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mammary gland development

Cathy Hue-Beauvais, Etienne Aujean, Guy Miranda, Delphine Ralliard-Rousseau, Sarah Valentino, Nicolas Brun, Stessy Ladebese, Christine Péchoux, Pascale Chavatte-Palmer, Madia Charlier
Exposure to fine-particulate air pollution is a major global health concern because it is associated with reduced birth weight and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Here we have investigated the potential for exposure to diesel exhaust during pregnancy to influence mammary gland development and milk composition. Female rabbits were therefore exposed by nose-only inhalation to either diluted diesel exhaust fumes (1 mg/m3) or clean air for 2h/day, 5 days/week, from the 3rd to the 27th days of pregnancy...
2019: PloS One
Melvin R White, Michael J Graziano, Thomas P Sanderson
Pexacerfont is a corticotropin-releasing factor subtype 1 receptor antagonist that was developed for the treatment of anxiety- and stress-related disorders. This report describes the results of repeat-dose oral toxicity studies in rats (3 and 6 months) and dogs (3 months and 1 year). Pexacerfont was well tolerated in all of these studies at exposures equal to or greater than areas under the curve in humans (clinical dose of 100 mg). Microscopic changes in the liver (hepatocellular hypertrophy), thyroid glands (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and adenomas of follicular cells), and pituitary (hypertrophy/hyperplasia and vacuolation of thyrotrophs) were only observed in rats and were considered adaptive changes in response to hepatic enzyme induction and subsequent alterations in serum thyroid hormone levels...
February 13, 2019: International Journal of Toxicology
Sha Tao, Geoffrey E Dahl, Jimena Laporta, John K Bernard, Ruth M Orellana Rivas, Thiago N Marins
Heat stress during late gestation in cattle negatively impacts the performance of the dam and its calf. This brief exposure to an adverse environment before parturition impacts the physiological responses, tissue development, metabolism and immune function of the dam and her offspring, thereby limiting their productivity. During the dry period of a dairy cow, heat stress blunts mammary involution by attenuating mammary apoptosis and autophagic activity, and reduces subsequent mammary cell proliferation, leading to impaired milk production in the next lactation...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Animal Science
Hui-Zeng Sun, Yanhong Chen, Le Luo Guan
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in regulating gene expression involved in various biological functions. The knowledge of miRNA expression profiles across different tissues in cattle is still limited. Using the miRNAs data generated from 158 samples in three studies, we characterized the miRNA expression profiles of bovine sera, exosomes and 11 different tissues. Totally 639 miRNAs were identified and 159 miRNAs were expressed in all samples. After relative log expression normalization, four miRNA expression clusters were generated: 1) sera and exosomes; 2) liver; 3) mammary gland; 4) rumen and gut tissues...
February 12, 2019: Scientific Data
José Javier Salgado Plonski, Sergio Fernández-Pello Montes, Luis Rodríguez Villamil, Rodrigo Gil Ugarteburu, Rebeca Blanco Fernández, Javier Mosquera Madera
OBJECTIVE: Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma(RCC) may develop in different anatomical locationsand after a strict follow up within normal limits. We assessthe importance of close follow up in patients with historyof RCC through 3 clinical cases with unusual locations ofmetastatic RCC. METHODS: We present 3 cases of metastatic involvementof pituitary, thyroid and mammary glands. We retrospectivelyreview our data base on metastatic RCC with 76patients. DISCUSSION: There is not agreement about the time offollow up and image methods requested after surgery ofRCC...
January 2019: Archivos Españoles de Urología
Kaifeng Deng, Shanying Mo, Xuexiang Liu, Jifei Chen, Qiaoyun Zhang, Xiaoli Chen, Jianming Chen, Shengming Dai
BACKGROUND: Based on estrogen active substances, many women consume soy foods in the belief that it could prevent breast cancer (BC). Women with different molecular subtypes would be likely to have diverse reactions to soy foods, especially those with the estrogen-receptor-positive (ER+ ) subtype. The aim of the current study is to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) on soy foods in premenopausal patients with Lumina A subtype of BC (LABC) after soy food treatment, and to further investigate the critical molecule change...
December 12, 2018: Clinical Breast Cancer
Silmi Mariya, Fitriya N Dewi, Irma H Suparto, Gregory K Wilkerson, J Mark Cline, Diah Iskandriati, I Nengah Budiarsa, Dondin Sajuthi
The mammary gland contains adult stem cells that are capable of self-renewal. Although these cells hold an important rolein the biology and pathology of the breast, the studies of mammary stem cells are few due to the difficulty of acquiring andexpanding undifferentiated adult stem cell populations. In this study, we developed mammosphere cultures from frozen mammary cells of nulliparous cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) as a culture system to enrich mammary stem cells. Small samples of mammary tissues were collected by surgical biopsy; cells were cultured in epithelial cell growth medium and cryopreserved...
