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CV risk

Eloísa Rubio-Beltrán, Antoinette Maassen van den Brink
Increasing knowledge about the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in migraine pathophysiology has led to the development of antibodies against this peptide or its receptor. However, CGRP is widely expressed throughout the body, participating not only in pathophysiological conditions but also in several physiological processes and homeostatic responses during pathophysiological events. Therefore, in this chapter, the risks of long-term blockade of the CGRP pathway will be discussed, with focus on the cardiovascular system, as this peptide has been described to have a protective role during ischemic events, and migraine patients present a higher risk of stroke and myocardial infarction...
March 17, 2019: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Bing Zhao, Fay H Johnston, Marita Dalton, Kazuaki Negishi
INTRODUCTION: In adults, noninvasive assessments of vascular function have been established. However, little is known about the applicability and reference values of these techniques among children < 6 years old and none ≤ 2. We aimed to determine the feasibility of conducting noninvasive vascular assessments in 2-year-old children and the normal range of results in this age group. METHODS: Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and abdominal aorta IMT (aaIMT), pulse wave velocity (PWV), arterial diameter change, stiffness index (β), and distensibility were assessed in 2-year-old children...
March 16, 2019: Pediatric Cardiology
Stephanie M Toth-Manikowski, Tammy L Sirich, Timothy W Meyer, Thomas H Hostetter, Seungyoung Hwang, Natalie S Plummer, Xin Hai, Josef Coresh, Neil R Powe, Tariq Shafi
BACKGROUND: Residual kidney function (RKF) is thought to exert beneficial effects through clearance of uremic toxins. However, the level of native kidney function where clearance becomes negligible is not known. METHODS: We aimed to assess whether levels of nonurea solutes differed among patients with 'clinically negligible' RKF compared with those with no RKF. The hemodialysis study excluded patients with urinary urea clearance >1.5 mL/min, below which RKF was considered to be 'clinically negligible'...
March 15, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Alexandru Burlacu, Simonetta Genovesi, Alberto Ortiz, Christian Combe, Carlo Basile, Daniel Schneditz, Frank van der Sande, Grigore T Popa, Cornel Morosanu, Adrian Covic
Dialysis patients manifest both an increased thrombotic risk and a haemorrhagic tendency. A great number of patients with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis have cardiovascular comorbidities (coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation or venous thromboembolism) and different indications for treatment with antithrombotics (primary or secondary prevention). Unfortunately, few randomized controlled trials deal with antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant therapy in dialysis. Therefore cardiology and nephrology guidelines offer ambiguous recommendations and often exclude or ignore these patients...
March 16, 2019: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Lasse Visby, Charlotte Burup Kristensen, Frederik Holm Grund Pedersen, Per Ejlstrup Sigvardsen, Klaus Fuglsang Kofoed, Christian Hassager, Rasmus Møgelvang
AIMS: Accurate echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the aortic root is necessary for risk stratification and choice of appropriate treatment in patients with pathologies of the aortic valve and aortic root. Conventional 2D transthoracic echocardiographic (TTE) assessment is based on the assumption of a circular shaped LVOT and aortic root, although previous studies have indicated a more ellipsoid shape. 3D TTE and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) applies planimetry and are not dependent on geometrical assumptions...
March 16, 2019: European Heart Journal Cardiovascular Imaging
Cian McCarthy, Sean Murphy, Joshua A Cohen, Saad Rehman, Maeve Jones-O'Connor, David S Olshan, Avinainder Singh, Muthiah Vaduganathan, James L Januzzi, Jason H Wasfy
Importance: Similar to other patients with acute myocardial infarction, patients with type 2 myocardial infarction (T2MI) are included in several value-based programs, including the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program and the Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program. To our knowledge, whether nonischemic myocardial injury is being misclassified as T2MI is unknown and may have implications for these programs. Objective: To determine whether patients with nonischemic myocardial injury are being miscoded as having T2MI and if this has implications for 30-day readmission and mortality rates...
March 17, 2019: JAMA Cardiology
Gonçalo Silva Duarte, Afonso Nunes-Ferreira, Filipe Brogueira Rodrigues, Fausto J Pinto, Joaquim J Ferreira, Joao Costa, Daniel Caldeira
OBJECTIVE: Morphine is frequently used in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) due to its analgesic effect, it being recommended in the main cardiology guidelines in Europe and the USA. However, controversy exists regarding its routine use due to potential safety concerns. We conducted a systematic review of randomised-controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies to synthesise the available evidence. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE and trial registries...
