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Vitamin D Gut

Sarah Milliken, Ruridh M Allen, Ronald F Lamont
The use of antibiotics prenatally, during pregnancy, or neonatally may have adverse effects on the neonatal gut microbiome, and adversely affect the development of the infant immune system, leading to the development of childhood atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity. Areas covered: We reviewed new evidence about vaginal eubiosis and dysbiosis from molecular-based, cultivation-independent techniques, and how this affects the neonatal gut microbiome and early development of the immune system in infants. We have considered the association between maternal use of antibiotics and the potentially beneficial role of vitamin D in the development of atopy, asthma, allergy and obesity...
February 11, 2019: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
Anne L Dunlop, Sheila L Jordan, Erin P Ferranti, Cherie C Hill, Shiven Patel, Li Hao, Elizabeth J Corwin, Vin Tangpricha
Objective: This study sought to investigate associations between serum total and free 25(OH)D and bacterial vaginosis (BV) in early and later pregnancy among US black women to provide insight into the most clinically relevant measure of vitamin D status among pregnant black women with respect to risk for BV as well as insights into critical time points for measuring and/or addressing vitamin D status in pregnancy. Methods: Data and biospecimens were derived from a subsample (N = 137) of women from the Emory University African American Vaginal, Oral, and Gut Microbiome in Pregnancy Cohort, for whom data related to vitamin D status (serum assays for total and free 25(OH)D) and Nugent score of Gram stained vaginal specimens in early (8-14 weeks) and later (24-30 weeks) were available...
2019: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Joseph A Hakim, Julie B Schram, Aaron W E Galloway, Casey D Morrow, Michael R Crowley, Stephen A Watts, Asim K Bej
The sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (order Camarodonta, family Strongylocentrotidae) can be found dominating low intertidal pool biomass on the southern coast of Oregon, USA. In this case study, three adult sea urchins were collected from their shared intertidal pool, and the bacteriome of their pharynx, gut tissue, and gut digesta, including their tide pool water and algae, was determined using targeted high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of the 16S rRNA genes and bioinformatics tools. Overall, the gut tissue demonstrated Arcobacter and Sulfurimonas (Epsilonproteobacteria) to be abundant, whereas the gut digesta was dominated by Psychromonas (Gammaproteobacteria), Propionigenium (Fusobacteria), and Flavobacteriales (Bacteroidetes)...
January 26, 2019: Microorganisms
Teruaki Matsui, Kajiyo Tanaka, Hirotaka Yamashita, Ken-Ichi Saneyasu, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Yoshihiro Takasato, Shiro Sugiura, Naoki Inagaki, Komei Ito
The season of birth and ultraviolet B exposure have been related to the occurrence of food allergy. The levels of vitamin D produced from skin by ultraviolet B exposure might reflect this relationship. Vitamin D is known to induce antimicrobial peptides, protect intestinal flora, enhance the gut epithelial barrier, suppress mast cell activation and IgE synthesis from B cells, and increase the number of tolerogenic dendritic cells and IL-10-producing regulatory T cells. Vitamin D deficiency has been shown to exacerbate sensitization and allergic symptoms in a murine model of food allergy...
January 19, 2019: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Andezhath Kumaran Susheela, G S Toteja
The review on fluorosis addresses the genesis of the disease, diagnostic protocols developed, mitigation and recovery through nutritional interventions. It reveals the structural and functional damages caused to skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, leading to clinical manifestations in fluorosis. Hormonal derangements resulting in serious abnormalities in the health of children and adults are discussed. Fluoride toxicity destroys the probiotics in the gut, resulting in vitamin B12 depletion, an essential ingredient in haemoglobin (Hb) biosynthesis...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Anne M Karvonen, Joanne E Sordillo, Diane R Gold, Leonard B Bacharier, George T O'Connor, Robert S Zeiger, Avraham Beigelman, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota has been associated with overweight and obesity in adults, but the evidence in children is limited. Our aim was to study whether composition of the gut microbiota at the age of 3 years is associated with overweight/obesity in children cross-sectionally. METHODS: Children, who participated in a clinical trial of prenatal vitamin-D supplementation (VDAART), underwent standardized height and weight measurements, and collection of stool samples at 3 years of age...
