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Muscle force

Märt Reinvee, Sander Aia, Mati Pääsuke
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ergonomic benefits of an angle grinder with a rotatable main handle in a cutting task. BACKGROUND: Angle grinder manufacturers rarely address ergonomic features in their advertisements, and if they do, the benefits are expressed in a qualitative manner. Meanwhile, quantitative information about the effects of the device on the worker is required to make informed decisions during tool selection and cumulative trauma prevention...
February 20, 2019: Human Factors
Shun Otsuka, Xiyao Shan, Yasuo Kawakami
In the present study we investigated muscle contraction-driven changes in deep fascia mechanical property, to reveal mechanical interactions between them. Fourteen males (22-37 yr) performed isometric knee extension at 20, 40, 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). During each contraction and at rest, shear wave velocities (SWV) of the rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) and fascia lata were measured in both longitudinal and transverse ultrasound transducer directions relative to the thigh...
February 10, 2019: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
Sheng-Che Yen, Kevin K Chui, Ying-Chih Wang, Marie B Corkery, Mohsen Nabian, Amir Bahador Farjadian
Previous studies suggest that functional ankle instability (FAI) may be associated with deficits in the ability to sense muscle forces. We tested individuals with FAI to determine if they have reduced ability to control ankle muscle forces, which is a function of force sense. Our test was performed isometrically to minimize the involvement of joint position sense and kinesthesia. A FAI group and a control group were recruited to perform an ankle force control task using a platform-based ankle robot. They were asked to move a cursor to hit 24 targets as accurately and as fast as possible in a virtual maze...
February 20, 2019: Human Movement Science
Xu Zequan, Wang Zirong, Li Jiankun, Ma Xin, David L Hopkins, Benjamin W B Holman, Alaa El-Din A Bekhit
This study investigated the effects of frozen storage time on the quality and muscle structure in normal and pale, soft and exudative (PSE)-like pork. The meat quality of M. longissimus et lumborum (LL) was studied at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 weeks of storage at -18 °C, and M. Biceps femoris (BF) was studied at 0, 3 and 18 weeks of storage at -18 °C. Storage time affected all the measured parameters (pH, thaw loss, TVB-N, shear force and muscle structure). There were no differences between normal and PSE-like meat for thaw loss (%) or TVB-N (mg/100 g) values at all storage times...
February 8, 2019: Meat Science
I B Sokolova, G I Lobov
Intracerebral transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells to 6- and 12-month-old SHR rats induced angiogenesis in the pia mater. In 6-months-old SHR rats, perfusion in the brain tissue after cell transplantation considerably increased, while in 12-month-old rats it remained practically unchanged. We also observed marked activation of regulatory processes in the cerebral vascular system, most pronounced in 12-month-old rats. Neurogenic and myogenic tone of cerebral vessels increased significantly, while endothelium-dependent tone slightly decreased...
February 19, 2019: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Jonathan Isaacs, Satya Mallu, Gaurangkumar Patel, Amy Kite, Sagar Shah, Gordon P Graham
BACKGROUND: Nerve connectors are short nerve conduits used to approximate nerve ends. Acellular nerve allografts are viable alternatives when direct repair is not possible but do not produce exudate essential for fibrin clot formation. We hypothesize that acellular nerve allograft implanted using nerve connectors must have end-to-end contact with the in situ nerve stumps to support nerve regeneration. METHODS: Sixty Sprague Dawley rats underwent a 14-mm unilateral tibial nerve injury and subsequent repair using various combinations of acellular nerve grafts and nerve connectors...
February 19, 2019: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
K Yamaguchi, H Tohara, K Hara, A Nakane, K Yoshimi, K Nakagawa, S Minakuchi
BACKGROUND: Associations between masseter muscle thickness(MMT) and limb muscle thickness, and between grip strength and MMT, as well as tooth-loss, have been reported previously. The previous study also showed that masseter muscle mass could be a better marker of sarcopenia than psoas muscle mass. Although the association between MMT and muscle strength is also known, the quality of the masseter muscle were not assessed in detail previously. We examined the relationship of masseter muscle echo intensity (MMEI) with skeletal muscle, physical function, and nutrition status, in order to determine whether MMEI could be a good indicator of these parameters...
