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Vitamin D Brain

Nidhi Chauhan, Susanta Kumar Padhy, Ruchita Shah, Savita Malhotra
Background: Vitamin D is increasingly recognized as important for brain health, apart from its role in endocrine and bone health. There is a growing recognition of worldwide "epidemic" of Vitamin D deficiency, and growing data from adult population illustrate the association between Vitamin D deficiency and psychiatric disorders. In children, its role is implicated in brain development, function, and psychiatric disorders. Aim: The aim of this study was to study the extent of Vitamin D deficiency in children and adolescents with psychiatric disorders...
January 2019: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
Md Mamun Al-Amin, Robert K P Sullivan, Nyoman D Kurniawan, Thomas H J Burne
Converging evidence from human and animal studies support an association between vitamin D deficiency and cognitive impairment. Previous studies have shown that hippocampal volume is reduced in adults with vitamin D deficiency as well as in a range of disorders, such as schizophrenia. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency on hippocampal-dependent spatial learning, and hippocampal volume and connectivity in healthy adult mice. Ten-week-old male BALB/c mice were fed a control (vitamin D 1500 IU/kg) or vitamin D-depleted (vitamin D 0 IU/kg) diet for a minimum of 10 weeks...
February 2, 2019: Brain Structure & Function
Azahara M García-Serna, Eva Morales
Diverse studies have investigated the impact of prenatal exposure to vitamin D levels on brain development; however, evidence in humans has never been systematically reviewed. This article summarized evidence of the association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels in maternal blood in pregnancy or newborn blood at birth and neurodevelopmental outcomes, including cognition, psychomotor performance, language development, behavioral difficulties, attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and autistic traits...
January 29, 2019: Molecular Psychiatry
Kirsty L Brain, Beth J Allison, Youguo Niu, Christine M Cross, Nozomi Itani, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Katie L Skeffington, Kimberley J Botting, Dino A Giussani
Evidence derived from human clinical studies and experimental animal models shows a causal relationship between adverse pregnancy and increased cardiovascular disease in the adult offspring. However, translational studies isolating mechanisms to design intervention are lacking. Sheep and humans share similar precocial developmental milestones in cardiovascular anatomy and physiology. We tested the hypothesis in sheep that maternal treatment with antioxidants protects against fetal growth restriction and programmed hypertension in adulthood in gestation complicated by chronic fetal hypoxia, the most common adverse consequence in human pregnancy...
January 2019: PLoS Biology
Mary Abiola Okesola, Basiru Olaitan Ajiboye, Babatunji Emmanuel Oyinloye, Oluwafemi Adeleke Ojo
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the ameliorative potential of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extract against lead-induced brain damage in rats. METHODS: Thirty male rats were divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each. Lead-acetate toxicity was induced by intraperitoneal injection (10 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)) in Groups B-E. Group A (control) and Group B (lead-acetate) were left untreated; vitamin C (200 mg/kg b.w.) was administered to Group C; ethyl acetate fraction from Z...
January 5, 2019: Journal of Integrative Medicine
Giovanna Muscogiuri, Luigi Barrea, Marianna Scannapieco, Carolina Di Somma, Massimo Scacchi, Gianluca Aimaretti, Silvia Savastano, Annamaria Colao, Paolo Marzullo
Vitamin D is a pro-hormone belonging to the category of the fat-soluble group of vitamins; it is obtained more from solar exposure and in smaller quantities through feeding. Although vitamin D has traditionally been shown to be involved in calcium homeostasis and bone health, recent studies have found a positive association between vitamin D and sleep. In particular, clinical studies in humans indicate that low levels of vitamin D are correlated with poor quality and short sleep duration. The mechanism by which this association is explained is still unclear...
November 24, 2018: Sleep Medicine
Reham AlJohri, Majid AlOkail, Samina Hyder Haq
Background: A role of Vitamin D in brain development and function has been gaining support over the last decade. There are compelling pieces of evidence that suggest vitamin D may have a neuroprotective role. The administration of vitamin D or its metabolites has been shown to reduce neurological injury and/or neurotoxicity in a variety of animal systems. The detail biochemical mechanism mediating neurons, to its ability to withstand greater oxidative stress in the presence of Vitamin D is unclear...
