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Microbiome Hormones

Aitor Blanco-Míguez, Florentino Fdez-Riverola, Anália Lourenço, Borja Sánchez
This work reports on a large-scale potential neuropeptide activity screening in human gut microbiomes deposited in public databases. In our experimental approach, the sequences of the bioactive peptides collected in the MAHMI database, mainly predicted as immunomodulatory or antitumoral, were crossed with those of the neuroactive/digestive peptides. From 91,325,790 potential bioactive peptides, only 581 returned a match when crossed against the 5949 neuroactive peptides from the NeuroPep database and the 15 digestive hormones...
May 2019: Food Research International
Liying Yang, Yuhan Hao, Jiyuan Hu, Dervla Kelly, Huilin Li, Stuart Brown, Carley Tasker, Natalie E Roche, Theresa L Chang, Zhiheng Pei
The use of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), a 3-monthly injectable hormonal contraceptive, is associated with an increased risk of HIV acquisition possibly through alteration of the vaginal microbiome. In this longitudinal interventional study, we investigated the impact of DMPA administration on the vaginal microbiome in Hispanic White and Black women at the baseline (visit 1), 1 month (visit 2), and 3 months (visit 3) following DMPA treatment by using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. No significant changes in the vaginal microbiome were observed after DMPA treatment when Hispanic White and Black women were analysed as a combined group...
2019: Emerging Microbes & Infections
Karol Gliniewicz, G Maria Schneider, Benjamin J Ridenhour, Christopher J Williams, Yuli Song, Miranda A Farage, Kenneth Miller, Larry J Forney
For decades hormone therapy (HT) has been prescribed to treat the symptoms of menopause, such as vaginal dryness, itching and burning. Here we sought to compare the vaginal microbiomes of postmenopausal women who received low dose estrogen therapy to those of premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and to do so in conjunction with assessing the alleviation of symptoms associated with vaginal atrophy. In this study vaginal swab samples were obtained from 45 women who were classified as either premenopausal, postmenopausal, or postmenopausal and undergoing HT...
2019: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jochen Seitz, Meriem Belheouane, Nina Schulz, Astrid Dempfle, John F Baines, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Interactions between the gut microbiome and the brain are of increasing interest to both researchers and clinicians. Evidence is mounting on the causal role of an altered gut microbiome in inflammatory diseases such as arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, obesity and diabetes, and psychiatric diseases like anxiety and depression. Mechanisms include altered energy harvest from food, hormonal changes, increased gut permeability, inflammation, immune response, and a direct influence on the brain and behavior...
2019: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Rachael E Antwis, Katie L Edwards, Bryony Unwin, Susan L Walker, Susanne Shultz
BACKGROUND: Host microbiomes play a role in hormone production and subsequent fertility in humans, but this is less well understood in non-model organisms. This is of particular relevance to species in zoo-based conservation breeding programmes, as relationships between host microbiome composition and reproductive output may allow for the development of microbial augmentation strategies to improve success. Here, we characterise faecal bacterial communities of breeding and non-breeding eastern black rhino (Diceros bicornis michaeli) using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantify progestagen and glucocorticoid metabolite concentrations through enzyme immunoassays to identify such relationships...
February 15, 2019: Microbiome
Mehdi Farokhnia, Monica L Faulkner, Daria Piacentino, Mary R Lee, Lorenzo Leggio
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, treatment options, including pharmacotherapies, are limited in number and efficacy. Accumulating evidence suggests that elements of the gut-brain axis, such as neuroendocrine pathways and gut microbiome, are involved in the pathophysiology of AUD and, therefore, may be investigated as potential therapeutic targets. One pathway that has begun to be examined in this regard is the ghrelin system. Here, we review preclinical and clinical data on the relationship between ghrelin and alcohol-related outcomes, with a special focus on the role of the ghrelin system as a treatment target for AUD...
