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Preschool Child

Andriani Kyriklaki, Katerina Margetaki, Mariza Kampouri, Katerina Koutra, Panos Bitsios, Georgia Chalkiadaki, Eirini Dermitzaki, Maria Venihaki, Katerina Sarri, Despoina Anousaki, Manolis Kogevinas, Leda Chatzi
There is growing evidence associating inflammatory markers in complex, higher order neurological functions, such as cognition and memory. We examined whether high levels of various inflammatory markers are associated with cognitive outcomes at 4 years of age in a mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece (Rhea study). We included 642 children in this cross-sectional study. Levels of several inflammatory markers (IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17α, IL-10, MIP-1α, TNF-α and the ratios of IL-6 to IL-10 and TNF-α to IL-10) were determined in child serum via immunoassay...
February 14, 2019: Cytokine
Harriet Okronipa, Mary Arimond, Rebecca R Young, Charles D Arnold, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Solace M Tamakloe, Helena J Bentil, Maku E Ocansey, Sika M Kumordzie, Brietta M Oaks, Kathryn G Dewey
BACKGROUND: Whether consuming sweet foods early in life affects sweet food preferences and consumption later in childhood is unknown. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that exposure to a slightly sweet lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) early in life would not increase preference for or consumption of sweet items at preschool age. METHODS: We followed up children who had participated in a randomized trial in Ghana in which LNS was provided to 1 group of women during pregnancy and 6 mo postpartum and to their infants from ages 6-18 mo (LNS group)...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Deborah Gross, Harolyn M E Belcher, Chakra Budhathoki, Mirian E Ofonedu, Daryl Dutrow, Melissa Kurtz Uveges, Eric Slade
OBJECTIVE: This pragmatic, randomized, non-inferiority trial compared the effectiveness and cost of group-based parent management training (PMT) versus mastery-based individual coaching PMT in a low-income, predominantly African American sample. METHOD: Parents seeking treatment for their 2-5 year old children's behavior problems in an urban fee-for-service child mental health clinic were randomized to the Chicago Parent Program (CPP; n=81) or Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT; n=80)...
November 12, 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
Xia Huo, Yifeng Dai, Tian Yang, Yu Zhang, Minghui Li, Xijin Xu
Lead (Pb) toxicity damages blood cells and disturbs the immune micro-environment. When Pb enters the circulatory system, >95% of Pb accumulates in erythrocytes. We therefore conducted this study to explore the long-term effect of Pb exposure on expression of erythrocyte adhesion molecules (CD44 and CD58) and related downstream cytokine concentrations. We enrolled a total of 267 preschool children, 2-7 years of age, from Guiyu (e-waste-exposed group, n = 132) and Haojiang (reference group, n = 135) in November and December 2015...
February 5, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Sika M Kumordzie, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Rebecca R Young, Brietta M Oaks, Solace M Tamakloe, Maku E Ocansey, Harriet Okronipa, Elizabeth L Prado, Kathryn G Dewey
Background: In the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements (iLiNS)-DYAD-Ghana trial, prenatal small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNSs) had a positive effect on birth weight. Birth weight may be inversely related to blood pressure (BP) later in life. Objectives: We examined the effect of the intervention on BP at 4-6 y of age, and maternal and child factors related to BP. Methods: The iLiNS-DYAD-Ghana study was a partially double-blind, randomized controlled trial which assigned women (n = 1320) ≤20 weeks of gestation to daily supplementation with: 1) iron and folic acid during pregnancy and 200 mg Ca for 6 mo postpartum , 2) multiple micronutrients during pregnancy and postpartum, or 3) LNSs during pregnancy and postpartum plus LNSs for infants from 6 to 18 mo of age...
February 11, 2019: Journal of Nutrition
Luis Anunciação, Jane Squires, Jantina Clifford, J Landeira-Fernandez
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, large-scale governmental programs have been implemented to evaluate the development of all children who are enrolled in public daycare centers and preschools using the Brazilian Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-emotional (ASQ:SE) as a screening tool. However, in the Brazilian context, there is a lack of studies that have investigated the clinical utility of the ASQ:SE, and only a few studies have partially investigated the psychometric properties of the Brazilian version of this scale...
