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Tissue Engineered

Geoffrey Gourinchas, Stefan Etzl, Andreas Winkler
Bacteriophytochromes are a subfamily of the diverse light responsive phytochrome photoreceptors. Considering their preferential interaction with biliverdin IXα as endogenous cofactor, they have recently been used for creating optogenetic tools and engineering fluorescent probes. Ideal absorption characteristics for the activation of bacteriophytochrome-based systems in the therapeutic near-infrared window as well the availability of biliverdin in mammalian tissues have resulted in tremendous progress in re-engineering bacteriophytochromes for diverse applications...
March 14, 2019: Current Opinion in Structural Biology
Qian Zhou, Jingjing Yuan, Yalin Wang, Ping Wang, Jiugang Yuan, Chao Deng, Qiang Wang
Silk fibroin (SF) has potential applications in the biomedical field because of its excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. In the current study, chitooligosaccharide (COS) was enzymatically grafted onto SF using laccase. Subsequently, COS-grafted SF (SF-g-COS) was treated enzymatically in the presence of hexokinase and Mg-chelated adenosine triphosphate (ATP), so as to introduce phosphate groups onto the fibroin chains and promote the deposition of hydroxyapatite (HAp) during in situ biomimetic mineralization...
March 13, 2019: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jennifer L Schiller, Allison Marvin, Justin D McCallen, Samuel K Lai
Biological hydrogels (biogels) are selective barriers that restrict passage of harmful substances yet allow the rapid movement of nutrients and select cells. Current methods to modulate the barrier properties of biogels typically involve bulk changes in order to restrict diffusion by either steric hindrance or direct high-affinity interactions with microstructural constituents. Here, we introduce a third mechanism, based on antibody-based third party anchors that bind specific foreign species but form only weak and transient bonds with biogel constituents...
March 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Dhavan Sharma, David Ross, Guifang Wang, Wenkai Jia, Sean Kirkpatrick, Feng Zhao
Functional and perfusable vascular network formation is critical to ensure the long-term survival and functionality of engineered tissues after their transplantation. Although several vascularization strategies have been reviewed in past, the significance of microvessel organization in three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds has been largely ignored. Advances in high-resolution microscopy and image processing have revealed that majority of the tissues including cardiac, skeletal muscle, bone, and skin contain highly organized microvessels that orient themselves to align with tissue architecture for optimum molecular exchange and functional performance...
March 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Roseline Menezes, Sharareh Hashemi, Richard Vincent, George Collins, James Meyer, Marcus Foston, Treena L Arinzeh
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe dysfunction as a result of limited nerve regeneration that is due to an inhibitory environment created at the site of injury. Neural tissue engineering using materials that closely mimic the extracellular matrix (ECM) during neural development could enhance neural regeneration. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), which are sulfated polysaccharides, have been shown to modulate axonal outgrowth in neural tissue depending upon the position and degree of sulfation. Cellulose sulfate (CelS), which is a GAG mimetic, was evaluated for its use in promoting neurite extension...
March 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Julia Marzi, Eva M Brauchle, Katja Schenke-Layland, Marsha W Rolle
Smooth muscle cell (SMC) diversity and plasticity are limiting factors in their characterization and application in cardiovascular tissue engineering. This work aimed to evaluate the potential of Raman microspectroscopy and Raman imaging to distinguish SMCs of different tissue origins and phenotypes. Cultured human SMCs isolated from different vascular and non-vascular tissues as well as fixed human SMC-containing tissues were analyzed. In addition, Raman spectra and images of tissue-engineered SMC constructs were acquired...
March 13, 2019: Acta Biomaterialia
Ian Woods, Alexander Black, Stefan Jockenhoevel, Thomas C Flanagan
The development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts (TEVGs) with a biomimetic extracellular matrix (ECM) structure, including a mature elastic network, remains a key challenge for the production of grafts with long-term functionality. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of aligned nanofiber substrates on ECM protein synthesis by neonatal smooth muscle cells (SMCs), and to examine the combined effects of this topographical cue in conjunction with transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1) - a biochemical elastogenic promoter...
