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spinal pathology

Yaou Liu, Di Dong, Liwen Zhang, Yali Zang, Yunyun Duan, Xiaolu Qiu, Jing Huang, Huiqing Dong, Frederik Barkhof, Chaoen Hu, Mengjie Fang, Jie Tian, Kuncheng Li
OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate an individual radiomics nomogram for differential diagnosis between multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). METHODS: We retrospectively collected 67 MS and 68 NMOSD with spinal cord lesions as a primary cohort and prospectively recruited 28 MS and 26 NMOSD patients as a validation cohort. Radiomic features were extracted from the spinal cord lesions. A prediction model for differentiating MS and NMOSD was built by combining the radiomic features with several clinical and routine MRI measurements...
February 15, 2019: European Radiology
Joy Mitra, Erika N Guerrero, Pavana M Hegde, Nicole F Liachko, Haibo Wang, Velmarini Vasquez, Junling Gao, Arvind Pandey, J Paul Taylor, Brian C Kraemer, Ping Wu, Istvan Boldogh, Ralph M Garruto, Sankar Mitra, K S Rao, Muralidhar L Hegde
Genome damage and their defective repair have been etiologically linked to degenerating neurons in many subtypes of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients; however, the specific mechanisms remain enigmatic. The majority of sporadic ALS patients feature abnormalities in the transactivation response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), whose nucleo-cytoplasmic mislocalization is characteristically observed in spinal motor neurons. While emerging evidence suggests involvement of other RNA/DNA binding proteins, like FUS in DNA damage response (DDR), the role of TDP-43 in DDR has not been investigated...
February 15, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Gergely David, Maryam Seif, Eveline Huber, Markus Hupp, Jan Rosner, Volker Dietz, Nikolaus Weiskopf, Siawoosh Mohammadi, Patrick Freund
OBJECTIVE: To characterize remote secondary neurodegeneration of spinal tracts and neurons below a cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) and its relation to the severity of injury, the integrity of efferent and afferent pathways, and clinical impairment. METHODS: A comprehensive high-resolution MRI protocol was acquired in 17 traumatic cervical SCI patients and 14 controls at 3T. At the cervical lesion, a sagittal T2-weighted scan provided information on the width of preserved midsagittal tissue bridges...
February 15, 2019: Neurology
Yun Liang, Peng Liu, Li-Bo Jiang, Hou-Lei Wang, An-Nan Hu, Xiao-Gang Zhou, Xi-Lei Li, Hong Lin, Dong Wu, Jian Dong
OBJECTIVE: A retrospective study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of CT-guided core needle biopsy in diagnosing spinal lesions through comparison with C-arm guidance. METHODS: From April 2013 to July 2017, a total of 188 patients, who suffered from spinal lesions or had malignant tumor history with a new spinal fracture, were included in this study. There were 96 men and 92 women, with an average of 57.1 years. A total of 238 core needle biopsies were performed...
February 14, 2019: Orthopaedic Surgery
Simonetta Papa, Filippo Rossi, Irma Vismara, Gianluigi Forloni, Pietro Veglianese
Many pre-clinical studies seek cures for spinal cord injury (SCI) but when the results are translated to clinical trials they give scant efficacy. One possible reason is that most strategies use treatments directed toward a single pathological mechanism, while a multitherapeutic approach needs to be tested to significantly improve outcomes after SCI. Most of the pre-clinical reports gave better outcomes when a combination of different compounds was used instead of a single drug. This promising approach, however, must still be improved because it raises some criticism: i) the Blood-Spinal Cord barrier limits drug distribution, ii) it is hard to understand the interactions among the pharmacological components after systemic administration, iii) the timing of treatments is crucial: the spread of the lesion is a process finely regulated over time, so therapies must be scheduled at precise times during the post-injury course...
February 14, 2019: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Amandine Crombé, Nicolas Alberti, Nicolas Villard, Frank Pilleul, Xavier Buy, François Le Loarer, Michèle Kind
OBJECTIVES: SMARCA4-deficient thoracic sarcoma (SMARCA4-DTS) is a recently identified aggressive subtype of sarcoma. The aim of this study was to characterize the CT imaging features of SMARCA4-DTS. METHODS: From June 2011 to May 2017, 21 adult patients with histologically proven SMARCA4-DTS were identified in the radiological database of 2 French sarcoma reference centers with at least one chest CT scan available. The locations, sizes, heterogeneity, margin definitions, and local extensions of the tumors were reported together with their impact on surrounding organs and regional and distant metastases...