March 2019: ENeurologicalSci
Gleicilaine A S Casseb, Gabriela Ambrósio, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Manuella P Kaster
Growing evidence support the role of vitamin D in brain function and behavior. This study investigated the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] levels, biochemical profile and symptoms of depression and anxiety in healthy individuals. Symptoms of depression were assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and anxiety was evaluated with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Our sample included 36 individuals, mostly women 27(75%), 36.39 ± 9.72 years old, non-smokers 31(86.1%), body mass index of 26...
January 2, 2019: Metabolic Brain Disease
Hans Demmelmair, Jannike Øyen, Tina Pickert, Astrid Rauh-Pfeiffer, Kjell Morten Stormark, Ingvild Eide Graff, Øyvind Lie, Marian Kjellevold, Berthold Koletzko
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Long chain polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are of functional and structural importance for brain development. Observational studies have shown positive relations between fatty fish consumption and cognitive performance in children, but Results from intervention studies using supplementary n-3 LC-PUFA are conflicting. Salmon is a good source of n-3 LC-PUFA, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We tested the hypothesis that an increased dietary salmon intake results in better cognitive outcomes than a meat based diet...
December 22, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
S Galliazzo, M D Bianchi, A Virano, A Trucchi, M P Donadini, F Dentali, L Bertù, A M Grandi, W Ageno
BACKGROUND: Intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) risk after minor traumatic brain injury (mTBI) in patients on antithrombotic treatment is unclear. We compared ICH rates in mTBI patients on single, double and no antithrombotic therapy. Antithrombotic drugs encompassed vitamin K antagonists (VKAs), direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and antiplatelets. Secondary aim was to identify potential predictors of ICH. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed consecutive adults referred to our emergency department for mTBI...
December 12, 2018: Thrombosis Research
Giulia Bivona, Luisa Agnello, Marcello Ciaccio
Vitamin D is a neuro-hormone regulating calcium-phosphate homeostasis, cell proliferation, and immunomodulation. Exogenous and endogenous vitamin D is inactive, and two hydroxylations are required to produce the active hormone. The first hydroxylation is unique to the liver, while the second step occurs in kidney, brain, lung, prostate, placenta, and immune cells. Kidney-derived calcitriol regulates calcium homeostasis. Active hormone produced by brain and immune cells mediates immune system response; lung calcitriol is involved in fighting respiratory tract infections; finally, prostate and placenta vitamin D regulates cells growth and proliferation within such tissues...
2018: Central-European Journal of Immunology
Sevim Şahin, Seren Gülşen Gürgen, Uğur Yazar, İmran İnce, Tülay Kamaşak, Elif Acar Arslan, Betül Diler Durgut, Beril Dilber, Ali Cansu
OBJECTIVES: The hippocampus is susceptible to damage in patients with epilepsy and in animals with seizures caused by excitotoxic agents. The effect of vitamin D on hippocampal apoptosis related with seizures has not been reported. However, epileptic patients have an increased risk of hypovitaminosis D which is most likely due to the effects of antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, in this study, it was aimed to evaluate the effects of vitamin D on hippocampal apoptosis related with seizures by using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) and kainic acid (KA) in rats...
January 2019: Epilepsy Research
Dorota Łojko, Marta Stelmach-Mardas, Aleksandra Suwalska
In recent years it has been increasingly indicated that diet/nutrition is important in the pathogenesis, course and effectiveness of treatment of various mental disorders. Most of the research published so far has focused on the role of nutrition and nutrients in the development and treatment of depression. The results indicated a relationship between diet and risk of depression. Few studies have examined the relationship between diet and bipolar disorder (BD), although it can be assumed that some of the observations related to people with depression may be related to BD...