March 13, 2019: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Phaedra Lougiaki, Magda Tsolaki, Anastasia Pantazaki
Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of the stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multi-cell neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the components of the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) into an important interface whose proper function is critical to maintaining brain health. Tissue engineering now offers new tools and information to promote understanding of NVU's operation. A promising area for the development of NVU models is their bio-production through 3D bio-printing to produce a multi-layered NVU in which the contribution of the different cell types to neurovascular function and dysfunction can be studied at molecular and cellular levels...
January 2019: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Wei-Qiang Wu, Song Peng, Zhi-Yuan Song, Shu Lin
Myocardial infarction (MI) remains one of the leading cause of mortality over the world. However, current treatments are more palliative than curative, which only stall the progression of the disease, but not reverse the disease. While stem cells or bioactive molecules therapy is promising, the limited survival and engraftment of bioactive agent due to a hostile environment is a bottleneck for MI treatment. In order to maximize the utility of stem cells and bioactive molecules for myocardial repair and regeneration, various types of biomaterials have been developed...
March 14, 2019: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
Yoshiharu Muto, Toshiro Moroishi, Kazuya Ichihara, Masaaki Nishiyama, Hideyuki Shimizu, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Kyoji Moriya, Kazuhiko Koike, Koshi Mimori, Masaki Mori, Yuta Katayama, Keiichi I Nakayama
Hepatic iron overload is a risk factor for progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the molecular mechanisms underlying this association have remained unclear. We now show that the iron-sensing ubiquitin ligase FBXL5 is a previously unrecognized oncosuppressor in liver carcinogenesis in mice. Hepatocellular iron overload elicited by FBXL5 ablation gave rise to oxidative stress, tissue damage, inflammation, and compensatory proliferation of hepatocytes and to consequent promotion of liver carcinogenesis induced by exposure to a chemical carcinogen...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Experimental Medicine
Linglu Jia, Yunpeng Zhang, Yawen Ji, Xiaomeng Li, Yixiao Xing, Yong Wen, Haiyun Huang, Xin Xu
Oral tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells, such as periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and gingival mesenchymal stem cells (GMSCs), possess different biological characteristics, but the molecular mechanism remains unclear, which restricts their application in tissue engineering. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are known to be significant regulators of gene expression, but our knowledge about their roles in the regulation of stem cell biological properties is still limited. This study compared the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles between PDLSCs and GMSCs through microarray analysis, and applied bioinformatics methods to analyze and predict the function and connection of differentially expressed genes, aiming to screen potential key regulators of diverse biological characteristics in PDLSCs and GMSCs...
March 12, 2019: Gene
Yuanwei Yan, Julie Bejoy, Mark Marzano, Yan Li
The mechanism that causes the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathologies, including amyloid plaque, neurofibrillary tangles, and neuron death, is not well understood due to the lack of robust study models for human brain. Three-dimensional organoid systems based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have shown a promising potential to model neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. These systems, in combination with engineering tools, allow in vitro generation of brain-like tissues that recapitulate complex cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions...
March 14, 2019: Cells
Xuan Weng, Yuejun Kang, Qian Guo, Bei Peng, Hai Jiang
Over the past decades, researchers have been seeking attractive substrate materials to keep microfluidics improving to outbalance the drawbacks and issues. Cellulose substrates, including thread, paper and hydrogels are alternatives due to their distinct structural and mechanical properties for a number of applications. Thread have gained considerable attention and become promising powerful tool due to its advantages over paper-based systems thus finds numerous applications in the development of diagnostic systems, smart bandages and tissue engineering...
March 8, 2019: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Jing Liang, Hongjun Wang, Matthew Libera
Despite extensive engineering of tissue-contacting biomedical devices to control healing, these devices remain susceptible to bacterial colonization, biofilm formation, and chronic infection. The threat of selecting for resistance genes largely precludes sustained antimicrobial elution as a wide-spread clinical solution. In response, self-defensive surfaces have been developed where antimicrobial is released only when and where there is a bacterial challenge. We explore a new self-defensive approach using anionic microgels into which small-molecule cationic antimicrobials are loaded by complexation...