February 14, 2019: European Radiology
Elisa García, Roxana Rodríguez-Barrera, Vinnitsa Buzoianu-Anguiano, Adrian Flores-Romero, Emanuel Malagón-Axotla, Marco Guerrero-Godinez, Estefanía De la Cruz-Castillo, Laura Castillo-Carvajal, Monserrat Rivas-Gonzalez, Paola Santiago-Tovar, Ivis Morales, Cesar Borlongan, Antonio Ibarra
Spinal cord injury is a very common pathological event that has devastating functional consequences in patients. In recent years, several research groups are trying to find an effective therapy that could be applied in clinical practice. In this study, we analyzed the combination of different strategies as a potential therapy for spinal cord injury. Immunization with neural derived peptides (INDP), inhibition of glial scar formation (dipyridyl: DPY), as well as the use of biocompatible matrix (fibrin glue: FG) impregnated with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were combined and then its beneficial effects were evaluated in the induction of neuroprotection and neuroregeneration after acute SCI...
June 2019: Neural Regeneration Research
Ayşegül Ceylan, İbrahim Aşık, Güngör Enver Özgencil, Burak Erken
Background/aim: We aimed to compare the results of the treatment of the patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) by mechanical lysis and steroid hylase injection via epiduroscopy due to their stabilization status and to detect the effect of pathological diagnostic markers on prognosis and ongoing treatment protocol. Materials and methods: Eighty-two patients with FBSS symptoms were included. Two groups were composed as group I (stabilized) and group II (nonstabilized)...
February 11, 2019: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Monica Margoni, Maria Petracca, Simona Schiavi, Michelle Fabian, Aaron Miller, Fred D Lublin, Matilde Inglese
BACKGROUND: Diffuse white matter (WM) injury is prominent in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) pathology and is a potential biomarker of disease progression. Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) allows the quantification of non-Gaussian water diffusion, providing metrics with high WM pathological specificity. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the pathological changes occurring in the normal appearing white matter (NAWM) of patients with PP-MS at baseline and at 1-year follow-up and to assess their impact on disability and short-term disease progression...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Javier María Peralta Ramos, Pablo Iribarren, Luc Bousset, Ronald Melki, Veerle Baekelandt, Anke Van der Perren
Innate immune activation and chronic neuroinflammation are characteristic features of many neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson's disease (PD) and may contribute to the pathophysiology of the disease. The discovery of misfolded alpha-synuclein (αSYN) protein aggregates, which amplify in a "prion-like" fashion, has led us to consider that pathogenic αSYN might be hijacking the activation and mobilization mechanism of the peripheral immune system to reach and disseminate within the CNS. Furthermore, our lab and other groups have recently shown that αSYN can adopt distinct fibril conformations or "strains" with varying levels of pathogenic impact...
2019: Frontiers in Immunology
Ahmed A Albayar, Abigail Roche, Przemyslaw Swiatkowski, Sarah Antar, Nouran Ouda, Eman Emara, Douglas H Smith, Ali K Ozturk, Basem I Awad
Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) is a major challenge in Neurotrauma research. Complex pathophysiological processes take place immediately after the injury and later on as the chronic injury develops. Moreover, SCI is usually accompanied by traumatic injuries because the most common modality of injury is road traffic accidents and falls. Patients develop significant permanent neurological deficits that depend on the extent and the location of the injury itself and in time they develop further neurological and body changes that may risk their mere survival...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Dale E Fournier, Chris J D Norley, Steven I Pollmann, Christopher S Bailey, Fahad Al Helal, Katherine E Willmore, David W Holdsworth, Jeffrey Dixon, Cheryle A Séguin
Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) is a non-inflammatory spondyloarthropathy identified radiographically by calcification of the ligaments and/or entheses along the anterolateral aspect of the vertebral column. The etiology and pathogenesis of calcifications are unknown, and the diagnosis of DISH is currently based on radiographic criteria associated with advanced disease. To characterize the features of calcifications associated with DISH, we used micro-computed tomographic imaging to evaluate a cohort of 19 human cadaveric vertebral columns...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Haocheng Xu, Minghao Shao, Fan Zhang, Cong Nie, Hongli Wang, Wei Zhu, Xinlei Xia, Xiaosheng Ma, Feizhou Lu, Jianyuan Jiang
Purpose: Because Hirayama disease is stereotyped as a self-limited disease in the absence of a definite pathology, we investigated the potential relationship between snake-eyes appearance (SEA) and Hirayama disease to bring a new perspective in the pathological process of Hirayama disease based on relevant radiological and clinical evidence. Methods: A total of 30 cases observed SEA were selected from 293 patients with Hirayama disease to constitute the SEA group, and an equal number of cases were randomly selected from the remaining patients to form the non-SEA group...