March 15, 2019: BMJ Open
Mohsen Mazidi, Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about the role of liver enzymes as predictors of non-liver-related morbidity and mortality. The ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) score proposed by the American Heart Association (AHA) can be used to predict mortality and morbidity. We investigated the association of the CVH score with liver enzymes and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) among US adults. METHODS: By using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database (cross-sectional), the CVH score was calculated as meeting ideal levels of the following components: 4 behaviors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity and diet adherence) and 3 factors (total cholesterol, blood pressure and fasting glucose)...
November 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Ruijie Liu, Min Cheng, Kumar S D Kothapalli, Zhen Wang, Elizabeth Mendralla, Hui Gyu Park, Robert C Block, Xingguo Wang, J Thomas Brenna
Despite its 50-year history, the conventional diet-heart hypothesis holding that dietary saturated fats raise serum cholesterol, and with it, cardiovascular risk, remains controversial. Harsh chemical and physical treatment generates process contaminants, and refined oils raise serum and tissue cholesterol in vivo independent of saturated fat content. We developed an in vitro bioassay for rapidly assessing the influence of oils on cholesterol metabolism in the human liver HepG2 cell line, and tested it using coconut oil (CO) of various stages of refinement...
March 13, 2019: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Ignatios Ikonomidis, George Makavos, Pelagia Katsimbri, Dimitrios T Boumpas, John Parissis, Efstathios Iliodromitis
Rheumatic diseases are immune-mediated inflammatory multisystem diseases with frequent cardiovascular manifestations including perimyocarditis, valvular disease, coronary artery disease, heart failure with or without preserved ejection fraction, pulmonary hypertension, aneurysms, and thrombosis. Echocardiography, carotid ultrasonography, cardiac computed tomography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography are valid diagnostic tools for the detection of the cardiovascular complications of the multisystem diseases that frequently determine prognosis...
March 8, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Matthew Budoff, Jye-Yu C Backlund, David A Bluemke, Joseph Polak, Ionut Bebu, David Schade, Suzanne Strowig, Philip Raskin, John M Lachin
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the relationship between coronary artery calcium (CAC) scores and subsequent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events in DCCT (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial)/EDIC (Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications) participants. BACKGROUND: The CAC score has been validated for improved risk stratification in general populations; however, this association has not been well studied in type 1 diabetes (T1DM). METHODS: Computed tomography (CT) to measure CAC was performed in 1,205 DCCT/EDIC participants at a mean of 42...
March 8, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Renato Quispe, Mahmoud Al-Rifai, Philip A Di Carlo, Erin D Michos, Nivee P Amin, Sina Kianoush, Catherine E Handy, John W McEvoy, Michael J Blaha, Khurram Nasir, Roger S Blumenthal, Rajesh Tota-Maharaj, Joao A C Lima, Josep Comin-Colet, Miguel Cainzos-Achirica
In 2018, cardiovascular disease (CVD) was the leading cause of death among women, and current CVD prevention paradigms may not be sufficient in this group. In that context, it has recently been proposed that detection of calcification in breast arteries may help improve CVD risk screening and assessment in apparently healthy women. This review provides an overview of breast arterial anatomy; and the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and measurement of breast artery calcium (BAC); and discusses the features of the BAC-CVD link...
March 8, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Chrysanthos Grigoratos, Andrea Barison, Alexander Ivanov, Daniele Andreini, Mihaela-Silvia Amzulescu, Lukasz Mazurkiewicz, Antonio De Luca, Jacek Grzybowski, Pier Giorgio Masci, Magdalena Marczak, John F Heitner, Juerg Schwitter, Bernhard L Gerber, Michele Emdin, Giovanni Donato Aquaro
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess the predictive value of late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and global systolic impairment for future major adverse cardiovascular events in left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC). BACKGROUND: The prognosis of patients with LVNC, with and without left ventricular dysfunction and LGE, is still unclear. METHODS: A systematic review of published research and a meta-analysis reporting a combined endpoint of hard (cardiac death, sudden cardiac death, appropriate defibrillator firing, resuscitated cardiac arrest, cardiac transplantation, assist device implantation) and minor (heart failure hospitalization and thromboembolic events) events was performed...