February 12, 2019: Child: Care, Health and Development
Brody Heritage, Vincent Mancini, Daniela Rigoli, Jan Piek
BACKGROUND: The self-concept of children has an impact on later behavioural development and psychopathology; therefore, evidence of the accurate measurement of self-concept is important. Harter and Pike's (1984, Child Development, 55, 1969) commonly used measure of self-concept, the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance for Children, has demonstrated varying evidence of its construct validity and reliability, particularly with preschool- or kindergarten-aged participants...
February 11, 2019: British Journal of Educational Psychology
German Posada, Brian E Vaughn, Manuela Veríssimo, Ting Lu, Olivia I Nichols, Mona El-Sheikh, Jill M Trumbell, Laura Anaya, Garene Kaloustian
Associations between attachment security, assessed as a secure base script (SBS), and teachers' social competence ratings were examined in two samples (one from the Midwest region and the other from the Southern region of the United States). Consistent with previous reports, significant associations between domains were obtained in both samples and after combining the two samples, r = .33, p < .001. The associations remained significant when child sex, age, and verbal intelligence were controlled. Findings are discussed with reference to relations between SBS scores and the covariates...
February 12, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
E M Riso, K Mägi, S Vaiksaar, L Toplaan, J Jürimäe
AIM: We explored the cognitive abilities, health behaviour and cardiorespiratory fitness of preschool Estonian children aged 6-7 and any association with parental education, attending sports clubs and gender. METHODS: Data were obtained from 256 children recruited from 13 randomly chosen kindergartens in Tartu, Estonia. Cognitive abilities were assessed using the modified Boehm Test of Basic Concepts - Third Edition. Objective physical activity (PA) intensity and sedentary levels were measured over seven days by accelerometry...
February 11, 2019: Acta Paediatrica
Susan E Levy, Leslie A Rescorla, Jesse L Chittams, Tanja J Kral, Eric J Moody, Juhi Pandey, Jennifer A Pinto-Martin, Alison T Pomykacz, AnnJosette Ramirez, Nuri Reyes, Cordelia Robinson Rosenberg, Laura Schieve, Aleda Thompson, Lisa Young, Jing Zhang, Lisa Wiggins
We analyzed CBCL/1½-5 Pervasive Developmental Problems (DSM-PDP) scores in 3- to 5-year-olds from the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED), a multi-site case control study, with the objective to discriminate children with ASD (N = 656) from children with Developmental Delay (DD) (N = 646), children with Developmental Delay (DD) plus ASD features (DD-AF) (N = 284), and population controls (POP) (N = 827). ASD diagnosis was confirmed with the ADOS and ADI-R. With a cut-point of T ≥ 65, sensitivity was 80% for ASD, with specificity varying across groups: POP (0...
February 9, 2019: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Megan L Hammersley, Anthony D Okely, Marijka J Batterham, Rachel A Jones
BACKGROUND: Electronic health (eHealth) obesity programs offer benefits to traditionally delivered programs and have shown promise in improving obesity-related behaviors in children. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a parent-focused, internet-based healthy lifestyle program for preschool-aged children, who are overweight or at or above the fiftieth percentile for body mass index (BMI) for their age and sex, on child BMI, obesity-related behaviors, parent modeling, and parent self-efficacy...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Travis C Porco, Catherine E Oldenburg, Ahmed M Arzika, Khumbo Kalua, Zakayo Mrango, Catherine Cook, Elodie Lebas, Robin L Bailey, Sheila K West, Assaf P Oron, Jeremy D Keenan, Thomas M Lietman, For The Mordor Study Group
Mass azithromycin distribution has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality in preschool children in sub-Saharan Africa. However, substantial heterogeneity in the apparent effect has been noted across geographic settings, suggesting a greater relative benefit in higher mortality settings. Here, we evaluated the relationship between the underlying mortality rate and the efficacy of azithromycin for the prevention of child mortality using data from multiple sites in Ethiopia, Malawi, Niger, and Tanzania. Between regions, we find no strong evidence of effect modification of the efficacy of azithromycin distribution for the prevention of child mortality by the underlying mortality rate ( P = 0...
February 7, 2019: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Ingunn Olea Lund, Espen Moen Eilertsen, Line C Gjerde, Espen Røysamb, Mollie Wood, Ted Reichborn-Kjennerud, Eivind Ystrom
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hazardous drinking (i.e., alcohol consumption that places drinkers at risk for adverse health outcomes) during pregnancy is associated with adverse child outcomes. To address whether the associations are causal, we aimed to estimate the effect of maternal hazardous drinking during 1st trimester on offspring emotional and behavior problems throughout the preschool age. We adjust for, 1) measured confounding (e.g., smoking) 2) familial risk factors by sibling control design, and 3) non-shared environmental risk factors by using hazardous drinking the 3 months before pregnancy as an instrumental variable...
