distal femur fractures was not well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of SSI and identify some modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors.The patients' electronic medical records (EMRs) were reviewed to identify those who sustained a distal femur fracture and treated by open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) between March 2014 and February 2018. SSI was defined based on the Centers for Disease Control criteria and confirmed according to the descriptions in EMR...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rachel H Salk, Lisa J Germeroth, Rebecca L Emery, Rachel P Kolko Conlon, Zheng Wang, Yu Cheng, Marsha D Marcus, Kenneth A Perkins, Michele D Levine
OBJECTIVE: Smoking and overweight or obesity are preventable causes of disease and death. Women are reluctant to quit smoking because of concerns about postcessation weight gain, underscoring the need to elucidate patterns of weight concerns and associated psychosocial factors that may affect smoking cessation outcomes. The present study aimed to subtype women smokers based on psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with smoking and weight, and examine the utility of these subtypes to predict abstinence and postcessation weight gain...
March 2019: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Vinod Vijayakurup, Arun Kumar T Thulasidasan, Mohan Shankar G, Archana P Retnakumari, C Devika Nandan, Jannet Somaraj, Jayesh Antony, Vijai V Alex, Balachandran S Vinod, Vijayasteltar Belsamma Liju, Sankar Sundaram, G S Vinod Kumar, Ruby John Anto
The rate of lung cancer incidence is alarmingly mounting, despite the decline of smoking and tobacco consumption. Recent reports indicate a very high correlation between the growing fast food culture and lung cancer incidence. Benzo[a]pyrene is a potent carcinogen abundantly present in grilled and deep fried food and in tobacco smoke. Our previous studies have proved the efficacy of curcumin in curbing B[a]P-induced lung carcinogenesis. However, the poor pharmacokinetic profile of the compound considerably hampers its potential as an effective chemopreventive...
February 13, 2019: Cancer Prevention Research
Moira K Kapral, Peter C Austin, Geerthana Jeyakumar, Ruth Hall, Anna Chu, Anam M Khan, Albert Y Jin, Cally Martin, Doug Manuel, Frank L Silver, Richard H Swartz, Jack V Tu
Background Rural residence is associated with stroke incidence and mortality, but little is known about potential rural/urban differences in ambulatory stroke care. Methods and Results We used the CANHEART (Cardiovascular Health in Ambulatory Care Research Team) cohort, created from linked administrative databases from the province of Ontario, Canada, and divided into primary (N=6 207 032) and secondary (N=75 823) prevention cohorts based on the absence or presence of prior stroke. We defined rural communities as those with a population size of ≤10 000 and within each of the primary and secondary prevention cohorts, compared cardiovascular risk factors and care between rural and urban areas...
February 2019: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Thomas H Thatcher, Collynn F Woeller, Claire E McCarthy, Patricia J Sime
Exposure to air pollution and other environmental inhalation hazards, such as occupational exposures to dusts and fumes, aeroallergens, and tobacco smoke, is a significant cause of chronic lung inflammation leading to respiratory disease. It is now recognized that resolution of inflammation is an active process controlled by a novel family of small lipid mediators termed "specialized pro-resolving mediators" or SPMs, derived mainly from dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Chronic inflammation results from an imbalance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolution pathways...
February 10, 2019: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
David A White, Gautam M Anand, Omar Qayum, Chizitam F Ibezim, Ashley K Sherman, Geetha Raghuveer
Atherosclerosis promoting cardiovascular disease risk factors (CVDrf) are highly prevalent among youth in the U.S. Determining which standard modifiable clinical measures (SMCMs) has the greatest impact on vascular structure and function is valuable for the health care provider to help identify children at highest risk. The aim of this study was to determine modifiable outpatient clinical predictors of vascular health in youth with CVDrf. Children and adolescents with CVDrf (n = 120, 13.1 ± 1.9 years, 49% female) were recruited from a pediatric preventive cardiology clinic...
