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Obesity markers

Anna H Grummon, Marissa G Hall, Lindsey Smith Taillie, Noel T Brewer
Health warnings are a promising strategy for reducing consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), but uncertainty remains about how to design warnings to maximize their impact. Warnings already implemented in Latin America use nutrient disclosures, while proposed U.S. warnings would describe the health effects of consuming SSBs. We sought to determine whether warning characteristics influence consumers' reactions to SSB health warnings. A national convenience sample of U.S. adults (n = 1360) completed an online survey in 2018...
February 14, 2019: Preventive Medicine
Rafael Calais Gaspar, Camilla Bertuzzo Veiga, Mariana Pereira Bessi, Marcella Neves Dátilo, Marcella Ramos Sant'Ana, Patrícia Brito Rodrigues, Leandro Pereira de Moura, Adelino Sanchez Ramos da Silva, Gustavo Aparecido Santos, Rodrigo Ramos Catharino, Eduardo Rochete Ropelle, José Rodrigo Pauli, Dennys Esper Cintra
GPR120 and GPR40 were recently reported as omega-3 (ω3) receptors with anti-inflammatory properties. Physical exercise could increase the expression of these receptors in the liver, improving hepatic metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to investigate GPR120/40 in the liver of lean and obese mice after acute or chronic physical exercise, with or without the supplementation of ω3 rich flaxseed oil (FS), as well as assess the impact of exercise and FS on insulin signaling and inflammation...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Behrouz Keleidari, Mohsen Mahmoudieh, Amir Hosein Davarpanah Jazi, Hamid Melali, Farid Nasr Esfahani, Mohammad Minakari, Mojgan Mokhtari
INTRODUCTION: One of the most acceptable procedures in bariatric surgery is laparoscopic gastric bypass. Laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a common technique used in bariatric surgery. Recently, one anastomosis gastric bypass (OAGB) has been suggested as a simple, fast, and effective technique for obesity treatment. This study aims to compare the frequency of histologically proven bile reflux in OAGB and RYGB among patients with morbid obesity. METHODS: This prospective cohort study was performed from 2015 to 2017 in the Department Of Bariatric Surgery of [blinded]...
February 14, 2019: Obesity Surgery
Hamid Ashraf, Bashir Ahmad Laway, Dil Afroze, Arshad Iqbal Wani
Background: Obesity is one of the most common yet neglected public health problems in both the developed and developing countries. Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a multiplex of risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) and it reflects the clustering of multiple risk factors resulting from obesity and insulin resistance. Despite its predominance in obese individuals, MS does occur in non-obese individuals. Many individuals characterised as normal weight as per their body mass index (BMI), have increased visceral adiposity thereby leading to an unfavourable inflammatory cytokine profile...
November 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Kumar U Nithin, M G Sridhar, K Srilatha, S Habebullah
Background: Incidence of endometrial cancer in India is increasing due to lifestyle changes and obesity. As 5 year survival rate of cancer confined to uterus is good, there is need for serum tumor marker for early diagnosis. This study was designed to identify a tumor marker which differentiate endometrial carcinoma and abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) because common presentation of endometrial carcinoma is AUB. Objectives: To estimate and compare serum prolactin, Cancer Antigen 125 (CA-125), Cancer Antigen 15-3 (CA15-3), and Carcino embryonic antigen (CEA) levels in patients with endometrial cancer and abnormal uterine bleeding; To evaluate the role of these markers in diagnosing endometrial cancer...
December 2018: African Health Sciences
Fanny Petermann-Rocha, Anne Sillars, Rosemary Brown, Lauren Sweeney, Claudia Troncoso, Antonio García-Hermoso, Ana María Leiva, María Adela Martínez, Ximena Diaz-Martínez, Felipe Poblete-Valderrama, Alex Garrido-Mendez, Ximena Cataldo, José Iturra Gonzalez, Carlos Salas, José Lara, Stuart R Gray, Carlos Celis-Morales
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile. DESIGN: Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka's formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression...
February 14, 2019: Public Health Nutrition
Ko Fujimori, Kosuke Aritake, Yo Oishi, Nanae Nagata, Toko Maehara, Michael Lazarus, Yoshihiro Urade
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin (PG) D synthase (L-PGDS) is responsible for the production of PGD2 in adipocytes and is selectively induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in adipose tissue. In this study, we investigated the effects of HFD on obesity and insulin resistance in two distinct types of adipose-specific L-PGDS gene knockout (KO) mice: fatty acid binding protein 4 (fabp4, aP2)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox and adiponectin (AdipoQ)-Cre/L-PGDS flox/flox mice. The L-PGDS gene was deleted in adipocytes in the premature stage of the former strain and after maturation of the latter strain...
