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E A Seregina, A V Poletaev, E V Bondar, T A Vuimo, F I Ataullakhanov, N S Smetanina
INTRODUCTION: Patients with hereditary spherocytosis (HS) are characterized by having an increased risk for thrombosis. An early manifestation of thrombotic complications can occur even in childhood, especially after surgery. Hypercoagulability can be associated with hemolytic crises. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the hemostatic state in children with HS using global hemostasis assays. METHODS: The hemostatic status of 62 children (38 boys and 24 girls; age range: 0...
February 5, 2019: Thrombosis Research
Gerhard Cvirn, James E Waha, Bianca Brix, Andreas Rössler, Andreas Jantscher, Axel Schlagenhauf, Martin Koestenberger, Willibald Wonisch, Thomas Wagner, Nandu Goswami
We investigated whether lower body negative pressure (LBNP) application leads to coagulation activation in whole blood (WB) samples in healthy men and women. Twenty-four women and twenty-one men, all healthy young participants, with no histories of thrombotic disorders and not on medications, were included. LBNP was commenced at -10 mmHg and increased by -10 mmHg every-five minutes until a maximum of -40 mmHg. Recovery up to 10 minutes was also monitored. Blood samples were collected at baseline, at end of LBNP, and end of recovery...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sukhi Singh, Tor Damén, Mikael Dellborg, Anders Jeppsson, Andreas Nygren
BACKGROUND: New approaches to prevent bleeding complications during cardiac surgery are needed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate if noradrenaline (NA) enhances platelet aggregation in CABG patients. PATIENTS/METHODS: Twenty-four CABG patients were included in a prospective parallel-group randomized study. All patients but one, were treated with acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). In the treatment group (n=12), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) was maintained at pre-induction levels by NA infusion...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Xiao-Chen Ma, Si-Yu Zhu, Miao-Miao Luo, Xue-Chao Hu, Cheng Peng, He Huang, Lu-Jing Ren
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) plays an important role in blood clotting, cardiovascular disease and anti-osteoporosis, and has been wildly used in the food additives and pharmaceutical industries. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of menaquinone-7 biosynthesis in response to different oxygen supplies in Bacillus natto. The differences of fermentation performance, intracellular metabolites, oxidative stress reaction and enzyme activities of Bacillus natto R127 were analyzed under different KLa. Glycerol consumption rate and MK-7 yield at 24...
February 13, 2019: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Shangyi Hui, Liyuan Tao, Feroze Mahmood, Derong Xu, Zhinan Ren, Xin Chen, Lin Sheng, Qianyu Zhuang, Shugang Li, Yuguang Huang
BACKGROUND: Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been routinely delivered in multisegmental spinal decompression and bone graft fusion surgeries with satisfactory outcomes in minimizing gross blood loss and transfusion demands. However, concerns remain that intravenously delivered TXA (ivTXA) may increase risks of postoperative convulsive seizures and systemic thrombogenicity. Topical use of TXA (tTXA), being more targeted to the surgical bleeding site while minimizing patient systemic exposure to ivTXA, has been successfully applied to attenuate blood losses and transfusion requirements in hip and knee arthroplasty...
February 12, 2019: Trials
Eva-Verena Griemert, Jana Hedrich, Tobias Hirnet, Serge Christian Thal
Plasminogen activator inhibitor type 2 (PAI-2 / SerpinB2) inhibits extracellular urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA). Under physiological conditions PAI-2 is expressed at low levels, but is rapidly induced by inflammatory triggers. It is a negative regulator of fibrinolysis and serves to stabilize clots. In the present study PAI-2 expression is upregulated 25-fold in pericontusional brain tissue at 6h after traumatic brain injury (TBI) with a maximum increase of 87-fold at 12h. To investigate a potentially detrimental influence of PAI-2 on secondary posttraumatic processes, male PAI-2 deficient (PAI-2-KO) and wild-type mice (WT) were subjected to TBI by controlled cortical impact injury (CCI)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
David J Baer, Janet A Novotny
Background: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a qualified health claim for tree nuts and reduction of cardiovascular disease. However, cashews are excluded from that claim due to their content of saturated fats, which is predominantly stearic acid. Because stearic acid is neutral with respect to blood lipids, several studies have been conducted to test the effect of cashew nuts on blood lipids, and these studies have produced conflicting results. Objectives: The aim of this study was to conduct a highly controlled intervention to determine the effect of cashews fed at the amount specified in the health claim on risk factors for cardiovascular disease...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Hunter B Moore, Angelo D'alessandro, Ernest E Moore, Matthew Wither, Peter J Lawson, Benjamin R Huebner, Kirk Hansen, Rashikh Choudhury, Trevor L Nydam
BACKGROUND: Increased systemic fibrinolytic activity can occur in liver transplant recipients after the donor graft is reperfused. However, it remains unclear whether this is related solely to tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) levels or whether unique metabolic changes can alter t-PA activity and enhance fibrinolytic activity. We hypothesise that an increase in sensitivity to t-PA-mediated fibrinolysis (StF) following liver reperfusion is associated with specific metabolic abnormalities...