December 19, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Rosa Reddavide, Ornella Rotolo, Maria Gabriella Caruso, Elisa Stasi, Maria Notarnicola, Chiara Miraglia, Antonio Nouvenne, Tiziana Meschi, Gian Luigi De' Angelis, Francesco Di Mario, Gioacchino Leandro
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - are chronic conditions characterised by relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. They represent an increasing public health concern and an aetiological enigma due to unknown causal factors. The current knowledge on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to a dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers...
December 17, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Majid Ghareghani, Russel J Reiter, Kazem Zibara, Naser Farhadi
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). While the etiology of MS is still largely unknown, scientists believe that the interaction of several endogenous and exogenous factors may be involved in this disease. Epidemiologists have seen an increased prevalence of MS in countries at high latitudes, where the sunlight is limited and where the populations have vitamin D deficiency and high melatonin levels. Although the functions and synthesis of vitamin D and melatonin are contrary to each other, both are involved in the immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Erin Bove-Fenderson, Michael Mannstadt
Calcium is vital for life, and extracellular calcium concentrations must constantly be maintained within a precise concentration range. Low serum calcium (hypocalcemia) occurs in conjunction with multiple disorders and can be life-threatening if severe. Symptoms of acute hypocalcemia include neuromuscular irritability, tetany, and seizures, which are rapidly resolved with intravenous administration of calcium gluconate. However, disorders that lead to chronic hypocalcemia often have more subtle manifestations...
October 2018: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
Yi Quan Zhou, Ren Ying Xu, Yan Ping Wan
The current review aimed to elucidate the role of diet in every stage of inflammatory bowel diseases, from aspects of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Western diet, characterized by overconsumption of refined sugar and saturated fat and low consumption of dietary fiber, may partly be blamed for its pathogenesis. Some immune-modulated nutrients (fibers, monounsaturated fatty acids, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin D) exert their potential beneficial effects on gut microbiota and immune function, resulting in clinical remission and/or preventing relapse...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Digestive Diseases
Jiezhong Chen, Michael Thomsen, Luis Vitetta
The intestinal microbiota is now recognised to play key roles in health due to its involvement in many aspects of human physiology. Disturbance in gut microbiota (dysbiosis) is thus associated with many diseases including nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) which includes nonalcoholic fatty liver and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. The mechanisms for the effect of dysbiosis in NAFLD pathogenesis are not completely elucidated. Many explanations have been proposed to trigger dysbiosis, leading to NAFLD including inflammation, ethanol produced by the gut bacteria and lipotoxicity...
November 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Emanuele Rinninella, Maria Cristina Mele, Nicolò Merendino, Marco Cintoni, Gaia Anselmi, Aldo Caporossi, Antonio Gasbarrini, Angelo Maria Minnella
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a complex multifactorial disease and the primary cause of legal and irreversible blindness among individuals aged ≥65 years in developed countries. Globally, it affects 30⁻50 million individuals, with an estimated increase of approximately 200 million by 2020 and approximately 300 million by 2040. Currently, the neovascular form may be able to be treated with the use of anti-VEGF drugs, while no effective treatments are available for the dry form. Many studies, such as the randomized controlled trials (RCTs) Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) and AREDS 2, have shown a potential role of micronutrient supplementation in lowering the risk of progression of the early stages of AMD...
November 5, 2018: Nutrients
Menglian Lv, Shengyi Yang, Lingkai Cai, Li-Qiang Qin, Bing-Yan Li, Zhongxiao Wan
SCOPE: To explore how quercetin will affect memory impairments in APP/PS1 mice under different vitamin D status. METHODS AND RESULTS: APP/PS1 mice are divided into four groups, i.e., control (CON), low (LVD), medium, and high vitamin D supplemented with quercetin. During Morris Water Maze test, mice of the LVD group function best for improving cognitive function demonstrated by reduced latency to platform, and increased number of crossing and swimming distance in the target quadrant...
