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MCO Membrane

Ana García-Prieto, Almudena Vega, Tania Linares, Soraya Abad, Nicolás Macías, Inés Aragoncillo, Esther Torres, Andrés Hernández, Diego Barbieri, José Luño
Background: Online haemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) has been shown to reduce all-cause mortality versus conventional haemodialysis (HD); however, it is not always available. In these situations, a novel class of membranes with a higher pore size, medium cut-off (MCO) dialysers, could be promising. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an MCO dialyser in the removal of small and medium-size molecules and compare it with standard high-flux (HF) dialysers in HD and OL-HDF. Methods: In this crossover study, 18 prevalent HD patients were studied in three single mid-week dialysis treatments during three consecutive weeks as follows: first week with OL-HDF with a standard HF dialyser, second week with conventional HD with a standard HF dialyser and third week with conventional HD with an MCO dialyser...
October 2018: Clinical Kidney Journal
Claudio Ronco, Nicola Marchionna, Alessandra Brendolan, Mauro Neri, Anna Lorenzin, Armando J Martínez Rueda
Recent advances in chemical composition and new production techniques resulted in improved biocompatibility and permeability of dialysis membranes. Among these, the creation of a new class of membranes called medium cut-off (MCO) represents an important step towards improvement of clinical outcomes. Such membranes have been developed to improve the clearance of medium to high molecular weight (MW) solutes (i.e. uraemic toxins in the range of 5-50 kDa). MCO membranes have peculiar retention onset and cut-off characteristics...
October 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Ikuto Masakane, Kenji Sakurai
Aggressive removal of middle molecules or larger low-molecular-weight proteins (LMWPs) has been a growing concern following studies on their harmful effects on the mortality and morbidity of chronic dialysis patients. To remove larger LMWPs and some protein-bound uremic toxins (PBUTs), high- and medium-cutoff (HCOs and MCOs, respectively) membranes, convective therapy and protein adsorptive membranes are available. When we use HCO or MCO membranes for convective therapy, we have to take care to avoid massive albumin leakage during a dialysis session...
October 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Anna Lorenzin, Mauro Neri, Andrea Lupi, Martina Todesco, Monica Santimaria, Alberta Alghisi, Alessandra Brendolan, Claudio Ronco
BACKGROUND: Inadequate removal of molecules between 5 and 50 KDa may cause long-term complication in chronic hemodialysis. Medium cut-off (MCO) is a new class of membranes with enhanced sieving properties and negligible albumin loss. MCO membrane makes it possible to perform expanded hemodialysis (HDx), a technique based on high internal filtration (IF).The present study is designed to quantify IF in 2 MCO dialyzers (Theranova 400 and 500, Baxter, Deerfield, USA) using a nuclear imaging technique previously validated...
2018: Blood Purification
Xudong Wang, Sai Yin, Zhihao Yang, Bing Zhou
Multicopper oxidases (MCOs) are a specific group of enzymes that contain multiple copper centers through which different substrates are oxidized. Main members of MCO family include ferroxidases, ascorbate oxidases, and laccases. MCO type of ferroxidases is key to iron transport across the plasma membrane. In Drosophila, there are four potential multicopper oxidases, MCO1-4. No convincing evidence has been presented so far to indicate any of these, or even any insect multicopper oxidase, to be a ferroxidase...
August 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
R Krishnasamy, C M Hawley, M J Jardine, M A Roberts, Y J Cho, M G Wong, A Heath, C L Nelson, S Sen, P F Mount, E M Pascoe, D Darssan, L A Vergara, P A Paul-Brent, N D Toussaint, D W Johnson, C A Hutchison
BACKGROUND: Removal of uraemic toxins is inadequate using current dialysis strategies. A new class of dialysis membranes have been developed that allow clearance of larger middle molecules. The REMOVAL-HD study (a tRial Evaluating Mid cut-Off Value membrane clearance of Albumin and Light chains in HaemoDialysis patients) will address safety, efficacy and the impact on patient-centred outcomes with the use of a mid cut-off (MCO) dialyser in a chronic haemodialysis (HD) population. METHODS: REMOVAL-HD is an open label, prospective, non-randomised, single-arm, multi-centre device study in 85 chronic HD participants...
April 17, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Eric Leis, Russell Easy, David Cone
Samples of Gyrodactylus fairporti Van Cleave, 1921 from young-of-the-year black bullhead (Ameiurus melas) stranded in riverside pools of the Black River (La Crosse County,) WI, USA, are used to supplement the species diagnosis, including new details on the marginal hook sickles, the male copulatory organ (MCO), and 18S rRNA gene sequence data. The anchors of G. fairporti are relatively long and thin, 58.2 ± 1.2 μm in length; roots 15.5 ± 1.0 μm; shaft 38.1 ± 1.5 μm; point 31.3 ± 1...