February 12, 2019: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Kuei-Yu Chien, Wei-Gang Chang, Mary E Sanders, Chia-Hsin Chen, Wan-Chung Wu, Wan-Chin Chen
PURPOSE: To quantify ground reaction force (GRF), osteogenic index (OI), muscle activity, and blood lactate levels during continuous jumping performed in water and on land. METHODS: Thirteen postmenopausal women (59.5±6.8 yrs) performed two bouts of jumping, on land (LND) and in water at a depth of 1 meter (WEX). Each 10-minute, 40 second bout consisted of 2 consecutive sets of squat, lunge, jumping jax, countermovement and single legged jumps as intervals: 10 seconds maximal-effort and 60 seconds recovery at 50% of heart rate reserve (HRR)...
February 19, 2019: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Pinar Doruk Analan, Hulya Aslan
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral palsy (CP) increases the risk of hip displacement during childhood. Abnormal hip muscle forces have been proposed as the predisposing factors. In CP, the amount of hip displacement is commonly evaluated by the Reimers hip migration index (MI) on an anteroposterior pelvic radiograph. To the best of our knowledge, the association between the elasticity of hip muscles measured by shear wave elastography and the MI has not been studied yet. Herein, we aimed to analyze the correlation between the elasticity of hip muscles and the MI...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Yujing Huang, Liping Wang, Ying Mao, Guangxian Nan
Objective: Atherosclerosis is closely associated with ischemic stroke, and long noncoding RNA-H19 (lncRNA-H19) might be a potential target for treating atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to investigate the function of lncRNA-H19 in atherosclerosis and to explore a novel therapeutic strategy for ischemic stroke. Methods: Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in atherosclerosis were screened by searching public database. In combination with the lncRNA-H19-knockout database, potential lncRNA-H19-mediated gene was retrieved and their relationship was identified...
2019: Frontiers in Neurology
Kenneth R Chien, Jonas Frisén, Regina Fritsche-Danielson, Douglas A Melton, Charles E Murry, Irving L Weissman
The retraction of >30 falsified studies by Anversa et al. has had a disheartening impact on the cardiac cell therapeutics field. The premise of heart muscle regeneration by the transdifferentiation of bone marrow cells or putative adult resident cardiac progenitors has been largely disproven. Over the past 18 years, a generation of physicians and scientists has lost years chasing these studies, and patients have been placed at risk with little scientific grounding. Funding agencies invested hundreds of millions of dollars in irreproducible work, and both academic institutions and the scientific community ignored troubling signals over a decade of questionable work...
February 18, 2019: Nature Biotechnology
Hamed Ziaeipoor, Mark Taylor, Marcus Pandy, Saulo Martelli
Surrogate methods for rapid calculation of femoral strain are limited by the scope of the training data. We compared a newly developed training-free method based on the superposition principle (Superposition Principle Method, SPM) and popular surrogate methods for calculating femoral strain during activity. Finite-element calculations of femoral strain, muscle, and joint forces for five different activity types were obtained previously. Multi-linear regression, multivariate adaptive regression splines, and Gaussian process were trained for 50, 100, 200, and 300 random samples generated using Latin Hypercube (LH) and Design of Experiment (DOE) sampling...
February 12, 2019: Journal of Biomechanics
Ibrahim Ramirez-Soto, Eduardo Rodriguez, Rocío Alvarez, Eugenio Quiroz, Alicia Ortega
Carazolol (CZL) is a known agonist of β3 and antagonist of β1 and β2 adrenoceptors (AR), used in the animal production industry to improve meat quality by reducing animal stress and skeletal muscle (SM) proteolysis. Here we sought to better understand the direct effect CZL has on SM. We study CZL effect on calcium (Ca2+ ) regulation by enzymatic activity kinetics of the Ca2+ -ATPase (SERCA), in isolated sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) from SM and on the mechanical properties of isolated muscle. In isolated SR from SM previously incubated with 0...
February 11, 2019: Cell Calcium
Mohamed Elhebeary, Md Abul Bashar Emon, Onur Aydin, M Taher A Saif
We introduce a novel method to form 3D biomimetic tissues from a droplet of a cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) mixture on a sensor stage and to quantify tissue force and stiffness as a function of time under optical microscopes. This method exploits advances in micro-nano fabrication and capillarity for self-assembly and self-alignment of tissues on the stage. It allows simultaneous investigation of the microstructure of the tissue in situ while its mechanical response is quantified, thus linking tissue biophysics with physiology and revealing structural-functional properties of 3D tissues...