February 13, 2019: Scientific Reports
Martí Bernaus, Francesc Anglès, Berta Escudero, Margarita Veloso, Alfredo Matamala, Lluís Font-Vizcarra
Objectives: Obesity is a documented comorbidity that is prevalent in the elderly population and a known predictor for surgical site infection (SSI). Body mass index is a convenient method to classify obesity, but it fails to account for fat distribution. The objective of our study was to evaluate the association between surgical site infection and a subcutaneous radiographic measurement (SRM) in elderly hip fracture patients. Materials and Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted to compare SRMs at the hip in patients diagnosed with surgical site infection after hip fracture surgery with patients that were not diagnosed with surgical site infection...
2019: Journal of Bone and Joint Infection
Marco Sanchez-Guerra, Cheng Peng, Letizia Trevisi, Andres Cardenas, Ander Wilson, Citlalli Osorio-Yáñez, Megan M Niedzwiecki, Jia Zhong, Katherine Svensson, Maria Teresa Acevedo, Maritsa Solano-Gonzalez, Chitra J Amarasiriwardena, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez, Kasey J M Brennan, Lourdes Schnaas, Allan C Just, Hannah E Laue, Rosalind J Wright, Martha Maria Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Andrea A Baccarelli
INTRODUCTION: Lead (Pb) crosses the placenta and can cause oxidative stress, reduced fetal growth and neurological problems. The principal source of oxidative stress in human cells is mitochondria. Therefore, disruption of normal mitochondrial function during pregnancy may represent a primary mechanism behind the adverse effects of lead. We sought to assess the association of Pb exposure during pregnancy with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, a sensitive marker of mitochondrial function, in cord blood...
February 9, 2019: Environment International
Andrea Vecchiola, Cristóbal Andrés Fuentes, Eric Raúl Barros, Alejandro Martínez-Aguayo, Hernán García, Fidel Allende, Sandra Solari, Roberto Olmos, Cristian Carvajal, Alejandra Tapia-Castillo, Carmen Campino, Alexis Mikes Kalergis, Rene Baudrand, Carlos Enrique Fardella
Background: Aldosterone has been linked with obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), pro-inflammatory and pro-thrombotic states; however, most studies relate these indicators with primary aldosteronism (PA), excluding non-PA patients. Objective: To determine whether aldosterone, renin or the plasma aldosterone/renin ratio (ARR) are associated with metabolic disorders and inflammatory/vascular biomarkers in a non-PA population. Methods: We studied 275 patients including adolescents and adults of both genders and measured plasma and urinary aldosterone and determined the plasma renin activity (PRA)...
February 9, 2019: American Journal of Hypertension
Maiko Suzuki, Kazuyoshi Kon, Kenichi Ikejima, Kumiko Arai, Akira Uchiyama, Tomonori Aoyama, Shunhei Yamashina, Takashi Ueno, Sumio Watanabe
BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of metabolic syndrome and chronic alcohol consumption is increasing worldwide. The present study investigated the effect of the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (PBA)-which has been shown to alleviate dietary steatohepatitis caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-on chronic-plus-binge ethanol (EtOH)-induced liver injury in a mouse model of obesity. METHODS: Male KK-Ay mice (8 weeks old) were fed a Lieber-DeCarli diet (5% EtOH) for 10 days...
February 12, 2019: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Samantha Teng, Lipi Chakravorty, Naomi Fleury, Shelley Gorman
OBJECTIVE: Obesity often emerges in middle age, increasing risk for metabolic disorders. Our previous preclinical experiments identified that chronic exposure to non-burning ultraviolet radiation, like that achieved through sun exposure, prevented weight gain and signs of metabolic dysfunction in young adult mice fed a high fat diet. Our objective was to perform a pilot study to estimate the effect size of ongoing exposure to sub-erythemal (non-burning, low dose) UVB (1 kJ/m2 ) radiation on measures of adiposity, food intake and physical activity in 'mature' adult C57Bl/6J male mice fed a high fat diet for 12 weeks...
February 11, 2019: BMC Research Notes
Nicholas J Geraghty, Lisa Belfiore, Sam R Adhikary, Stephen I Alexander, Ronald Sluyter, Debbie Watson
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is a frequent complication following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with current therapies limited to general immunosuppression. Humanized mouse models of GVHD are emerging as valuable intermediaries to allow translation of findings from allogeneic mouse models to humans to prevent and treat this disease, but such models require further characterization. In this study, humanized mice were generated by injecting immunodeficient non-obese diabetic severe combined immunodeficiency interleukin-2 receptor γ common chain null (NSG) mice with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMCs)...
