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Diet during exercise

Rafael Marins Rezende, Maria do Carmo Gouveia Pelúzio, Franciany de Jesus Silva, Emanuel Mattos Della Lucia, Lukiya Silva Campos Favarato, Hercia Stampini Duarte Martino, Antônio José Natali
The objective of this study was to verify the effects of aerobic exercise associated with tryptophan (TRP) supplementation on hyperalgesia, as well as on cortisol, IL-6 and TNF concentrations in female rats with experimental fibromyalgia (FM). Female Wistar rats (initial body weight: ~ 350 g; age: 12 months) were randomly divided into 5 groups: CON (Control); F (Fibromyalgia induced); FE (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise); FES (Fibromyalgia induced plus exercise and TRP supplementation) and FS (Fibromyalgia induced plus TRP supplementation)...
2019: PloS One
M van den Bosch, J Wijnen, I B van de Linde, A A M van Wesel, D Melchior, B Kemp, H van den Brand, C Clouard
We investigated whether maternal dietary nitrate supplementation, leading to nitric oxide (NO) formation, would affect duration of farrowing, levels of asphyxiation, vitality of piglets at birth and/or loss of potential viable piglets in the form of stillbirth and pre-weaning mortality. Data were collected from 190 crossbred (Yorkshire x Dutch Landrace) sows, which were allocated, balanced for parity, to six dietary nitrate levels (0, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09, 0.12 or 0.15% of nitrate). Sow received the lactational diet containing nitrate from approximately 7 days before farrowing until 5 days after farrowing...
February 12, 2019: Theriogenology
Sihui Ma, Katsuhiko Suzuki
A ketogenic diet (KD) could induce nutritional ketosis. Over time, the body will acclimate to use ketone bodies as a primary fuel to achieve keto-adaptation. Keto-adaptation may provide a consistent and fast energy supply, thus improving exercise performance and capacity. With its anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, a KD may contribute to muscle health, thus preventing exercise-induced fatigue and damage. Given the solid basis of its potential to improve exercise capacity, numerous investigations into KD and exercise have been carried out in recent years...
February 13, 2019: Sports
Jiafei Zhang, Wenjun Yin, Pei Li, Chen Hu, Lu Wang, Tian Li, Erwei Gao, Jian Hou, Guiyang Wang, Xian Wang, Lin Wang, Zhiqiang Yu, Jing Yuan
Phthalate can affect sex hormones secretion. Exercise and diet habits affect sex hormones levels. However, interaction of phthalates exposure and diet or exercise habits with sex hormones is unclear. We enrolled 106 residents aged 11-88 years (48 males and 58 females) from two communities, Wuhan city, China during the winter of 2014 and summer of 2015. Data were collected on socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle by a questionnaire in two seasons. Participants provided the blood and urine samples over 3 consecutive days for measuring sex hormones and urinary phthalate metabolites...
February 6, 2019: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Jessica L Kelleher, Paul Weiss, Amy D Rodriguez, Joe R Nocera, Monica C Serra
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the body weight goals and trends of stroke survivors, despite evidence that overweight and obesity can negatively influence poststroke rehabilitation outcomes. Thus, the purpose of this study was to identify self-reported body weight trends over time in stroke survivors and nonstroke controls (>50 years old) and describe the methods used to attempt to achieve body weight goals. METHODS: Self-reported body weight 1) at age 25 years, 2) 10 years prior to the current assessment, 3) 1 year prior to the current assessment, 4) current weight, and 5) age of heaviest body weight were collected from adults self-reporting a stroke in the 2011-2012 and 2013-2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (stroke: N = 387 and nonstroke: N = 5085)...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
A V Kuzmenko, V V Kuzmenko, T A Gyaurgiev
INTRODUCTION: Androgens play a key role in the male development. All the physiological processes in the body, including the production of testosterone, have their chronobiological features. Aging is accompanied by a disruption in the regulation of chronobiological processes. With androgen deficiency, these changes occur at any age. In recent years, transdermal forms of testosterone have become very popular in the treatment of this condition. AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness and chronobiological features of various regimens of testosterone gel therapy for external use in men with androgen deficiency...
October 2018: Urologii︠a︡
M A Feofilova, O G Pavlov, V E Geimerling
The prospective observation of women with uterus myoma being on operative treatment in gynecological department of the Tula oblast clinical hospital during 2011-2012 was implemented. The regular female donors of the department of transfusiology of the given medical institution were used as the comparison group. It is established that female contingent with uterus myoma has a complex of such predisposing medical social risk factors as lower motion activity, financial neediness, increased stress load, diet of lower quality and its limitations, increased liquid intake, inobservance of work and rest regime, with passive character of longer day rest, certain occupational hazards...
