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ischemic stroke inflammation

Hanna Markstad, Andreas Edsfeldt, Ingrid Yao Mattison, Eva Bengtsson, Pratibha Singh, Michele Cavalera, Giuseppe Asciutto, Harry Björkbacka, Gunilla Nordin Fredrikson, Nuno Dias, Petr Volkov, Marju Orho-Melander, Jan Nilsson, Gunnar Engström, Isabel Gonçalves
Background When the lectinlike oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox LDL) receptor-1 ( LOX -1), a scavenger receptor for ox LDL , binds ox LDL , processes leading to endothelial dysfunction and inflammation are promoted. We aimed to study release mechanisms of LOX -1 and how circulating levels of soluble LOX -1 ( sLOX -1) relate to plaque inflammation and future risk for ischemic stroke. Methods and Results Endothelial cells and leukocytes were used to study release of sLOX -1. Plasma levels of sLOX -1 were determined in 4703 participants in the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort...
February 19, 2019: Journal of the American Heart Association
Sandra A Acosta, Jea Y Lee, Hung Nguyen, Yuji Kaneko, Cesar V Borlongan
Stroke remains a major unmet clinical need that warrants novel therapies. Following an ischemic insult, the cerebral vasculature secretes inflammatory molecules, creating the stroke vasculome profile. The present study evaluated the therapeutic effects of endothelial cells on the inflammation-associated stroke vasculome. qRT-PCR analysis revealed that specific inflammation-related vasculome genes BRM, IκB, Foxf1, and ITIH-5 significantly upregulated by oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD. Interestingly, co-culture of human endothelial cells (HEN6) with human endothelial cells (EPCs) during OGD significantly blocked the elevations of BRM, IκB, and Foxf1, but not ITIH-5...
February 9, 2019: Stem Cell Reviews
Evgeny Sidorov, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jairam K P Vanamala
Finding ischemic stroke biomarker is highly desirable because it can improve diagnosis even before a patient arrives to the hospital. Metabolome is one of new technologies that help to find biomarkers. Most metabolome-related ischemic stroke studies were done in Asia and had exploratory designs. Although failed to find specific biomarkers, they discovered several important metabolite-stroke associations which belong to three pathophysiological mechanisms: Excitotoxicity with activation of glutamate, resulting in the increase of glutamate derivatives proline and pyroglutamate; Oxidative stress with production of free radicals and perturbed concentrations of uric acid, matrix metalloproteinase-9, branch-chained amino acids, sphingolipids, homocysteine, asymmetric dimethylarginine, nitric oxide and folate cycle metabolites; and Stroke mediated inflammation, affecting phospholipid metabolism with perturbed levels of lysophosphatidylethanolamine and lysophosphatidylcholine...
January 2019: Journal of Stroke
Anne-Sophie Ernst, Laura-Inés Böhler, Anna M Hagenston, Angelika Hoffmann, Sabine Heiland, Carsten Sticht, Martin Bendszus, Markus Hecker, Hilmar Bading, Hugo H Marti, Thomas Korff, Reiner Kunze
Local cerebral hypoperfusion causes ischemic stroke while driving multiple cell-specific responses including inflammation, glutamate-induced neurotoxicity mediated via NMDAR, edema formation and angiogenesis. Despite the relevance of these pathophysiological mechanisms for disease progression and outcome, molecular determinants controlling the onset of these processes are only partially understood. In this context, our study intended to investigate the functional role of EphB2, a receptor tyrosine kinase that is crucial for synapse function and binds to membrane-associated ephrin-B ligands...
February 5, 2019: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
Raheleh Gholamzadeh, Mehdi Eskandari, Mohammad Reza Bigdeli, Hossein Mostafavi
Introduction: Brain Ichemic-Reperfusion Injury (IRI) activates different pathophysiological processes. It also changes physiological parameters such as Blood Glucose (BG) level. An increase in BG after stroke is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Erythropoietin has been shown to be effective on both reducing inflammation and BG level. Therefore, in this study the erythropoietin pretreatment effect on BG and its relationship with inflammatory markers after brain IRI was investigated...
September 2018: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
Joanna Saluk-Bijak, Angela Dziedzic, Michal Bijak
The available data, including experimental studies, clearly indicate an excessive intravascular activation of circulating platelets in multiple sclerosis (MS) and their hyper-responsiveness to a variety of physiological activators. Platelet activation is manifested as an increased adhesion and aggregation and is accompanied by the formation of pro-thrombotic microparticles. Activated blood platelets also show an expression of specific membrane receptors, synthesis many of biomediators, and generation of reactive oxygen species...