February 13, 2019: Pediatric Cardiology
Wassim W Labaki, MeiLan K Han
Despite being a major cause of morbidity and mortality, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is frequently undiagnosed. Yet the burden of disease among the undiagnosed is significant, as these individuals experience symptoms, exacerbations, and excess mortality compared to those without COPD. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine screening of asymptomatic individuals with spirometry. Hence, case-finding approaches are needed. A recently developed instrument, the five-item COPD Assessment in Primary Care to Identify Undiagnosed Respiratory Disease and Exacerbation Risk questionnaire plus peak expiratory flow, demonstrates good sensitivity and specificity for distinguishing cases from control subjects and is being studied prospectively in primary care settings to determine its impact on patient outcomes...
December 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jonathan Livingstone-Banks, Emma Norris, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce, Robert West, Martin Jarvis, Peter Hajek
BACKGROUND: A number of treatments can help smokers make a successful quit attempt, but many initially successful quitters relapse over time. Several interventions have been proposed to help prevent relapse. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether specific interventions for relapse prevention reduce the proportion of recent quitters who return to smoking. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group trials register, clinicaltrials...
February 13, 2019: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
M Rochoy, V Rivas, E Chazard, E Decarpentry, G Saudemont, P-A Hazard, F Puisieux, S Gautier, R Bordet
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a frequent pathology, with a poor prognosis, for which no curative treatment is available in 2018. AD prevention is an important issue, and is an important research topic. In this manuscript, we have synthesized the literature reviews and meta-analyses relating to modifiable risk factors associated with AD. Smoking, diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity, depression, head trauma, heart failure, bleeding and ischemic strokes, sleep apnea syndrome appeared to be associated with an increased risk of AD...
2019: Journal of Prevention of Alzheimer's Disease
Jinhee Lee, Ho Jang, Jongkoo Kim, Seongho Min
Suicide is a leading cause of death among adolescents and a major public health concern. Here we developed a risk stratification model for adolescent suicide attempts using sociodemographic characteristics, risk behaviours and psychological variables. Participants were 247,222 subjects in the Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (KYRBS). We developed a suicide index based on the suicide risk estimated in the generalized linear model and proposed the risk stratification model using the R language to measure the probability of suicide attempt among adolescents...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Reports
Amalie Nilsen, Tove A Hanssen, Knut T Lappegård, Anne E Eggen, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Inger Njølstad, Tom Wilsgaard, Laila Hopstock
BACKGROUND: Primary prevention guidelines promote the use of risk assessment tools to estimate total cardiovascular risk. We aimed to study trends in cardiovascular risk and contribution of single risk factors, using the newly developed NORRISK 2 risk score, which estimates 10-year risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. DESIGN: Prospective population-based study. METHODS: We included women and men aged 45-74 years attending the sixth and seventh survey of the Tromsø Study (Tromsø 6, 2007-2008, n = 7284 and Tromsø 7, 2015-2016, n = 14,858) to study secular trends in NORRISK 2 score...
February 12, 2019: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
D Stock, J A Knight, J Raboud, M Cotterchio, S Strohmaier, W Willett, A H Eliassen, B Rosner, S E Hankinson, E Schernhammer
STUDY QUESTION: How are rotating night shift schedules associated with age at menopause among a large, national cohort of shift working nurses? SUMMARY ANSWER: Our findings suggest that working rotating night shifts with sufficient frequency may modestly accelerate reproductive senescence among women who may already be predisposed to earlier menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Younger age at menopause has been associated with increased risk of adverse health outcomes, particularly those linked to reproduction...
February 12, 2019: Human Reproduction
Dana A Cavallo, Grace Kong, Daniel M Ells, Deepa R Camenga, Meghan E Morean, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Rates of e-cigarette use are high among youth, and there is little known about the long-term health effects of e-cigarettes. Since peer influence is a powerful determinant of tobacco use, we aimed to identify message themes about e-cigarettes that youth would use to encourage or discourage peers from using e-cigarettes. We conducted 10 focus groups (N = 69) with non-smokers and smokers from one middle school, high school and college in Connecticut. Participants engaged in a discussion about e-cigarettes, and each participant created one written message to encourage e-cigarette use and one to discourage use among peers...