March 8, 2019: Biomaterials
Yang Hu, Jingguang Wang, Xin Li, Xiaoxia Hu, Wuyi Zhou, Xianming Dong, Chaoyang Wang, Zhuohong Yang, Bernard P Binks
Bioactive and biocompatible scaffolds possessing hierarchical porous structures and tunable multi-functional performance have attracted increasing interest in the biomedical field, especially in bone tissue engineering. In this work, we report a convenient and effective approach to construct bioactive nanoparticle/poly(ε-caprolactone) (BNPCL) scaffolds with hierarchical porous structures based on solvent evaporation of 3D printed water-in-oil high internal phase emulsion (HIPE) templates, containing hydrophobically modified hydroxyapatite and silica nanoparticles in the oil phase...
March 11, 2019: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Christopher Noble, Joshua Choe, Susheil Uthamaraj, Milton Deherrera, Amir Lerman, Melissa Young
Commercially available heart valves have many limitations, such as a lack of re-modeling, risk of calcification and thromboembolic problems. Many state-of-the-art tissue engineered heart valves rely on recellularization. Current in vitro testing is insufficient in characterizing a soon to be living valve. It is imperative to understand the performance of an in situ valve, but due to the complex in vivo environment this is difficult to accomplish. Finite element analysis has become a standard tool for modeling mechanical behavior of heart valves; yet, research to date has mostly focused on commercial valves...
March 15, 2019: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Yan Fang, Hong-Yan Li, Hao-Hao Yin, Shi-Hao Xu, Wei-Wei Ren, Shi-Si Ding, Wei-Zhong Tang, Li-Hua Xiang, Rong Wu, Xin Guan, Kun Zhang
As a minimally invasive heat source, radiofrequency (RF) ablation still encounters potential damages to the surrounding normal tissues because of heat diffusion, high power, and long time. With a comprehensive understanding of the current state of the art on RF ablation, a magnetic composite using porous hollow iron oxide nanoparticles (HIONs) as carriers to load dl-menthol (DLM) has been engineered. This composite involves two protocols for enhancing RF ablation, that is, HION-mediated magnetothermal conversion in RF field and RF solidoid vaporation (RSV)-augmented inertial cavitation, respectively...
March 15, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wufei Dai, Jiaqi Shi, Sha Liu, Ziqi Xu, Yijin Shi, Yahong Zhao, Yumin Yang
Objective: To explore the preparation method, physical and chemical properties, and biocompatibility of a conductive composite scaffold based on polypyrrole/silk fibroin (PPy/SF) fiber with "shell-core" structure, and to provide a preliminary research basis for the application in the field of tissue engineered neuroscience. Methods: The conductive fibers with "shell-core" structure were prepared by three-dimensional printing combined with in-situ polymerization...
March 1, 2019: Chinese Journal of Reparative and Reconstructive Surgery
Xin Yang, Qi Zhao, Yijing Chen, Yuanxiang Fu, Shushen Lu, Xinlin Yu, Dongsheng Yu, Wei Zhao
Graphene and its derivatives, graphene oxide (GO) and graphene oxide quantum dots (GOQDs), have recently attracted much attention as bioactive factors in differentiating stem cells towards osteoblastic lineage. The stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) possess the properties of self-renewal, extensive proliferation, and multiple differentiation potential, and have gradually become one of the most promising mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in bone tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of GO and GOQDs on the osteogenic differentiation of SHEDs...
December 2019: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Dhavan Sharma, Wenkai Jia, Fei Long, Shweta Pati, Qinghui Chen, Yibing Qyang, Bruce Lee, Chang Kyong Choi, Feng Zhao
Natural tissues contain highly organized cellular architecture. One of the major challenges in tissue engineering is to develop engineered tissue constructs that promote cellular growth in physiological directionality. To address this issue, micro-patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates have been widely used in cell sheet engineering due to their low microfabrication cost, higher stability, excellent biocompatibility, and most importantly, ability to guide cellular growth and patterning. However, the current methods for PDMS surface modification either require a complicated procedure or generate a non-uniform surface coating, leading to the production of poor-quality cell layers...
December 2019: Bioactive Materials
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