April 2018: Parasitology Research
Tingting Zhao, Srinivas Gadipelli, Guanjie He, Matthew J Ward, David Do, Peng Zhang, Zhengxiao Guo
Noble-metal-free electrocatalysts are attractive for cathodic oxygen catalysis in alkaline membrane fuel cells, metal-air batteries, and electrolyzers. However, much of the structure-activity relationship is poorly understood. Herein, the comprehensive development of manganese cobalt oxide/nitrogen-doped multiwalled carbon nanotube hybrids (Mnx Co3-x O4 @NCNTs) is reported for highly reversible oxygen reduction and evolution reactions (ORR and OER, respectively). The hybrid structures are rationally designed by fine control of surface chemistry and synthesis conditions, including tuning of functional groups at surfaces, congruent growth of nanocrystals with controllable phases and particle sizes, and ensuring strong coupling across catalyst-support interfaces...
April 25, 2018: ChemSusChem
Eva Schepers, Griet Glorieux, Sunny Eloot, Michael Hulko, Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Werner Beck, Bernd Krause, Wim Van Biesen
BACKGROUND: Membranes with increasing pore size are introduced to enhance removal of large uremic toxins with regular hemodialysis. These membranes might theoretically have higher permeability for bacterial degradation products. In this paper, permeability for bacterial degradation products of membranes of comparable composition with different pore size was investigated with a new in vitro set-up that represents clinical flow and pressure conditions. METHODS: Dialysis was simulated with an AK200 machine using a low-flux, high-flux, medium cut-off (MCO) or high cut-off (HCO) device (n = 6/type)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Bogusz Trojanowicz, Christof Ulrich, Roman Fiedler, Peter Martus, Markus Storr, Torsten Boehler, Kristin Werner, Michael Hulko, Daniel Zickler, Kevin Willy, Ralf Schindler, Matthias Girndt
Background: High mortality of haemodialysis patients is associated with systemic chronic inflammation and overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Insufficient elimination of pro-inflammatory immune mediators, especially in the molecular weight range of 15-45 kDa, may be one of the reasons for this. Employment of haemodialysis membranes with increased permeability was shown to ameliorate the inflammatory response and might modulate the effects of local RAS. In this study, we tested the impact of high cut-off (HCO), medium cut-off (MCO) and high-flux (HF) dialysis on leucocytic transcripts of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2)...
January 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Ugo Teatini, Giorgio Romei Longhena
Uremic status results from a malfunctioning of kidneys due to the accumulation of compounds which, under normal conditions, are excreted or metabolized by the kidneys. If these compounds are biologically active, they are called uremic toxins. Such compounds have toxic effects on the cardio-vascular system. An useful classification, published by the European Uremic Toxin Work Group (EUTox) is: 1) small water-soluble compounds; 2) protein-bound compounds; 3) the larger "middle molecules". High-flux membranes and more efficient treatment techniques, like HDF, improve the removal of uremic toxins in the middle molecular-weight range, and recent studies suggest that these strategies have better results on the morbidity and mortality...
September 28, 2017: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
Alexander H Kirsch, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Raphael Lyko, Detlef H Krieter
The removal of larger middle molecules, such as free immunoglobulin light chains (FLC), is poor with most currently used dialysis technologies. While hemodiafiltration (HDF) provides enhanced clearance of middle molecules compared to high-flux hemodialysis (HD), this technique is currently not approved in some regions and, hence, not accessible for all patients. The retention of middle molecules is thought to be one factor, which contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality in HD patients. The development of medium cut-off (MCO) dialysis membranes is aimed at a more efficient clearance of larger uremic toxins while retaining albumin and may extend the benefit of enhanced solute removal to more patients...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
Kevin Willy, Michael Hulko, Markus Storr, Rose Speidel, Julia Gauss, Ralf Schindler, Daniel Zickler
Recently developed high-flux (HF) dialysis membranes with extended permeability provide better clearance of middle-sized molecules such as interleukins (ILs). Whether this modulation of inflammation influences the procalcific effects of septic plasma on vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is not known. To assess the effects of high cut-off (HCO) and medium cut-off (MCO) membranes on microinflammation and in vitro vascular calcification we developed a miniature dialysis model. Plasma samples from lipopolysaccharide-spiked blood were dialyzed with HF, HCO, and MCO membranes in an in vitro miniature dialysis model...
September 2017: Artificial Organs
Daniel Zickler, Ralf Schindler, Kevin Willy, Peter Martus, Michael Pawlak, Markus Storr, Michael Hulko, Torsten Boehler, Marcus A Glomb, Kristin Liehr, Christian Henning, Markus Templin, Bogusz Trojanowicz, Christof Ulrich, Kristin Werner, Roman Fiedler, Matthias Girndt
BACKGROUND: To increase the removal of middle-sized uremic toxins a new membrane with enhanced permeability and selectivity, called Medium Cut-Off membrane (MCO-Ci) has been developed that at the same time ensures the retention of albumin. Because many middle-sized substances may contribute to micro-inflammation we hypothesized that the use of MCO-Ci influences the inflammatory state in hemodialysis patients. METHODS: The randomized crossover trial in 48 patients compared MCO-Ci dialysis to High-flux dialysis of 4 weeks duration each plus 8 weeks extension phase...