2019: BioMed Research International
Tyler A Luthringer, Jonathan M Vigdorchik
BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence has confirmed that patients with spinal deformity, lumbar fusion, and abnormal spinopelvic mobility are at significantly increased risk for instability, dislocation, and revision after total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: Achieving a stable construct in patients with pre-existing spine disease requires an understanding of basic spinopelvic parameters and the compensatory mechanisms associated with abnormal spinopelvic motion...
January 18, 2019: Journal of Arthroplasty
Sarah Jäkel, Eneritz Agirre, Ana Mendanha Falcão, David van Bruggen, Ka Wai Lee, Irene Knuesel, Dheeraj Malhotra, Charles Ffrench-Constant, Anna Williams, Gonçalo Castelo-Branco
Oligodendrocyte (OL) pathology is increasingly implicated in neurodegenerative diseases as OLs both myelinate and provide metabolic support to axons. In multiple sclerosis (MS), demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS) thus leads to neurodegeneration, but the severity of MS between patients is very variable. Disability does not correlate well with the extent of demyelination1 , suggesting that other factors contribute to this variability. One such factor may be OL heterogeneity. Not all OLs are the same-mouse spinal cord OLs inherently produce longer myelin sheaths than cortical OLs2 , and single-cell analysis of mouse CNS identified further differences3,4 ...
January 23, 2019: Nature
Li Wei, Fei He, Wen Zhang, Wenhua Chen, Bo Yu
The present study aimed to identify the genes and underlying mechanisms critical to the pathology of spinal cord injury (SCI). Gene expression profiles of spinal cord tissues of trkB.T1 knockout (KO) mice following SCI were accessible from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. Compared with trkB.T1 wild type (WT) mice, the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in trkB.T1 KO mice following injury at different time points were screened out. The significant DEGs were subjected to function, co‑expression and protein‑protein interaction (PPI) network analyses...
January 22, 2019: Molecular Medicine Reports
Chen-Guang Yu, Vimala Bondada, Sarbani Ghoshal, Ranjana Singh, Christina K Pistilli, Kavi Dayaram, Hina Iqbal, Madison Sands, Kate Davis, Subbarao Bondada, James W Geddes
We previously reported the serendipitous observation that Fenbendazole, a benzimidazole anthelmintic, improved functional and pathological outcomes following thoracic spinal cord contusion injury in mice when administered pre-injury. Fenbendazole is widely used in veterinary medicine. However, it is not approved for human use and it was uncertain if only post-injury administration would offer similar benefits. In the present study we evaluated post-injury administration of a closely related, human anthelmintic drug, Flubendazole, using a rat spinal cord contusion injury model...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Neurotrauma
Guido Spargoli
Background and purpose: Rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy is a common disorder affecting many individuals, both in athletic and sedentary settings. Etiology of RC pathology or the most effective conservative treatment are not totally understood. The Mechanical Diagnosis and Treatment (MDT®) method is a widely known rehabilitative technique that allows therapists to diagnose and treat spinal, and peripheral mechanical disorders. Therefore, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to briefly describe RC tendinopathy, and its management using the MDT® method...
February 2019: International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy
Haotian Li, Xinran Zhang, Xi Qi, Xu Zhu, Liming Cheng
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced neuronal apoptosis is a crucial pathological process of spinal cord injury (SCI). In our previous study, icariin (ICA) showed neuroprotective effects in SCI. However, the relationships between ER stress and ICA in SCI are unclear yet. Therefore, whether ICA could ameliorate SCI via attenuating ER stress was investigated in vitro and in vivo . Adult mice were established SCI model and received vehicle solution or ICA by gavage once per day in vivo . The primary cultured cells were treated with or without thapsigargin (TG), ICA or LY294002 to induce ER stress in vitro ...
2019: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Lindsay A Weiner, Adam C Richardson, Semhar Z Tewelde
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous spinal and intracranial subdural hematomas are rarely reported, especially occurring simultaneously. Anticoagulation use has been associated with spontaneous hemorrhages. Prompt diagnosis is required to prevent permanent neurological sequelae. In this case report, we describe a spontaneous spinal and intracranial subdural hematoma in a woman taking warfarin and initially presenting with severe vaginal pain. CASE REPORT: A 42-year-old woman who had a history of mechanical valve replacement and was therefore taking warfarin, came to an emergency department for relief of severe vaginal pain...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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