February 4, 2019: Blood Transfusion, Trasfusione del Sangue
Chuanjiang He, Tingting Ye, Wenqi Teng, Zhi Fang, Wei-Shuyi Ruan, Guowu Liu, Hui Chen, Jizeng Sun, Lanlan Hui, Feng Sheng, Dingyi Pan, Chunming Yang, Yi Steve Zheng, Meng-Bo Luo, Ke Yao, Ben Wang
Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly is widely applied as a coating technique for nanoscale control of architecture and related properties. However, its translational applications are limited by the time-consuming and laborious nature of the process. Inspired by the blood clotting process, herein, we develop a shear flow-driven LbL (SF-LbL) self-assembly approach that accelerates the adsorption rate of macromolecules by mechanically configuring the polymer chain via a coil-stretch transition, which effectively simplifies and speeds the diffusion-controlled assembly process...
February 12, 2019: ACS Nano
Jaishankar Raman, Mazahir Alimohamed, Nikola Dobrilovic, Omar Lateef, Salim Aziz
BACKGROUND: Bleeding and need for blood products are major complications associated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use. This study evaluated bleeding complications with low and standard heparinization protocols in the maintenance of venoarterial (VA)-ECMO. METHODS: A retrospective comparison was performed of 2 methods of heparinization in a contemporaneous series of adult patients supported with VA-ECMO at Rush University Medical Center, between November 2011 and November 2016...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation
Teryn R Roberts, John A Jones, Jae-Hyek Choi, Kyle N Sieck, George T Harea, Daniel S Wendorff, Brendan M Beely, Vitali Karaliou, Andrew P Cap, Michael R Davis, Leopoldo C Cancio, Valerie G Sams, Andriy I Batchinsky
BACKGROUND: Coagulation monitoring capabilities during transport are limited. Thromboelastography (TEG) is a whole-blood clotting test measuring clot formation, stabilization and fibrinolysis; and is traditionally performed in a laboratory. We evaluated a new point-of-care TEG analyzer, TEG 6s (Haemonetics; Braintree, MA), in a large animal model of combat-relevant trauma managed with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) during ground and high-altitude aeromedical evacuation. The objective was to compare TEG 6s used during transport vs...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Nikolaos Spinthakis, Ying Gue, Mohamed Farag, Guogang Ren, Manivannan Srinivasan, Anwar Baydoun, Diana A Gorog
Impaired endogenous fibrinolysis is an adverse prognostic biomarker in acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Abnormally dense in vitro fibrin thrombi have been demonstrated in ACS patients and related to hypofibrinolysis using cumbersome, laboratory-based methods. We aimed to assess endogenous fibrinolysis using a point-of-care technique and relate this to clot architecture. From patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), venous blood was drawn immediately on arrival to assess thrombotic status...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
M Nivedhitha Sundaram, Sivashanmugam Amirthalingam, Ullas Mony, Praveen Kerala Varma, RangasamyJayakumar
Effective bleeding control is a major concern in trauma and major surgeries. Chitosan (Ch) as hemostatic agent has been widely used and when applied at the site of injury it acts by aggregating blood cells and forming a plug. Our prime interest is to enhance the blood clotting potential of Ch hydrogel. Incorporation of nano bioglass (nBG) with silica (activate coagulation factor XII), calcium (activate intrinsic pathway) and phosphate (initiates extrinsic pathway) ions into Ch hydrogel (protonated amine group) would act simultaneously on mechanisms involved in hemostasis and bring about effective bleeding control...