February 8, 2019: Health Education Research
Kyung Mee Park, Ji Min Sung, Woo Jung Kim, Suk Kyoon An, Kee Namkoong, Eun Lee, Hyuk-Jae Chang
The early identification and prevention of dementia is important for reducing its worldwide burden and increasing individuals' quality of life. Although several dementia prediction models have been developed, there remains a need for a practical and precise model targeted to middle-aged and Asian populations. Here, we used national Korean health examination data from adults (331,126 individuals, 40-69 years of age, mean age: 52 years) from 2002-2003 to predict the incidence of dementia after 10 years. We divided the dataset into two cohorts to develop and validate of our prediction model...
2019: PloS One
Maxim B Freidin, Yakov A Tsepilov, Melody Palmer, Lennart C Karssen, Pradeep Suri, Yurii S Aulchenko, Frances Mk Williams
Back pain (BP) is a common condition of major social importance and poorly understood pathogenesis. Combining data from the UK Biobank and CHARGE consortium cohorts allowed us to perform a very large GWAS (total N = 509,070) and examine the genetic correlation and pleiotropy between BP and its clinical and psychosocial risk factors. We identified and replicated three BP associated loci, including one novel region implicating SPOCK2/CHST3 genes. We provide evidence for pleiotropic effects of genetic factors underlying BP, height, and intervertebral disc problems...
February 6, 2019: Pain
Patrick Hofmann, Malcolm Kohler, Christian Benden, Macé M Schuurmans
BACKGROUND: Smoking remains the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the developed world that kills half of all long-term users. Tobacco use after solid organ transplantation is associated with allograft dysfunction, cancer, and reduced overall survival. METHODS: In this single-center, retrospective study, we describe the frequency of tobacco use after lung transplantation (LTx), pre-transplant patient characteristics associated with tobacco use, and the safety, efficacy and outcomes of post-transplant tobacco cessation interventions...
February 4, 2019: Transplantation
Z Serhier, K Bendahhou, A Soulimane, M Bennani Othmani, A Ben Abdelaziz
INTRODUCTION: Tobacco is the leading preventable cause of death in the world and kills up to seven million people each year. Monitoring its prevalence is important for prevention programs. The aim of this work was to summarize the literature on the prevalence of smoking in the Maghreb countries during the past two decades. METHODS: The research was conducted on Medline via Pubmed based on the Mesh terms: «Tobacco Use», «Smoking» and «Africa, Northern». Were included articles reporting the prevalence of current smoking in the general population or a subgroup of the population in one or more Maghreb countries...
October 2018: La Tunisie Médicale
Fang Xu, James M Dahlhamer, Emily P Terlizzi, Anne G Wheaton, Janet B Croft
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggest that adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) receive suboptimal preventive care. AIMS: The population-based study compared the receipt of these services by US adults with and without IBD. METHODS: Adults aged ≥ 18 years with IBD (1.2%) and without IBD were identified from the 2015 and 2016 National Health Interview Survey (n = 66,610). Age-standardized prevalence of doctor visits, receipt of medical advice, and selected preventive care was calculated for adults with and without IBD...
February 12, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Andrijana Milošević Georgiev, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Dušanka Krajnović
Background: Smoking rates in Serbian adults are among the highest in Europe. The objective of this study is to assess the prevalence of smoking and smoking-related behaviours of Belgrade University students depending on their sociodemographic characteristics and faculty group. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 2,608 Belgrade University students (59.6% female) in 2015. A self-administered questionnaire was applied to the opportunity sample to collect the data describing students' smoking habits and attitudes across all 30 faculties of the university...
March 2019: Zdravstveno Varstvo
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