February 1, 2019: Cells
Antje Giede-Jeppe, Jonathan Reichl, Maximilian I Sprügel, Hannes Lücking, Philip Hoelter, Ilker Y Eyüpoglu, Joji B Kuramatsu, Hagen B Huttner, Stefan T Gerner
OBJECTIVEStroke-associated immunosuppression and inflammation are increasingly recognized as factors triggering infections and thus potentially influencing outcome after stroke. Several studies have demonstrated that elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a significant predictor of adverse outcomes for patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Thus far, in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage the association between NLR and outcome is insufficiently established. The authors sought to investigate the association between NLR on admission and functional outcome in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH)...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ke Ning, Wen-Wu Liu, Jun-Long Huang, Hong-Tao Lu, Xue-Jun Sun
It has been confirmed that inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ischemic stroke. The polarization of microglia as an important participant in the inflammation following stroke is also found to be involved in stroke. This study aimed to investigate the effects of hydrogen gas on the polarization of macrophages/microglia in vitro . Raw264.7 cells were treated with lipopolysaccharides and then exposed to hydrogen. The microglia were treated with the supernatant from oxygen and glucose deprivation-treated neurons and then exposed to hydrogen...
October 2018: Medical Gas Research
Hang Xu, Tianlong Liu, Wenjun Wang, Ning Su, Liudi Yang, Zhifu Yang, Fang Dou, Jia Cui, Fei Fei, Jing Ma, Aidong Wen, Yi Ding
Ischemic stroke is a common cerebrovascular disease with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, treatment options for reducing cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury (CIRI) are limited. Gallic acid (GA) as a plant polyphenol has been used to fight against CIRI. But its pharmacokinetic properties such as low absorption, poor bioavailability and quick elimination have negative effects on its clinical application. To strengthen its potency, a delivery system of GA-loaded o-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticle (GA-NP) was synthesized in our study...
February 2, 2019: Rejuvenation Research
Runzhi Chen, Peng Wu, Zheng Cai, Yingying Fang, Hao Zhou, Yi Lasanajak, Lan Tang, Ling Ye, Chuqi Hou, Jie Zhao
The combination of Puerariae Lobatae Radix (PLR) and Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CXR) is commonly used to treat cerebrovascular diseases. This work aimed to clarify the mechanisms of their action in treating cerebral ischemic stroke from the perspective of gut microecology. The PLR and CXR combination effectively improved the neurological function, reduced the cerebral infarction and relieved the complications of cerebral ischemic stroke, including dyslipidemia, increased blood viscosity and thrombotic risk. Cerebral ischemic stroke triggered gut microbial disturbances by enriching pathogens and opportunistic microorganisms, including Bacteroides, Escherichia_Shigella, Haemophilus, Eubacterium_nodatum_group, Collinsella, Enterococcus, Proteus, Alistipes, Klebsiella, Shuttleworthia and Faecalibacterium...
December 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Rui Liu, Xin-Yu Liao, Meng-Xian Pan, Jun-Chun Tang, Song-Feng Chen, Ya Zhang, Pei-Xin Lu, Long J Lu, Ying-Ying Zou, Xing-Ping Qin, Li-Hong Bu, Qi Wan
Glycine is a simple nonessential amino acid known to have neuroprotective properties. Treatment with glycine results in reduced infarct volume of the brain, neurologic function scores, and neuronal and microglial death in ischemic stroke injury. Neuroinflammation has been considered a major contributor to cerebral ischemia-induced brain damage. However, the role of glycine in neuroinflammation following ischemic stroke is unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether neuroinflammation is involved in the neuroprotective effects of glycine in cerebral ischemia injury...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Jialin Duan, Jia Cui, Zhifu Yang, Chao Guo, Jinyi Cao, Miaomiao Xi, Yan Weng, Ying Yin, Yanhua Wang, Guo Wei, Boling Qiao, Aidong Wen
BACKGROUND: Previous studies had showed that Apelin 13 could protect against apoptosis induced by ischemic/reperfusion (I/R). However, the mechanisms whereby Apelin 13 protected brain I/R remained to be elucidated. The present study was designed to determine whether Apelin 13 provided protection through AMPK/GSK-3β/Nrf2 pathway. METHODS: In vivo, the I/R model was induced and Apelin 13 was given intracerebroventricularly 15 min before reperfusion. The neurobehavioral scores, infarction volumes, and some cytokines in the brain were measured...