February 6, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ezeldeen Abuelkasem, Michael A Mazzeffi, Reney A Henderson, Camron Wipfli, Angie Monroe, Erik R Strauss, Jonathan H Chow, Kenichi A Tanaka
OBJECTIVES: A hemostasis management system (HMS) is a point-of-care method for heparin and protamine titration. The authors hypothesized that protamine dosing over the HMS estimate would be associated with elevated activated clotting time (ACT), increased bleeding, and transfusion owing to protamine's anticoagulant activity. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Single-center university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred eighty-nine patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting surgery...
January 10, 2019: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
Madeleen Bosma, Frans Waanders, H P Van Schaik, Douwe Van Loon, Sander Rigter, Erik Scholten, Chris M Hackeng
PURPOSE: Patients with extracorporeal life support (ECLS) are at risk for hemolysis-related complications. Therefore, monitoring of free hemoglobin (fHb) levels is indicated. Conventional methods for fHb are laborious and not always available. Here we evaluated the suitability of the hemolysis-index (H-index), an internal quality control parameter of clinical chemistry platforms, as a clinical parameter for ECLS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The performance of the H-index assay was evaluated using standard procedures...
January 30, 2019: Journal of Critical Care
Chandana Kolluru, Mikayla Williams, Jihee Stephanie Yeh, Richard K Noel, Jennifer Knaack, Mark R Prausnitz
Minimally invasive point-of-care diagnostic devices are of great interest for rapid detection of biomarkers in diverse settings. Although blood is the most common source of biomarkers, interstitial fluid (ISF) is an alternate body fluid that does not clot or contain red blood cells that often complicate analysis. However, ISF is difficult to collect. In this study, we assessed the utility of a microneedle patch to sample microliter volumes of ISF in a simple and minimally invasive manner. We demonstrated the use of ISF collected in this way for therapeutic drug monitoring by showing similar vancomycin pharmacokinetic profiles in ISF and serum from rats...
February 6, 2019: Biomedical Microdevices
Jana Hanke, Christiane Ranke, Eleonora Perego, Sarah Köster
In their physiological environment, blood platelets are permanently exposed to shear forces caused by blood flow. Within this surrounding, they generate contractile forces that eventually lead to a compaction of the blood clot. Here, we present a microfluidic chamber that combines hydrogel-based traction force microscopy with a controlled shear environment, and investigate the force fields platelets generate when exposed to shear flow in a spatio-temporally resolved manner. We find that for shear rates between 14 s-1 to 33 s-1, the general contraction behavior in terms of force distribution and magnitude does not differ from no-flow conditions...
February 6, 2019: Soft Matter
Xinren Yu, Scott L Diamond
Neutrophils can release extracellular traps (NETs) in infectious, inflammatory and thrombotic diseases. NETs have been detected in deep vein thrombosis, atherothrombosis, stroke, disseminated intravascular coagulation and trauma. We have previously shown that haemodynamic forces trigger rapid NETosis within sterile occlusive thrombi in vitro. Here, we tested the effects of thrombin, fibrin and fibrinolysis on shear-induced NETosis by imaging NETs with Sytox Green during microfluidic perfusion of factor XIIa-inhibited or thrombin-inhibited human whole blood over fibrillar collagen (±tissue factor)...
February 5, 2019: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Michelle Alexander-Curtis, Rick Pauls, Julie Chao, John J Volpi, Philip M Bath, Todd A Verdoorn
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) remains a major cause of death and disability throughout the world. The most severe form of stroke results from large vessel occlusion of the major branches of the Circle of Willis. The treatment strategies currently available in western countries for large vessel occlusion involve rapid restoration of blood flow through removal of the offending blood clot using mechanical or pharmacological means (e.g. tissue plasma activator; tPA). This review assesses prospects for a novel pharmacological approach to enhance the availability of the natural enzyme tissue kallikrein (KLK1), an important regulator of local blood flow...
2019: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
Michał Ząbczyk, Rafal Meus, Krzysztof Piotr Malinowski, Joanna Natorska, Anetta Undas
Left ventricular thrombus (LVT) is associated with a hypercoagulable state and occurs most frequently after myocardial infarction (MI). Blood prothrombotic alterations might predispose to LVT formation, its recurrence, and subsequent cerebrovascular events. We investigated 58 patients with a history of LVT unrelated to recent MI or LV ejection fraction <25% and 58 well-matched control subjects. We determined plasma clot permeability, fibrinolytic efficiency, thrombin generation, and endothelial markers after 3 to 6 months of anticoagulant treatment...
January 24, 2019: American Journal of Cardiology
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