February 7, 2019: Comparative Medicine
Elena Strekalova, Dmitry Malin, Harisha Rajanala, Vincent L Cryns
We have developed a novel therapeutic paradigm ("metabolic priming") for cancer whereby restriction of the essential amino acid methionine activates a number of cell-stress-response pathways that can be selectively targeted to enhance the therapeutic impact of methionine restriction. One example of metabolic priming is the combination of methionine restriction with proapoptotic TRAIL receptor-2 (TRAIL-R2) agonists. Methionine restriction enhances the cell surface expression of TRAIL-R2 selectively in transformed breast epithelial cells and renders them more susceptible to cell death induction by TRAIL-R2 agonists in cellular and murine models of breast cancer...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Xi Xiong, Bi Feng, Bo Cao, Ding-Kun Zhang, Kai-Peng Xiong, Jun-Zhi Lin, Zhi-Min Ci, Run-Chun Xu, Li Han
Xiaojin Pill, was firstly recorded in Life-saving Manual of Diagnosis and Treatment of External Diseases, with its primitive name of "Xiaojin Dan". Xiaojin Pill is a classic prescription for treating carbuncle and it is the first choice for Chinese medicine in the clinical treatment of hyperplasia of mammary glands. In this paper, the literature reports on Xiaojin Pills were summarized and the historical evolution, material basis, pharmacological action, quality control and other problems were systematically discussed to explore the potential problems in every aspect of the development status, and put forward the development countermeasures, providing reference for the modernization research and development of Xiaojin Pills...
December 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Quentin L Sciascia, Danitsja S van der Linden, Francisco A Sales, Nina J Wards, Hugh T Blair, David Pacheco, Mark H Oliver, Susan A McCoard
Maternal milk is the primary source of nutrition for suckling mammals, and its yield and composition are important determinants of survival during the early neonatal period. The objective of this study was to examine whether parenteral administration of l-Arg to twin-bearing ewes, during mid to late pregnancy, influenced prepartum maternal mammary gland development and subsequent lactation performance in the early postpartum period (14 d). At 80 d of pregnancy, multiparous Romney ewes were housed indoors in group pens, split into 2 cohorts, and fed a lucerne-based pellet diet, formulated to meet 100% of National Research Council-recommended requirements for twin-bearing pregnant ewes, once a day...
January 31, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Hisashi Yoshimura, Aya Otsuka, Masaki Michishita, Masami Yamamoto, Minori Ashizawa, Manami Zushi, Maiko Moriya, Daigo Azakami, Kazuhiko Ochiai, Yoko Matsuda, Toshiyuki Ishiwata, Shinji Kamiya, Kimimasa Takahashi
S100A4 (metastasin), a member of the S100 protein family, was initially identified in metastatic cells and is well established as a marker of aggressive human cancer. However, expression and roles of S100A4 in canine mammary tumors have not been clarified. In this study, expression of S100A4 was examined immunohistochemically in normal, hyperplastic, and neoplastic mammary glands of dogs. In all normal and benign lesions, S100A4 was restricted to a few stromal fibroblasts and inflammatory cells. However, in 7 of 57 (12%) of the malignant tumors examined, cytoplasmic and nuclear expression of S100A4 was observed in epithelial tumor cells and stromal cells...
January 27, 2019: Veterinary Pathology
Artur Gurgul, I Jasielczuk, E Semik-Gurgul, T Szmatoła, A Majewska, E Sosin-Bzducha, M Bugno-Poniewierska
Polish Red cattle is one of the few indigenous breeds of European red cattle which is characterized by several desired features, such as high disease resistance, good health, longevity, good fertility, and high nutritional value of milk. Currently, Polish Red cattle population is a subject of two independent breeding programs: (i) improvement program and (ii) genetic resources conservation program. The aim of the improvement program is the genetic progress in terms of milk production and body conformation traits, while the conservation program mainly focuses on protection of the genetic resources of Polish Red cattle and preservation of the existing, original gene pool...
January 26, 2019: Journal of Applied Genetics
Tony F Grassi, Lucas T Bidinotto, Gisele A D Lopes, Joyce R Zapaterini, Maria A M Rodrigues, Luís F Barbisan
Previous studies have shown that early life intake of high-fat diet or western-style diet (WD) enhances the development of mammary tumors in adult female rats. Thus, we hypothesized that maternal WD throughout pregnancy and the lactation period could speed up the development of MNU-induced mammary tumors and alter their gene expression. For this, the present study investigated the gene expression profile of chemically-induced mammary tumors in female rat offspring from dams fed a WD or a control diet. Pregnant female Sprague-Dawley rats received a WD (high-fat, low-fiber and oligoelements) or a control diet from gestational day 12 until post-natal day (PND) 21...