October 17, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Mary Waterhouse, Bronwyn Hope, Lutz Krause, Mark Morrison, Melinda M Protani, Martha Zakrzewski, Rachel E Neale
PURPOSE: Variation in the human microbiome has been linked with a variety of physiological functions, including immune regulation and metabolism and biosynthesis of vitamins, hormones, and neurotransmitters. Evidence for extraskeletal effects of vitamin D has been accruing and it has been suggested that the effect of vitamin D on health is partially mediated through the microbiome. We aimed to critically evaluate the evidence linking vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome. METHODS: We systematically searched the Embase, Web of Science, PubMed and CINAHL databases, including peer-reviewed publications that reported an association between a measure of vitamin D and the gastrointestinal microbiome in humans or experimental animals...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Amir Abbasnezhad, Reza Amani, Amin Hasanvand, Esmaeil Yousefi Rad, Meysam Alipour, Somayeh Saboori, Razieh Choghakhori
OBJECTIVE: A high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in gastrointestinal (GI) disorders and the role of vitamin D in the function of the gut have been shown previously. Therefore, we aimed to evaluated the VDD and the possible association of the GI symptoms severity and quality of life (QoL) score with the serum levels of vitamin D in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). METHODS: A total of 90 patients with IBS based on Rome III criteria enrolled in the study from the tertiary referral university hospital...
September 25, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
Seyed-Amir Tabatabaeizadeh, Niayesh Tafazoli, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid Ghayour-Mobarhan
Vitamin D has an important role in bone metabolism but recently has been recognized as an immunoregulator, and this has led to investigations on the effect of Vitamin D supplementation in various autoimmune diseases and its anti-inflammatory effects. There is some evidence that Vitamin D can regulate gastrointestinal inflammation. In addition, previous studies have shown that Vitamin D can affect the gut microbiome. The aim of this review is to evaluate the effect of Vitamin D on inflammatory processes, especially its relation to the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and gut microbiome...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Jessica H Savage, Kathleen A Lee-Sarwar, Joanne E Sordillo, Nancy E Lange, Yanjiao Zhou, George T O'Connor, Megan Sandel, Leonard B Bacharier, Robert Zeiger, Erica Sodergren, George M Weinstock, Diane R Gold, Scott T Weiss, Augusto A Litonjua
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between diet during pregnancy and infancy, including breastfeeding vs formula feeding, solid food introduction, and the infant intestinal microbiome. STUDY DESIGN: Infants participating in the Vitamin D Antenatal Asthma Reduction Trial were included in this study (n = 323). Maternal and infant diets were assessed by questionnaire. Infant stool samples were collected at age 3-6 months. Stool sequencing was performed using the Roche 454 platform...
December 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Jun Sun
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review is to summarize the recent progress of vitamin D/vitamin D receptor (VDR) and microbiome in intestinal homeostasis, airway function, and other organs. RECENT FINDINGS: Microbiome is considered as a newly discovered human organ. It is critical in the synthesis of vitamins and harvest of otherwise inaccessible nutrients, metabolism of xenobiotics, body fat storage, renewal of gut epithelial cells, and mature of immune system. Vitamin D and VDR are known to regulate microbiome in health and disease...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Jung Won Kim, Ji Yeon Hong, Seung Min Bae
Autism spectrum disorder is a rapidly increasing heterogeneous neurodevelopmental syndrome, remarked by persistent deficit in social communication, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior and interest. Lately, maternal immune activation and micgroglial dysfunction in the developing brain have been gaining mounting evidence and leading to studies of various novel agents as potential treatment options. A few immunomodulatory treatment options-luteolin, minocycline, suramin, vitamin D, gut microbiota-are discussed in the current article, regarding the current understanding of their mechanisms and evidence for potential clinical use...
August 31, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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