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blood passport

Jean-François Naud, Sylvain Giraud, Neil Robinson, Philippe Desharnais, Magnus Ericsson, Martial Saugy, Tiia Kuuranne, Christiane Ayotte, Thierry Boghosian, Reid Aikin, Pierre-Edouard Sottas
INTRODUCTION: The percentage of circulating reticulocytes (RET%) is a useful marker of blood doping in the context of the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The viability of the ABP depends on the comparability of sample data obtained across multiple laboratories for a given athlete. With the recent introduction of a different technology for the measurement of reticulocytes, the goal of this study was to compare currently employed Sysmex XT/XE analyzers to the recently introduced Sysmex XN analyzer...
February 19, 2019: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
Bradley D Anawalt
Context: The lifetime prevalence of anabolic androgenic steroid (AAS) use is estimated at 1-5% worldwide. AAS use occurs primarily male elite athletes and men who want a muscular appearance. The evidence for effective, safe management of AAS cessation and withdrawal is weak. Evidence Acquisition: Key studies were extracted from Pubmed (1990-2018) and Google Scholar with reference searches from relevant retrieved articles. Evidence synthesis: The proven adverse effects of AAS include suppression of the gonadal axis and infertility, hirsutism and defeminization in women, and erythrocytosis...
February 8, 2019: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
A G Arutyunov, A V Nozdrin, K B Shavgulidze, D S Tokmin, I V Osadchiy
AIM: The aim of the study was to analyze the severity of the difference in these values in real clinical practice in patients suffering from arterial hypertension (AH) on the basis of an open multicenter register to monitor the effectiveness of therapy in patients with hypertension "HYPERION", conducted by the Eurasian Association of Therapists with the support of the company "Gedeon Richter" (Hungary). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was carried out within the open multi-center register "HYPERION"...
April 19, 2018: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Geoffrey D Miller, Masaru Teramoto, Stacy J Smeal, Dan Cushman, Daniel Eichner
PURPOSE: The hydration status of an athlete at the time of a doping control sample collection is an important factor to consider when reviewing Athlete Biological Passports. Dehydration results in a reduction of the circulating plasma volume (PV), which may lead to artificially high values of some blood parameters. This study aimed to identify whether serum albumin could serve as a single marker of fluid shifts, which are not currently accounted for in the hematological passport. An additional marker could be used to assist experts when interpreting irregularities in the athlete biological passport (ABP)...
January 28, 2019: Drug Testing and Analysis
Petros Cyrus Kayange, Markus Schulze Schwering, Chatonda Stephen Manda, Isaac Singini, Vincent Verson Phillip Moyo, Johnstone Kumwenda
Background: Prevalence and spectrum of hypertensive retinopathy in the population reflects the status of hypertension control and the associated risks for cardiovascular events. We investigated the prevalence and clinical spectrum of hypertensive retinopathy among patients attending hypertension clinic at a tertiary hospital in Malawi. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of systematically selected patients attending hypertension clinic at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital...
September 2018: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
William Stones, William Wayne Peno
Aim: To identify service side factors associated with access to antenatal blood pressure measurement at health facilities in Malawi. Methods: Secondary data analysis of 1499 observations of antenatal consultations undertaken in the Service Provision Assessment survey 2013-14, a census of all formal health facilities in the country. Results: Differentials in access to antenatal blood pressure measurements by client age or educational status and provider gender or in-service training did not reach statistical significance although clinically important effects cannot be excluded...
September 2018: Malawi Medical Journal: the Journal of Medical Association of Malawi
Ciaran Cosgrave, Colm Fuller, Andy Franklyn-Miller, Eanna Falvey, Cliff Beirne, John Ryan, Paul McCrory
Introduction: Sports-related concussion (SRC) can be challenging to diagnose, assess and manage. Much of the SRC research is conducted on adults. The assessment of SRC should aim to identify deficits using a detailed multimodal assessment; however, most studies investigating the effects of SRC use diagnostic tools in isolation. It is likely that a combination of diagnostic tests will improve diagnostic accuracy. In this study, we aim to investigate how concussion affects adolescent rugby players and how a variety of diagnostic tools interact with each other as participants recover from their injury...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Neil Robinson, Jonas Saugy, Frédéric Schütz, Raphael Faiss, Norbert Baume, Sylvain Giraud, Martial Saugy
For the first time, blood samples were collected in all athletes participating in a major sporting event of the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) (Athletics World Championships 2011, Daegu, Korea). All variables obtained from blood analyses were incorporated into the individual blood profiles of each athlete for the so-called "Athlete Biological Passport" (ABP). This unprecedented data collection highlighted differences for a few blood biomarkers commonly measured and reported for the ABP on some group of athletes...
October 22, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Sergei Iljukov, Stephane Bermon, Yorck O Schumacher
The efficient use of testing resources is a key issue in the fight against doping. The longitudinal tracking of sporting performances to identify unusual improvements possibly caused by doping, so-called "athlete's performance passport" (APP) is a new concept to improve targeted anti-doping testing. In fact, unusual performances by an athlete would trigger a more thorough testing program. In the present case report, performance data is modeled using the critical power concept for a group of athletes based on their past performances...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine, respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in the Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS)...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Louisa M Lobigs, Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Nicolin Tee, Christopher J Gore, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
Altitude is a confounding factor within the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) due, in part, to the plasma volume (PV) response to hypoxia. Here, a newly developed PV blood test is applied to assess the possible efficacy of reducing the influence of PV on the volumetric ABP markers; haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]) and the OFF-score. Endurance athletes (n=34) completed a 21-night simulated live-high train-low (LHTL) protocol (14 h.d-1 at 3000 m). Bloods were collected twice pre-altitude; at days 3, 8, and 15 at altitude; and 1, 7, 21, and 42 days post-altitude...