January 2019: Nutrition Research
Hidefumi Shiroshita, Masafumi Inomata, Toshio Bandoh, Hiroki Uchida, Shigeo Akira, Makoto Hashizume, Shigeki Yamaguchi, Susumu Eguchi, Norihito Wada, Shuji Takiguchi, Satoshi Ieiri, Shunsuke Endo, Masayuki Iwazaki, Yasuhiro Tamaki, Minoru Tabata, Hiroomi Kanayama, Hiromitsu Mimata, Toru Hasegawa, Kiyoshi Onishi, Katsuhiko Yanaga, Toshiaki Morikawa, Toshiro Terachi, Sumio Matsumoto, Yuichi Yamashita, Seigo Kitano, Masahiko Watanabe
In Japan, the first endoscopic surgery, a laparoscopic cholecystectomy, was performed in 1990. Since then, the operative procedure has been standardized, and the safety and usefulness of endoscopic surgery have been evaluated. In accordance with the social acceptance of endoscopic surgery as a less-invasive surgery, the number of endoscopic procedures has been increasing in all surgical domains. The Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery (JSES) has played an important role in the development of endoscopic surgery in Japan...
January 2019: Asian Journal of Endoscopic Surgery
Vandna Dhanwal, Archana Katoch, Amanpreet Singh, Souneek Chakraborty, Mir Mohd Faheem, Gaganpreet Kaur, Debasis Nayak, Narinder Singh, Anindya Goswami, Navneet Kaur
Organic nanoparticles (ONPs) possess great research interests for their promising effects in the enhancement of bioactivity including anticancer activity with less toxicity. The present study describes the preparation, characterization and biological evaluation of aqueous phase ONPs of potent 1,2-disubstituted benzimidazole derivative (BZ6) for anticancer activity. BZ6-ONPs were characterized through UV-absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic analysis for their photo-physical properties. DLS, TEM and SEM studies were carried out for morphological and structural analysis...
April 2019: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Kentaro Ishida, Tetsuichiro Saito, Toshiyuki Mitsui
Selective cell death by apoptosis plays important roles in organogenesis. Apoptotic cells are observed in the developmental and homeostatic processes of several ectodermal organs, such as hairs, feathers, and mammary glands. In chick feather development, apoptotic events have been observed during feather morphogenesis, but have not been investigated during early feather bud formation. Previously, we have reported a method for generating feather buds on a bioengineered skin from dissociated skin epithelial and mesenchymal cells in three-dimensional culture...
January 24, 2019: Development, Growth & Differentiation
M E Van Amburgh, F Soberon, M J Meyer, R A Molano
To optimize first lactation and lifetime milk yield, growth benchmarks were established to help meet the appropriate growth objectives of breeding weight and age at an economically viable time and to achieve the optimum body size and composition at first calving. These guidelines provide a framework that helps to minimize overfeeding and, thus, potential overconditioning of heifers, which can lead to postpartum metabolic issues and reduced milk yield. Concerns still exist that mammary development is impaired when body weight gain exceeds a certain threshold, which would negatively affects milk yield...
January 16, 2019: Journal of Dairy Science
Qianyu Guo, Vivian Z Li, Jessica N Nichol, Fan Huang, William Yang, Samuel E J Preston, Zahra Talat, Hanne Lefrère, Henry Yu, Guihua Zhang, Mark Basik, Christophe Gonçalves, Yao Zhan, Dany Plourde, Jie Su, Jose Torres, Maud Marques, Sara Al Habyan, Krikor Bijian, Frédéric Amant, Michael Witcher, Fariba Behbod, Luke McCaffrey, Moulay A Alaoui-Jamali, Nadia V Giannakopoulos, Muriel Brackstone, Lynne-Marie Postovit, Sonia V Del Rincón, Wilson H Miller
The mechanisms by which breast cancers progress from relatively indolent ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) are not well understood. However, this process is critical to the acquisition of metastatic potential. MAP kinase-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (MNK1) signaling can promote cell invasion. NODAL, a morphogen essential for embryogenic patterning, is often re-expressed in breast cancer. Here we describe a MNK1/NODAL signaling axis that promotes DCIS progression to IDC...
January 18, 2019: Cancer Research
Lei Sheng, Andrew G Turner, Kate Barratt, Richard Kremer, Howard A Morris, David F Callen, Paul H Anderson, Gerard A Tarulli
Active vitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) has been shown to regulate numerous cell processes in mammary cells. Degradation of 1,25(OH)2D is initiated by the mitochondrial enzyme, 25-hydroxyvitamin D 24-hydroxylase (CYP24 A1), and provides local control of 1,25(OH)2D bioactivity. Several reports of the association between elevated CYP24 A1 activity and breast cancer incidence, suggest that CYP24 A1 may be a target for therapeutic intervention. Whether CYP24 A1 activity within the mammary epithelium regulates 1,25(OH)2D levels and mammary gland development is yet to shown...
January 14, 2019: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ramesh T Gunaratna, Andres Santos, Linjie Luo, Chandandeep Nagi, Isabel Lambertz, Madison Spier, Claudio J Conti, Robin S Fuchs-Young
Female breast cancer (BrCa) is the most common noncutaneous cancer among women in the United States. Human epidemiological studies reveal that a p53 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at codon 72, encoding proline (P72) or arginine (R72), is associated with differential risk of several cancers, including BrCa. However, the molecular mechanisms by which these variants affect mammary tumorigenesis remain unresolved. To investigate the effects of this polymorphism on susceptibility to mammary cancer, we used a humanized p53 mouse model, homozygous for either P72 or R72...
January 16, 2019: Oncogene
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