2017: PloS One
Alexander H Kirsch, Raphael Lyko, Lars-Göran Nilsson, Werner Beck, Michael Amdahl, Petra Lechner, Andreas Schneider, Christoph Wanner, Alexander R Rosenkranz, Detlef H Krieter
Background: Compared to high-flux dialysis membranes, novel medium cut-off (MCO) membranes show greater permeability for larger middle molecules. Methods: In two prospective, open-label, controlled, randomized, crossover pilot studies, 39 prevalent hemodialysis (HD) patients were studied in four dialysis treatments as follows: study 1, three MCO prototype dialyzers (AA, BB and CC with increasing permeability) and one high-flux dialyzer in HD; and study 2, two MCO prototype dialyzers (AA and BB) in HD and high-flux dialyzers in HD and hemodiafiltration (HDF)...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Zhi Deng, Jiangshu Chen, Julie Leclercq, Zhuangzhi Zhou, Changren Liu, Hui Liu, Hong Yang, Pascal Montoro, Zhihui Xia, Dejun Li
As a highly conserved protein, the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) carries out vital roles in various life processes. In rubber tree, two TCTP genes, HbTCTP and HbTCTP1, were cloned, but only HbTCTP1 was studied in details. In this study, cis-acting regulatory elements, expression patterns, subcellular localization, interacting proteins, and antioxidant activity of HbTCTP were systematically analyzed. Besides the common cis-acting regulatory elements, HbTCTP promoter also harbored various known cis-elements that respond to hormone/stresses...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Adriana Boschetti-de-Fierro, Manuel Voigt, Markus Storr, Bernd Krause
Novel MCO high-flux membranes for hemodialysis have been developed with optimized permeability, allowing for filtration close to that of the natural kidney. A comprehensive in vitro characterization of the membrane properties by dextran filtration is presented. The sieving profile of pristine membranes, as well as that of membranes exposed to blood for 40 minutes, are described. The effective pore size (Stokes-Einstein radius) was estimated from filtration experiments before and after blood exposure, and results were compared to hydrodynamic radii of middle and large uremic toxins and essential proteins...
December 16, 2015: Scientific Reports
David K Cone, Ralph Appy, Lisa Baggett, Stanley King, Scott Gilmore, Cathryn Abbott
Gyrodactylus leptorhynchi n. sp. (Monogenea) is described from bay pipefish ( Syngnathus leptorhynchus ) (Syngnathidae) in coastal waters of southern California and British Columbia, and from an outbreak of gyrodactylosis at the Cabrillo Marine Aquarium in California. Gyrodactylus leptorhynchi is morphologically similar (stout hamuli, superficial bar with no anterolateral processes, and a small, triangular membrane, similarly shaped marginal hook sickles, and a male copulatory organ [MCO] with numerous small spines) to the other 6 species of Gyrodactylus known from pipefish in north and south regions of the Atlantic Ocean...
April 2013: Journal of Parasitology
Joseph R Prohaska
Copper is an essential trace element whose recommended intake is met by most North American diets. However, incidence of new cases of secondary copper deficiency is rising due to complications of gastric bypass surgery and high zinc exposure. Patients frequently are ataxic and anemic. Anemia of copper deficiency was first described in the 19th century, but the underlying biochemistry remains unknown. Approximately one dozen cuproenzymes have been characterized in mammals. Four of these are referred to as multicopper oxidases (MCO) due to their copper binding geometries...
March 2011: Advances in Nutrition
Edgar F Mendoza-Franco, Juan Violante-González
During surveys of helminth parasites of marine fishes from the Pacific coast of the Guerrero State in Mexico, 2 undescribed species of Haliotrema Johnston and Tiegs, 1922 (sensu Young, 1968) (Dactylogyridae) were found infecting the gills of the giant hawkfish Cirrhitus rivulatus Valenciennes, 1846 (Perciformes, Cirrhitidae), i.e., Haliotrema cirrhitusi n. sp. and Haliotrema pollexinus n. sp. The new species are similar with respect to the morphology of the anchors with base-shaft junction crazed, hinged, or both; dorsal anchors with an elongate superficial root; a tubular male copulatory organ (MCO) with a cylinder-shaped base diagonally opening; and a membranous accessory piece, shaped like a vane, encircling MCO to form 2 complete spirals from the anterior margin of base to the terminal portion of the MCO...
October 2011: Journal of Parasitology
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