February 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jenny Mullen, Annica Börjesson, Oscar Hopcraft, Jenny J Schulze, Magnus Ericsson, Anders Rane, Mikael Lehtihet, Lena Ekström
Micro-doping with testosterone (T) is challenging to detect with the current doping tests. Today, the methods available to detect T are longitudinally monitoring of urine biomarkers in the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) and measuring the isotopic composition of excreted biomarkers to distinguish the origin of the molecule. In this study, we investigated the detectability of a single dose of 100 mg T gel in 8 healthy male subjects. We also studied which biomarkers were most sensitive to T gel administration, including blood biomarkers...
May 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Guan Wang, Jérôme Durussel, Jonathan Shurlock, Martin Mooses, Noriyuki Fuku, Georgie Bruinvels, Charles Pedlar, Richard Burden, Andrew Murray, Brendan Yee, Anne Keenan, John D McClure, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Yannis P Pitsiladis
BACKGROUND: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) can improve human performance and is therefore frequently abused by athletes. As a result, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) introduced the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) as an indirect method to detect blood doping. Despite this progress, challenges remain to detect blood manipulations such as the use of microdoses of rHuEpo. METHODS: Forty-five whole-blood transcriptional markers of rHuEpo previously derived from a high-dose rHuEpo administration trial were used to assess whether microdoses of rHuEpo could be detected in 14 trained subjects and whether these markers may be confounded by exercise (n = 14 trained subjects) and altitude training (n = 21 elite runners and n = 4 elite rowers, respectively)...
November 14, 2017: BMC Genomics
Bradley D Anawalt
Because national and international sports competitions are sources of community pride and financial revenue, there have been great efforts to prevent and detect the use of performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic androgenic steroids by elite athletes. The World Anti-Doping Agency and its national affiliate anti-doping agencies have created sophisticated monitoring systems and advanced testing techniques to detect the use of banned substances including anabolic androgenic steroids by participants in international and national athletic competitions...
March 15, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Laura A Garvican-Lewis, Victor L Vuong, Andrew D Govus, Yorck Olaf Schumacher, David Hughes, Greg Lovell, Daniel Eichner, Christopher J Gore
The integrity of the athlete biological passport (ABP) is underpinned by understanding normal fluctuations of its biomarkers to environmental or medical conditions, for example, altitude training or iron deficiency. The combined impact of altitude and iron supplementation on the ABP was evaluated in endurance-trained athletes (n = 34) undertaking 3 weeks of simulated live-high: train-low (14 h.d-1 , 3000 m). Athletes received either oral, intravenous (IV) or placebo iron supplementation, commencing 2 weeks prior and continuing throughout hypoxic exposure...
April 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
M Lehtihet, A Andersson, A Börjesson, J Schulze, A Rane, M Ericsson, L Ekström
Today's doping tests involve longitudinal monitoring of urinary steroids including the testosterone glucuronide and epitestosterone glucuronide ratio (T/E) in an Athlete Biological Passport (ABP). The aim of this study was to investigate the possible influence of short-term use of codeine on the urinary excretion of androgen metabolites included in the steroidal module of the passport prior to and after the co-administration with testosterone. The study was designed as an open study with the subjects being their own control...
April 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Rolf Ulrich, Harrison G Pope, Léa Cléret, Andrea Petróczi, Tamás Nepusz, Jay Schaffer, Gen Kanayama, R Dawn Comstock, Perikles Simon
BACKGROUND: Doping in sports compromises fair play and endangers health. To deter doping among elite athletes, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) oversees testing of several hundred thousand athletic blood and urine samples annually, of which 1-2% test positive. Measures using the Athlete Biological Passport suggest a higher mean prevalence of about 14% positive tests. Biological testing, however, likely fails to detect many cutting-edge doping techniques, and thus the true prevalence of doping remains unknown...
January 2018: Sports Medicine
Larry D Bowers, Xavier Bigard
The most important element in achieving athlete compliance with anti-doping rules is the certainty of detection. Thus, scientific research plays a mission critical role in achieving clean competition. Many factors contribute to the advances in detection. Incremental advances in the ability to detect prohibited substances and methods, and identification of long-lived metabolites continue to lengthen detection windows. While the athlete biological passport hematological and steroidal modules hold great promise, experience shows that new research is needed to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the approach for current doping techniques...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
Guan Wang, Antonia Karanikolou, Ioanna Verdouka, Theodore Friedmann, Yannis Pitsiladis
Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), blood manipulations such as the use of recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusions are a well-known method used by athletes to enhance performance. Direct detection of illicit blood manipulation has been partially successful due to the short detection window of the substances/methods, sample collection timing, and the use of sophisticated masking strategies. In response, WADA introduced the athlete biological passport (ABP) in 2009, which is an individualised longitudinal monitoring approach that tests primarily haematologic biomarkers of doping in order to identify atypical variability in response(s) in athletes, highlighting a potential doping violation...
2017: Medicine and Sport Science
Louisa M Lobigs, Pierre-Edouard Sottas, Pitre C Bourdon, Zoran Nikolovski, Mohamed El-Gingo, Evdokia Varamenti, Peter Peeling, Brian Dawson, Yorck O Schumacher
The haematological module of the Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) has significantly impacted the prevalence of blood manipulations in elite sports. However, the ABP relies on a number of concentration-based markers of erythropoiesis, such as haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), which are influenced by shifts in plasma volume (PV). Fluctuations in PV contribute to the majority of biological variance associated with volumetric ABP markers. Our laboratory recently identified a panel of common chemistry markers (from a simple blood test) capable of describing ca 67% of PV variance, presenting an applicable method to account for volume shifts within anti-doping practices...
February 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
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