February 18, 2019: Lab on a Chip
Jing Jye Lim, Wan Ngah Wan Zurinah, Vincent Mouly, Abdul Karim Norwahidah
Human skeletal muscle is a vital organ involved in movement and force generation. It suffers from deterioration in mass, strength, and regenerative capacity in sarcopenia. Skeletal muscle satellite cells are involved in the regeneration process in response to muscle loss. Tocotrienol, an isomer of vitamin E, was reported to have a protective effect on cellular aging. This research is aimed at determining the modulation of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) on the gene expressions of stress-induced premature senescence (SIPS) human skeletal muscle myoblasts (CHQ5B)...
2019: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Carol A Flavell, Laurence G Marshman, Susan J Gordon
Real-time ultrasound imaging (US) to measure abdominal muscle dimensions has aided low back pain rehabilitation and research. Notwithstanding, ultrasound imaging measurement of transversus abdominis muscle activation in chronic low back pain populations has been characterized by variable and generally suboptimal intra-observer reliability. Methodological deficiencies of 'freehand' ultrasound imaging are uncontrolled probe-skin pressure, inclination and roll of the probe. Despite previous attempts to standardize these parameters, intra-observer reliability in chronic low back pain was poor to moderate (0...
February 2019: Ultrasound: Journal of the British Medical Ultrasound Society
Alexander von Glinski, Emre Yilmaz, Silvia Mrotzek, Eike Marek, Birger Jettkant, Alexis Brinkemper, Christian Fisahn, Thomas A Schildhauer, Jan Geßmann
The Hybrid Assistive Limb Lumbar Type (HAL) is an active exoskeleton that provides motion according to the wearer's voluntary drive. It was developed to support back muscles during repetitive lifting tasks. The purpose of this paper was to determine if the myoelectric activity of the back muscles is reduced or altered when using the HAL and to investigate a possible influence of its use on the cardiovascular system. Fourteen healthy young men without lower back pain underwent a freestyle, symmetrical-lifting protocol...
February 14, 2019: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Ichiro Yoshii, Kenichi Kitaoka, Kyuichi Hashimoto
BACKGROUND: Second osteoporotic fracture of the hip is a serious comorbidity that can directly cause mortality. Preventing its occurrence is particularly important in Japan, given its rapidly aging society. Here, the clinical characteristics of such recurrence were evaluated using the data of the Clinical Pathway with Regional Alliance (CPRA). METHODS: CPRA for hip fracture started in 2007 and has allowed intranet-based data sharing since July 2011. Data from this alliance, such as number of second cases, duration from initial fracture, Functional Impairment Measure (FIM), revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R) score, muscle force and range of motion of hip joint, and gait status (GS) were collected and statistically evaluated...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
Wen Wu, Wei Zhang, Mihyun Choi, Jinjing Zhao, Ping Gao, Min Xue, Harold A Singer, David Jourd'heuil, Xiaochun Long
Injury-induced stenosis is a serious vascular complication. We previously reported that p38α (MAPK14), a redox-regulated p38MAPK family member was a negative regulator of the VSMC contractile phenotype in vitro. Here we evaluated the function of VSMC-MAPK14 in vivo in injury-induced neointima hyperplasia and the underlying mechanism using an inducible SMC-MAPK14 knockout mouse line (iSMC-MAPK14-/- ). We show that MAPK14 expression and activity were induced in VSMCs after carotid artery ligation injury in mice and ex vivo cultured human saphenous veins...
February 6, 2019: Redox Biology
Rubén López, Pura Bolaños, Alis Guillén, Marbely C Fernández, Magaly Ramos, Sergio Granados, Andrés F Milán, Carlo Caputo, Claudia Alvarado-Castillo, Omar Estrada, Juan C Calderón
Pomolic acid (PA) isolated from Licania pittieri has hypotensive effects in rats, inhibits human platelet aggregation and elicits endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat aortic rings. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of PA on cardiomyocytes. Trabeculae and enzymatically isolated cardiomyocytes from rats were used to evaluate the concentration-dependent effects of PA on cardiac muscle tension and excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) by recording Ca2+ transients reported with Fluo-3 and Fura-2, as well as L-type Ca2+ currents (LTCC)...
February 13, 2019: European Journal of Pharmacology
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