October 27, 2018: Psychiatria Polska
Stella Gagliardi, Valentina Franco, Stefano Sorrentino, Susanna Zucca, Cecilia Pandini, Paola Rota, Stefano Bernuzzi, Alfredo Costa, Elena Sinforiani, Orietta Pansarasa, John R Cashman, Cristina Cereda
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disorder that is associated with the most common type of dementia and is characterized by the presence of deposits of the protein fragment amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain. The natural product mixture of curcuminoids that improves certain defects in innate immune cells of AD patients may selectively enhance Aβ phagocytosis by alteration of gene transcription. In this work, we evaluated the protective effects of curcuminoids in cells from AD patients by investigating the effect on NF-κB and BACE1 signaling pathways...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Peter Petschner, Noemi Balogh, Csaba Adori, Viola Tamasi, Sahel Kumar, Gabriella Juhasz, Gyorgy Bagdy
The active ingredient of ecstasy, ±3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), in addition to its initial reinforcing effects, induces selective and non-selective brain damage. Evidences suggest that the hippocampus (HC), a central region for cognition, may be especially vulnerable to impairments on the long-run, nevertheless, transcription factors that may precede and regulate such chronic changes remained uninvestigated in this region. In the current study, we used gene-set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to reveal possible transcription factor candidates responsible for enhanced vulnerability of HC after MDMA administration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Marco Infante, Barry Sears, Angela Maria Rizzo, Daniela Mariani Cerati, Massimiliano Caprio, Camillo Ricordi, Andrea Fabbri
INTRODUCTION: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by abnormal development of cognitive, social, and communicative skills. Although ASD aetiology and pathophysiology are still unclear, various nutritional factors have been investigated as potential risk factors for ASD development, including omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and vitamin D deficiency. In fact, both omega-3 PUFAs and vitamin D are important for brain development and function...
December 13, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Christopher E Zwilling, Tanveer Talukdar, Marta K Zamroziewicz, Aron K Barbey
A central aim of research in the psychological and brain sciences is to establish therapeutic interventions to promote healthy brain aging. Accumulating evidence indicates that diet and the many bioactive substances present in food are reasonable interventions to examine for dementia prevention. However, interdisciplinary research that applies methods from nutritional epidemiology and network neuroscience to investigate the role of nutrition in shaping functional brain network efficiency remains to be conducted...
December 7, 2018: NeuroImage
João D Mattos, Monique O Campos, Marcos P Rocha, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Vinicius P Garcia, Gabriel Batista, Thiago S Alvares, Gustavo V Oliveira, Mônica V Souza, Rogério L R Videira, Natalia G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega, Igor A Fernandes
KEY POINTS: It is unknown whether excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production drives the isocapnic hyperoxia (IH)-induced decline in human cerebral blood flow (CBF) via reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or neural-parenchymal damage. Cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMR <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msub> <mml:mrow/> <mml:msub> <mml:mi>O</mml:mi> <mml:mn>2</mml:mn> </mml:msub> </mml:msub> </mml:math> ) and transcerebral exchanges of NO end-products, oxidants, antioxidants and neural-parenchymal damage markers were simultaneously quantified under IH with intravenous saline and ascorbic acid infusion...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Iqbal Sayeed, Nefize Turan, Donald G Stein, Bushra Wali
Because vitamin D hormone deficiency (VDHdef ) can worsen severity and outcome for ischemic stroke, we examined the role of VDH in maintaining blood-brain-barrier (BBB integrity) in a rat model of stroke. In most types of stroke, the BBB is markedly compromised, potentially leading to a cascade of injury processes and functional deficits, so we examined a number of biomarkers associated with BBB disruption to determine whether VDH deficiency would further compromise the BBB following a stroke. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of two diet cohorts, VDH-sufficient (VDHsuf ) and VDHdef ...
February 2019: Experimental Neurology
Sherifa A Hamed
Uremic syndrome of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a term used to describe clinical, metabolic and hormonal abnormalities associated with progressive kidney failure. It is a rapidly growing public health problem worldwide. Nervous system complications occur in every patient with uremic syndrome of CKD. Areas covered: This review summarized central and peripheral nervous system complications of uremic syndrome of CKD and their pathogenic mechanisms. They include cognitive deterioration, encephalopathy, seizures, asterixis, myoclonus, restless leg syndrome, central pontine myelinosis, stroke, extrapyramidal movement disorders, neuropathies and myopathy...
December 2, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
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