February 8, 2019: Addiction
Deena R Zimmerman, Gina Verbov, Naomi Edelstein, Chen Stein-Zamir
PURPOSE: Pediatric preventive health services are delivered in many different formats throughout the world. In Israel, these services for young children are provided in designated Maternal Child Health Clinics (MCHC). The history and operation of Israel's MCHC have been described primarily in the Hebrew language medical literature with most of these reports being over a decade old. This paper provides an up to date summary of the evolution and current care in Israel's one-hundred-year old model for the provision of preschool preventive health services...
February 7, 2019: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
Ni Zhou, Hai Ming Wong, Colman McGrath
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the oral health status and associated factors among preschool children with special health care needs. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This was designed as a cross-sectional study. Dental examination were provided to 383 children at Special Child Care Centres. Covariates of interest included children's age, developmental profile, oral health-related behaviours and family social-economic status. The association between children's dental caries experiences, dental plaque deposition and gingival health status were analysed by Negative Binomial Regression, Multiple Factor ANOVA and Binary Logistic Regression when appropriate...
February 6, 2019: Oral Diseases
Marilia Fernandes, Manuela Verissimo, António J Santos, Carla Fernandes, Marta Antunes, Brian E Vaughn
Recent meta-analyses have reported significant effects of attachment quality on social competence, mostly using observational assessments of attachment behavior to assess security. We analyze the associations between attachment security - assessed as a secure base script, and social competence with peers - measured by teachers' ratings on two self-report instruments, in a Portuguese sample of 82 preschool children (34 boys and 48 girls). We also tested the association between children's secure base script scores and teacher ratings for externalizing and internalizing symptomatology...
February 6, 2019: Attachment & Human Development
Avani Jain, Baranya Shrikrishna Suprabha, Ramya Shenoy, Arathi Rao
The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is an association between temperament characteristics of preschool children, dental anxiety, and their dental behaviour. A total of 100 children, aged 3-5 yr, who were attending their initial dental visit accompanied by a parent, were included in this cross-sectional study. Dental anxiety of children was measured using the Facial Image Scale. The behaviour of children during the initial oral examination and oral prophylaxis was assessed using Frankl's behaviour rating scale...
February 6, 2019: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Maku E Ocansey, Seth Adu-Afarwuah, Sika M Kumordzie, Harriet Okronipa, Rebecca R Young, Solace M Tamakloe, Brietta M Oaks, Kathryn G Dewey, Elizabeth L Prado
Background: Adequate nutrition is necessary for brain development during pregnancy and infancy. Few randomized controlled trials of supplementation during these periods have measured later developmental outcomes. Objective: Our objective was to investigate the effects of provision of prenatal and postnatal lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) on child development at preschool age. Methods: We conducted a follow-up study of 966 children aged 4-6 y in 2016, born to women who participated in the International Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements-DYAD trial conducted in Ghana in 2009-2014, representing 79% of eligible children...
February 1, 2019: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Patricia Franco, Aurore Guyon, Camille Stagnara, Sophie Flori, Flora Bat-Pitault, Jian-Sheng Lin, Hugues Patural, Sabine Plancoulaine
BACKGROUND: Few studies on the relationship between sleep quantity and/or quality and cognition have been conducted among preschoolers from the healthy general population. We aimed to identify, among 3-year-old children, early polysomnography (PSG) sleep factors associated with estimated intelligence quotient (IQ) using the Weschler Preschool and Primary Scale Intelligence-III test (WPPSI-III) and its indicators: full-scale (FISQ), verbal (VIQ), and performance (PIQ) intelligence quotients...
January 5, 2019: Sleep Medicine
Fiona Sim, Lucy Thompson, Louise Marryat, Nitish Ramparsad, Philip Wilson
BACKGROUND: Preschool screening for developmental difficulties is increasingly becoming part of routine health service provision and yet the scope and validity of tools used within these screening assessments is variable. The aim of this review is to report on the predictive validity of preschool screening tools for language and behaviour difficulties used in a community setting. METHODS: Studies reporting the predictive validity of language or behaviour screening tools in the preschool years were identified through literature searches of Ovid Medline, Embase, EBSCO CINAHL, PsycInfo and ERIC...
2019: PloS One
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