November 2018: Problemy Sot︠s︡ialʹnoĭ Gigieny, Zdravookhranenii︠a︡ i Istorii Medit︠s︡iny
Wales A Carter, John P Whiteman, Clara Cooper-Mullin, Seth D Newsome, Scott R McWilliams
Although tissue fatty acid (FA) composition has been linked to whole-animal performance (e.g., aerobic endurance, metabolic rate, postexercise recovery) in a wide range of animal taxa, we do not adequately understand the pace of changes in FA composition and its implications for the ecology of animals. Therefore, we used a C4 to C3 diet shift experiment and compound-specific δ13 C analysis to estimate the turnover rates of FAs in the polar and neutral fractions of flight muscle lipids (corresponding to membranes and lipid droplets) of exercised and sedentary zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
March 2019: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, James Sm Cuffe, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Sogand Gravina, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, Jessica F Briffa, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Fetal growth is dependent on effective placental nutrient transportation, which is regulated by mTORC1 modulation of nutrient transporter expression. These transporters are dysregulated in pregnancies affected by uteroplacental insufficiency and maternal obesity. Nutrient transporters and mTOR were altered in placentae of mothers born growth restricted compared to normal birth weight dams, with maternal diet- and fetal sex-specific responses. Exercise initiated during pregnancy (PregEx) downregulated MTOR protein expression, despite an increase in mTOR activation in male associated placentae, and reduced nutrient transporter gene abundance, which was also dependent on maternal diet and fetal sex...
February 7, 2019: Journal of Physiology
Beata Zdrodowska, Katarzyna Leszczyńska, Ryszard Leszczyński
Type 2 diabetes has long been called the epidemic of the XXI century. It is the most common type of diabetes. One of the main causes of premature mortality, primarily due to serious complications, which for many years, developing "deceitfully" and asymptomatic. Despite the dynamic growth of the pharmaceutical industry and diabetes care for all patients is not possible to achieve target glycemic index values. It is emphasized that in type 2 diabetes by lifestyle, proper diet and regular physical activity are non-pharmacological treatment methods for maintaining good health...
December 28, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Laura Regué, Fei Ji, Daniel Flicker, Dana Kramer, William Pierce, Teekhon Davidoff, Jeffrey J Widrick, Nicholas Houstis, Liliana Minichiello, Ning Dai, Joseph Avruch
The IGF2 mRNA binding protein2/IMP2 was selectively deleted from adult mouse muscle; two phenotypes were observed: decreased accrual of skeletal muscle mass after weaning and reduced wheel running activity but normal forced treadmill performance. Reduced wheel running occurs when fed a high fat diet but is normalized consuming standard chow. The two phenotypes are due to altered abundance of different IMP2 client mRNAs. The reduced fiber size of IMP2 deficient muscle is attributable, in part, to diminished autocrine Igf2 production; basal tyrosine phosphorylation of the Insulin and IGF1 receptors is diminished and Akt1 activation is selectively reduced...
January 28, 2019: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Nida Murtaza, Louise M Burke, Nicole Vlahovich, Bronwen Charlesson, Hayley O' Neill, Megan L Ross, Katrina L Campbell, Lutz Krause, Mark Morrison
We investigated extreme changes in diet patterns on the gut microbiota of elite race walkers undertaking intensified training and its possible links with athlete performance. Numerous studies with sedentary subjects have shown that diet and/or exercise can exert strong selective pressures on the gut microbiota. Similar studies with elite athletes are relatively scant, despite the recognition that diet is an important contributor to sports performance. In this study, stool samples were collected from the cohort at the beginning (baseline; BL) and end (post-treatment; PT) of a three-week intensified training program during which athletes were assigned to a High Carbohydrate (HCHO), Periodised Carbohydrate (PCHO) or ketogenic Low Carbohydrate High Fat (LCHF) diet (post treatment)...
January 24, 2019: Nutrients
Dana M Lis
Exercise-associated physiological disturbances alter gastrointestinal function and integrity. These alterations may increase susceptibility to dietary triggers, namely gluten and a family of short-chain carbohydrates known as FODMAPs (fermentable oligo-, di-, monosaccharides and polyols). A recent surge in the popularity of gluten-free diets (GFDs) among athletes without celiac disease has been exacerbated by unsubstantiated commercial health claims and high-profile athletes citing this diet to be the secret to their success...