February 7, 2019: Physiology & Behavior
Nikolai Hecker, Virag Sharma, Michael Hiller
The repeated evolution of dietary specialization represents a hallmark of mammalian ecology. To detect genomic changes that are associated with dietary adaptations, we performed a systematic screen for convergent gene losses associated with an obligate herbivorous or carnivorous diet in 31 placental mammals. For herbivores, our screen discovered the repeated loss of the triglyceride lipase inhibitor PNLIPRP1 , suggesting enhanced triglyceride digestion efficiency. Furthermore, several herbivores lost the pancreatic exocytosis factor SYCN , providing an explanation for continuous pancreatic zymogen secretion in these species...
February 4, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jochen Seitz, Stefanie Trinh, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann
Growing interest exists in the association of gut bacteria with diseases, such as diabetes, obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, and psychiatric disorders. Gut microbiota influence the fermentation of nutrients, body-weight regulation, gut permeability, hormones, inflammation, immunology, and behavior (gut-brain axis). Regarding anorexia nervosa (AN), altered microbial diversity and taxa abundance were found and associated with depressive, anxious, and eating disorder symptoms. Potential mechanisms involve increased gut permeability, low-grade inflammation, autoantibodies, and reduced brain cell neogenesis and learning...
March 2019: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
David J Morris, Andrew Samuel Brem
Intestinal bacteria can metabolize sterols, bile acids, steroid hormones, dietary proteins, fiber, foodstuffs, and short chain fatty acids (SCFCs). The metabolic products generated by some of these intestinal bacteria have been linked to a number of systemic diseases including obesity with type 2 diabetes mellitus, some forms of inflammation, and more recently, systemic hypertension. In this review, we primarily focus on the potential role selected gut bacteria play in metabolizing the endogenous glucocorticoids corticosterone and cortisol...
January 25, 2019: Physiological Genomics
Priyadarshani Giri, Furong Hu, Edmund F La Gamma, Bistra B Nankova
BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays an important role during early development via bidirectional gut-brain signaling. Catecholamines provide a survival advantage allowing adaptation to common postnatal stressors. We aimed to explore the potential link between gut microbiota/gut-derived metabolites and sympathoadrenal stress responsivity. METHODS: The effect of insulin-induced hypoglycemia was compared in mice with (control, adapted control) and without microbiome (germ-free, GF)...
January 14, 2019: Pediatric Research
Mats Töpel, Matthew I M Pinder, Oskar N Johansson, Olga Kourtchenko, Adrian K Clarke, Anna Godhe
When studying diatoms, an important consideration is the role of associated bacteria in the diatom-microbiome holobiont. To that end, bacteria isolated from a culture of Skeletonema marinoi strain R05AC were sequenced, one of which being bacterial strain SMR1, presented here. The genome consists of a circular chromosome and seven circular plasmids, totalling 5,121,602 bp. After phylotaxonomic analysis and 16S rRNA sequence comparison, we place this strain in the taxon Sulfitobacter pseudonitzschiae on account of similarity to the type strain...
2019: Journal of Genomics
Gabrielle Winston McPherson, Thomas Long, Stephen J Salipante, Jessica A Rongitsch, Noah G Hoffman, Karen Stephens, Kelsi Penewit, Dina N Greene
BACKGROUND: Hormonal changes influence the composition of vaginal flora, which is directly related to the health of an individual. Transgender men prescribed testosterone experience a vaginal hormone composition that differs from cisgender women. To the author's knowledge, there are no clinical studies evaluating the influence that testosterone administration has on the vaginal microbiome. METHODS: Vaginal swabs were self-collected by a cohort of self-identified healthy transgender men prescribed testosterone for at least 1 year (n = 28) and from cisgender women who were used as the comparator (n = 8)...
January 2019: Clinical Chemistry
Stephanie Fischinger, Carolyn M Boudreau, Audrey L Butler, Hendrik Streeck, Galit Alter
Vaccines are among the most impactful public health interventions, preventing millions of new infections and deaths annually worldwide. However, emerging data suggest that vaccines may not protect all populations equally. Specifically, studies analyzing variation in vaccine-induced immunity have pointed to the critical impact of genetics, the environment, nutrition, the microbiome, and sex in influencing vaccine responsiveness. The significant contribution of sex to modulating vaccine-induced immunity has gained attention over the last years...