February 8, 2019: Transplant Immunology
J A Suárez-Cuenca, A S Ruíz-Hernández, A A Mendoza-Castañeda, G A Domínguez-Pérez, A Hernández-Patricio, E Vera-Gómez, G De la Peña-Sosa, D Z Balderas-Lares, J Montoya-Ramírez, R Blas-Azotla, M Ortíz-Fernández, M Salamanca-García, A Melchor-López, P Mondragón-Terán, A Contreras-Ramos, S L Alcaraz-Estrada
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis represents a cardiovascular risk. Chronic inflammation is a key factor for atherogenic progression. Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) has been proposed as a novel biomarker for cardiovascular risks. We aimed to explore whether NLR was related with surrogate pro-atherogenic promoters driving atherogenic progression, as measured by Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-one patients with obesity candidates for bariatric surgery were recruited from Centro Médico Nacional "20 de Noviembre", ISSSTE, Mexico City...
February 11, 2019: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Hakim Bahlok Jebur, Mirza Masroor, Hafiz Ahmad, Naushad Ahmad Khan, Juheb Akther, Dipu Bharali, Vijay Kumar Singh, Amit Verma, Shahbaz Khan, Vasiuddin Khan, Rameez Hasan, Deepti Bhatt, Yamini Goyal, Kapil Dev
BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is an inflammatory marker associated with T2DM, obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease. AIM: The present study evaluates the association of CRP +1059 G/C polymorphism of the CRP gene in 100 T2D cases and 100 healthy controls. METHODS: Present study was done by allele specific PCR method to study the CRP gene polymorphism in study subjects. RESULTS: Study found that CRP (+1059 G/C) genotype distribution among case and controls was found to be significant (p=0...
January 15, 2019: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
M Hobbs, C Griffiths, M A Green, H Jordan, J Saunders, A Christensen, J McKenna
This study investigated if the relationship between residential fast-food outlet availability and obesity varied due to methodological diversity or by age. Cross-sectional data (n = 22,889) from the Yorkshire Health Study, England were used. Obesity was defined using self-reported height and weight (BMI ≥ 30). Food outlets ("fast-food", "large supermarkets", and "convenience or other food retail outlets") were mapped using Ordnance Survey Points of Interest (PoI) database...
February 2019: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, P Rameshreddy, P Brahmanaidu, Ponmurugan Ponnusamy, Santhanaraj Balakrishnan, Ravindar Naik Ramavat, K Swapna, Suresh Pothani, Harishankar Nemani, Balaji Meriga, S Vadivukkarasi, Nivedha P R, Saravanan Ganapathy
In the current study, we evaluated the effects of Asiatic acid (AA) on lipid metabolic markers in HFD-induced obese Sprague-Dawley rat model. AA (20 mg/kg BW) was administered orally to HFD-fed rats for 42 days. Changes in body composition, glucose, insulin resistance (IR) and lipid profiles of tissues, plasma and the pattern of gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) and its target genes fatty-acid synthase (FAS), adipocyte protein-2 (aP2) and uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) and pro-inflammatory factor tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were observed in experimental rats...
February 10, 2019: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Mara Ventura, Leonor Gomes, Joana Rosmaninho-Salgado, Luísa Barros, Isabel Paiva, Miguel Melo, Diana Oliveira, Francisco Carrilho
Intracranial germinomas are rare tumors affecting mostly patients at young age. Therefore, molecular data on its etiopathogenesis are scarce. We present a clinical case of a male patient of 25 years with an intracranial germinoma and a 16p11.2 microdeletion. His initial complaints were related to obesity, loss of facial hair and polydipsia. He also had a history of social-interaction difficulties during childhood. His blood tests were consistent with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and secondary adrenal insufficiency, and he had been previously diagnosed with hypothyroidism...
February 7, 2019: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Antonio García-Ríos, Antonio Camargo Garcia, Francisco Perez-Jimenez, Pablo Perez-Martinez
Cardiovascular disease remains the first cause of mortality in Western countries. New strategies for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease are needed. At the same time, the incidence of risk factors that lead to the development of this disease, such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes, continues to rise. Therefore, the search for new markers or mediators is a priority in most cardiovascular prevention programs. The study of the intestinal microbiota is emerging because it is known that intestinal microorganisms act collectively as an integrated organ, regulating multiple biological functions that can modulate cardiovascular risk factors and the pathogenic mechanisms of this process...
February 5, 2019: Clínica e Investigación en Arteriosclerosis
M W Dzierlenga, M Yoon, F Wania, P L Ward, J M Armitage, S A Wood, H J Clewell, M P Longnecker
An association between serum concentrations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (PCB-153), and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) has been reported. Conditional on body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC), a higher serum PCB-153 concentration may be a marker of T2DM risk because it reflects other aspects of obesity that are related to T2DM risk and to PCB-153 clearance. To estimate the amount of residual confounding by other aspects of obesity, we performed a quantitative bias analysis on the results of a specific study...
February 4, 2019: Environment International
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