January 22, 2019: Sports Medicine
Daisuke Harada, Mitsuo Nakayama
The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between glucose dosage in parenteral nutrition and reductions in levels of body thiamine in rats. Vitamin-free infusions with differing amounts of glucose were administered to normal or thiamine-deficient rats for 5 days, after which urinary thiamine excretion and the amounts of thiamine in the blood, liver, brain, and skeletal muscles were measured. The total energy dosage was set at three levels (98, 140, and 196 kcal/kg), and the dose of amino acids was constant among all groups...
2019: International Journal of Medical Sciences
Hiroshige Taniguchi, Koichiro Matsuo, Kazuharu Nakagawa, Junichi Furuya, Manabu Kanazawa, Shunsuke Minakuchi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Systemic muscle wasting during perioperative periods has a major impact on postoperative morbidity. However, data on oropharyngeal muscle weakness after surgery are scarce. We examined whether maximum tongue pressure (MTP) and hand grip strength (HGS) diminished during the perioperative period without and with oral feeding in patients receiving cancer surgery. METHODS: A total of 258 patients undergoing cancer surgery who had visited a hospital dental clinic were prospectively recruited between October 2015 and February 2016...
February 2019: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Nanako Hayashi, Aya Ishibashi, Kazushige Goto
PURPOSE: We examined the effects of diet before endurance exercise on hepcidin response in young untrained females. METHODS: Ten young untrained females [age: 20.6 ± 0.8 y, height: 157.5 ± 1.0 cm, weight: 54.4 ± 1.5 kg, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 35.9 ± 1.1 mL/kg/min] were involved in two experimental conditions with a crossover design. The two conditions were separated by approximately 1 month, and each condition was performed during the follicular phase...
December 31, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
Berthold Koletzko, Monika Cremer, Maria Flothkötter, Christine Graf, Hans Hauner, Claudia Hellmers, Mathilde Kersting, Michael Krawinkel, Hildegard Przyrembel, Marianne Röbl-Mathieu, Ulrich Schiffner, Klaus Vetter, Anke Weißenborn, Achim Wöckel
Diet and exercise before and during pregnancy affect the course of the pregnancy, the child's development and the short- and long-term health of mother and child. The Healthy Start - Young Family Network has updated the recommendations on nutrition in pregnancy that first appeared in 2012 and supplemented them with recommendations on a preconception lifestyle. The recommendations address body weight before conception, weight gain in pregnancy, energy and nutritional requirements and diet (including a vegetarian/vegan diet), the supplements folic acid/folate, iodine, iron and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), protection against food-borne illnesses, physical activity before and during pregnancy, alcohol, smoking, caffeinated drinks, oral and dental hygiene and the use of medicinal products...
December 2018: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Melanie Wiffin, Lee Smith, Jose Antonio, James Johnstone, Liam Beasley, Justin Roberts
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that low fermentable oligiosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diets improve gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome sufferers. Exercise-related GI issues are a common cause of underperformance, with current evidence focusing on the use of FODMAP approaches with recreationally competitive or highly trained athletes. However, there is a paucity of research exploring the potential benefit of FODMAP strategies to support healthy, recreational athletes who experience GI  issues during training...
January 15, 2019: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
Gwendolyn Patience Mensah, Dalena R M van Rooyen, Wilma Ten Ham-Baloyi
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as any degree of glucose intolerance that is observed in the beginning of, or first acknowledged during pregnancy. The prevalence of GDM is estimated to be approximately 15% globally and is expected to increase due to growing numbers of overweight and obesity in women in their reproductive age. The nursing management of GDM in terms of lifestyle modifications (exercise, diet and nutrition) and the taking of diabetes medication, if required, and adherence thereto is crucial to prevent maternal and neonatal-perinatal complications...
January 4, 2019: Midwifery
Yeukai Tm Mangwiro, Jessica F Briffa, Sogand Gravina, Dayana Mahizir, Kristina Anevska, Tania Romano, Karen M Moritz, James Sm Cuffe, Mary E Wlodek
Fetal growth and development are dependent on adequate placental nutrient transfer. The surface area of the placental villous network is a key determinant of nutrient exchange, which is regulated by vasculogenic and angiogenic factors. These factors are altered by intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and maternal obesity in both the first (F1) and second (F2) generations. We investigated the impact of endurance exercise in IUGR dams fed a High-fat diet on placental vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Uteroplacental insufficiency (Restricted) or sham (Control) surgery was induced on embryonic day (E) 18 in Wistar-Kyoto rats...
December 15, 2018: Placenta
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