December 13, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
S König, K May
In dairy cattle, resistance, tolerance and resilience refer to the adaptation ability to a broad range of environmental conditions, implying stable performances (e.g. production level, fertility status) independent from disease or infection pressure. All three mechanisms resistance, tolerance and resilience contribute to overall robustness, implying the evaluation of phenotyping and breeding strategies for improved robustness in dairy cattle populations. Classically, breeding approaches on improved robustness rely on simple production traits, in combination with detailed environmental descriptors and enhanced statistical modelling to infer possible genotype by environment interactions...
December 7, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Gonca Mumcu, Haner Direskeneli
Environmental and other triggering factors are suggested to cause the onset and the clinical relapses of Behçet's syndrome (BS), a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder. In this review, environmental factors are discussed according to their interactions with etiopathogenesis, immune response and disease activity. Stress is a common self-triggering factor for most BS patients. Stimuli such as some foods can activate oral ulcers, and may be linked to the histamine content of the food. Oral/skin trauma and menstruation associated with hormonal factors aggravate, whereas allergy/atopy seem to alleviate the symptoms of BS...
December 6, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Ahmed Ibrahim, Luisa Hugerth, Linnea Hases, Ashish Saxena, Maike Seifert, Quentin Thomas, Jan-Åke Gustafsson, Lars Engstrand, Cecilia Williams
Chronic inflammation of the colon (colitis) is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). Hormone-replacement therapy reduces CRC incidences, and the estrogen receptor beta (ERβ/ESR2) has been implicated in this protection. Gut microbiota is altered in both colitis and CRC and may influence the severity of both. Here we test the hypothesis that intestinal ERβ impacts the gut microbiota. Mice with and without intestine-specific deletion of ERβ (ERβKOVil ) were generated using the Cre-LoxP system. Colitis and CRC were induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by administration of three cycles of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water...
December 4, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
A Bedford, L Beckett, K Hardin, N W Dias, T Davis, V R G Mercadante, A D Ealy, R R White
Emerging data highlighting gut microbiome influences on health support evaluation of how microbial fermentation end-products influence postabsorptive systems. This study aimed to investigate the effect of increased propionate status on progesterone profiles and insulin sensitivity in dairy heifers. Eleven Holstein heifers, synchronized in estrus, were assigned to one of two continuous, 5-day IV treatments: sodium propionate (PRO; n = 5) or saline (CON; n = 6). These infusions culminated in a hyperglycemic clamp with daily blood samples for an additional 7 days...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alessio Gerussi, Laura Cristoferi, Marco Carbone, Rosanna Asselta, Pietro Invernizzi
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease with a striking female preponderance. The mechanisms behind this predominance are still to be elucidated, although multiple theories have been postulated and investigated. Among the proposed involved factors, sex hormones have been the first to be studied, but unfortunately data have been inconclusive or conflicting. Similarly, fetal microchimerism has received a huge attention in the past, but data in PBC have been unsatisfactory especially if compared to other autoimmune diseases like systemic lupus erythematosus...
December 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Varykina G Thackray
Recent studies have shown that sex and sex steroids influence the composition of the gut microbiome. These studies also indicate that steroid regulation of the gut microbiome may play a role in pathological situations of hormonal excess, such as PCOS. Indeed, studies demonstrated that PCOS is associated with decreased alpha diversity and changes in specific Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, previously associated with metabolic dysregulation. These studies suggest that androgens may regulate the gut microbiome in females and that hyperandrogenism may be linked with a gut 'dysbiosis' in PCOS...
November 29, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
L Kolátorová, O Lapčík, L Stárka
The microflora of the digestive tract is composed of a unique set of bacteria, yeasts, viruses and other microorganisms, generally known as the microbiome. The microbiome exhibits considerable inter-individual variability, with up to two-thirds of the microflora differing between individuals. Because of this, the variable intestinal microflora is responsible for many differences in metabolic, hormonal and immunological processes in humans and animals. Significant differences have been observed in the metabolism of phytoestrogens, naturally occurring substances that possess estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity...
November 28, 2018: Physiological Research
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