February 1, 2019: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Umadevi V Wesley, Vijesh J Bhute, James F Hatcher, Sean P Palecek, Robert J Dempsey
Metabolic dysfunction impacts stroke incidence and outcome. However, the intricate association between altered metabolic program due to aging, and focal ischemia in brain, circulation, and peripheral organs is not completely elucidated. Here we identified locally and systemically altered metabolites in brain, liver, and plasma as a result of normal aging, ischemic-stroke, and extended time of reperfusion injury. Comprehensive quantitative metabolic profiling was carried out using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 29, 2019: Neurochemistry International
Monika Golab-Janowska, Edyta Paczkowska, Boguslaw Machalinski, Dariusz Kotlega, Agnieszka Meller, Przemyslaw Nowacki, Safranow Krzysztof, Wankowlcz Pawel
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are important players in neovascularization, mobilized through signalling by angiogenic growth factors (AGFs) such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). In vitro, inflammatory parameters impair the function and influence of EPCs on AGFs. However, this connection is not clear in vivo. To understand the mechanisms of augmented arteriogenesis and angiogenesis in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients, we investigated whether circulating stem cells (CD133+), early endothelial progenitor cells (CD133+/VEGFR2+), and endothelial cells (ECs; CD34¯/CD133¯/VEGFR2+) were increasingly mobilized during AIS, and whether there were correlations between EPC levels, growth factor levels and inflammatory parameters...
January 29, 2019: Current Neurovascular Research
B I Geltser, I G Kurpatov, V N Kotelnikov, Yu V Zayats
Literature data of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cerebrovascular diseases (CVD) comorbidity are represented in this review. Key aspects of this interaction and its importance for clinical medicine have been considered. CVD and COPD are the main mortality factors in adults, which contribute to great economic wastes. The incidence of chronic cerebral ischemia for COPD patients is almost three times as high as for general population. The incidence of ischemic stroke for COPD patients is 1,2 times higher than in general population...
April 19, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Yoko Nishida, Yasuhiko Kubota, Hiroyasu Iso, Akiko Tamakoshi
AIM: Previous studies suggested a positive association between eczema and cardiovascular disease (CVD), probably through enhanced systemic inflammation. However, several studies reported null findings about eczema and CVD, so the evidence is still controversial. METHODS: We asked 85,099 participants (35,489 men and 49,610 women), aged 40 to 79 years, without a history of CVD or cancer at baseline between 1988 and 1990, to complete a lifestyle questionnaire, including information eczema frequency (seldom, sometimes or often)...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
Y Tong, L Cai, Z Wang, Y Zhang, X Guan, F Zhan, J Liu, Q Lu
PPARγ and PPARα belong to a receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the regulation of inflammation, cellular glucose uptake, protection against atherosclerosis and endothelial cell function. Through these effects, they might be involved with the ischemic stroke (IS). We recruited 100 IS patients diagnosed by CTs or/and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 100 normal healthy controls from Chinese Uyghur Population to assess the nature of the functional polymorphisms of PPARs and any links with IS in this unique population which has 60% European ancestry and 40% East Asian ancestry...
2019: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
C Mary Schooling, Jie V Zhao
Bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors, acting via epigenetic mechanisms, have been developed recently as potential new treatments for cancer, including prostate cancer, and inflammatory conditions. Some BET inhibitors, such as RVX-208, also raise high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A-1 levels. A recent meta-analysis of three small trials (n = 798) found that RVX-208 protected against major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), raising the question as to whether this protective effect was an artefact, a chance finding, or mediated by HDL-C, anti-inflammatory pathways, or other factors...
January 29, 2019: American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs: Drugs, Devices, and Other Interventions
Awadhesh K Arya, Bingren Hu
Stroke leads to inflammatory and immune response in the brain and immune organs. The gut or gastrointestinal tract is a major immune organ equipped with the largest pool of immune cells representing more than 70% of the entire immune system and the largest population of macrophages in the human body. The bidirectional communication between the brain and the gut is commonly known as brain-gut or gut-brain axis. Stroke often leads to gut dysmotility, gut microbiota dysbiosis, "leaky" gut, gut hemorrhage, and even gut-origin sepsis, which is often associated with poor prognosis...
October 2018: Brain Circulation
Taira Nakayama, Eiichiro Nagata, Haruchika Masuda, Takayuki Asahara, Shunya Takizawa
Various cell-based therapeutic strategies have been investigated for vascular and tissue regeneration after ischemic stroke. We have developed a novel cell population, called regeneration-associated cells (RACs), by quality- and quantity-controlled culture of unfractionated mononuclear cells. RACs were trans-arterially injected into 10-week-old syngeneic male mice at 1, 3, 5 or 7 days after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to determine the optimal timing for administration in terms of outcome at day 21...
2019: PloS One
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