March 8, 2019: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Giovanna Gallo, Vivianne Presta, Massimo Volpe, Speranza Rubattu
Aortic valve stenosis (AS) is the most common heart valve disease in North America and Europe leading to an increased risk of heart failure and death. A multidisciplinary evaluation of symptoms, individual risk profile, echocardiographic parameters, biomarkers assessment is required for an appropriate clinical and therapeutic management of AS. The natriuretic peptides (NPs) represent an important biomarker for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes in several cardiovascular diseases. The present review article provides an overview of the current knowledge on the role of NPs in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, risk stratification and potential therapeutic implications in AS...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Miriam Pikkemaat, Tobias Andersson, Olle Melander, John Chalmers, Karin Rådholm, Kristina Bengtsson Boström
AIMS: To study the association between baseline level of C-peptide and all-cause death, cardiovascular death and cardiovascular complications among persons with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The Skaraborg Diabetes Register contains data on baseline C-peptide concentrations among 398 persons <65 years with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes 1996-1998. National registries were used to determine all-cause death, cardiovascular death and incidence of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke until 31 December 2014...
March 13, 2019: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Conor Judge, Sarah Ruttledge, Maria Costello, Robert Murphy, Elaine Loughlin, Alberto Alvarez-Iglesias, John Ferguson, Sarah Gorey, Aoife Nolan, Michelle Canavan, Martin O'Halloran, Martin J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: The association of lipid lowering therapy and intracerebral hemorrhage risk is controversial. METHODS: We performed a cumulative meta-analysis of lipid lowering trials that reported intracerebral hemorrhage. Statin, fibrate, ezetimibe, PCSK9, and CETP trials were included. We explored whether the association of lipid lowering therapy and risk of intracerebral hemorrhage may vary by baseline low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, mean change in LDL or baseline cardiovascular risk of population...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Guiling Ma, Yidan Wang, Dongyan Hou, Jiamei Liu, Juan Zhang, Lin Xu, Hua Wang, Wenshu Zhao, Yuan Zhang, Lin Zhang
BACKGROUND: Peripartum cardiomyopathy (PPCM) is characterized by heart failure. Our previous study found that autoantibodies against the M2-muscarinic receptor (anti-M2-R) are increased in PPCM patients. We aimed to evaluate the association of anti-M2-R on prognosis of PPCM patients with standard treatment. METHODS: Synthetic peptides corresponding to the M2 receptor served as the target antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay experiment. They were used to screen the sera of 80 PPCM patients, who were separated into anti-M2-R-negative and positive groups according to their anti-M2-R reactivity...
March 13, 2019: Journal of Cardiology
Thomas J Bollyky, Tara Templin, Matthew Cohen, Diana Schoder, Joseph L Dieleman, Simon Wigley
BACKGROUND: Previous analyses of democracy and population health have focused on broad measures, such as life expectancy at birth and child and infant mortality, and have shown some contradictory results. We used a panel of data spanning 170 countries to assess the association between democracy and cause-specific mortality and explore the pathways connecting democratic rule to health gains. METHODS: We extracted cause-specific mortality and HIV-free life expectancy estimates from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 and information on regime type from the Varieties of Democracy project...
March 13, 2019: Lancet
Frank Doyle, Kenneth Freedland, Robert Carney, Peter de Jonge, Chris Dickens, Susanne Pedersen, Jan Sorensen, Martin Dempster
BACKGROUND: Depression is common in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and is associated with poorer outcomes and higher costs. Several randomised controlled trials (RCTs) targeting depression, of various modalities (including pharmacological, psychotherapeutic and other approaches), have been conducted and summarised in pairwise meta-analytic reviews. However, no study has considered the cumulative evidence within a network, which can provide valuable indirect comparisons and information about the relative efficacy of interventions...
March 16, 2019: Systematic Reviews
George P Paraskevas
Hereditary types of ischemic cerebral subcortical small vessel disease (SSVD) are rare, usually autosomal dominant, diseases, due to an abnormality in vessel wall synthesis. They may present with various combinations of migraine with aura, ischemic events (transient ischemic attacks, lacunar strokes) and progressively worsening ischemic lesion load in brain imaging. Eventually, vascular cognitive impairment (usually of the frontal-subcortical type) develops, frequently accompanied by behavioral-psychiatric symptoms and bilateral pyramidal and pseudobulbar signs leading to severe disability and premature death...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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