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Simona Portaro, Margherita Russo, Alessia Bramanti, Antonio Leo, Luana Billeri, Alfredo Manuli, Gianluca La Rosa, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
RATIONALE: Friedrich ataxia (FA) is the most common inherited neurodegenerative cerebellar ataxic syndrome. In patients with FA, physiotherapy is highly recommended to improve motor function outcome. Cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been demonstrated to be effective in improving symptoms by modulating cerebellar excitability. Recently, robotic rehabilitation with Lokomat-Pro has been used to treat motor impairment in ataxic syndromes by "modulating" cortical plasticity and cerebello-motor connectivity...
February 2019: Medicine (Baltimore)
Hayato Idei, Shingo Murata, Yiwen Chen, Yuichi Yamashita, Jun Tani, Tetsuya Ogata
Recently, applying computational models developed in cognitive science to psychiatric disorders has been recognized as an essential approach for understanding cognitive mechanisms underlying psychiatric symptoms. Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is hypothesized to affect information processes in the brain involving the estimation of sensory precision (uncertainty), but the mechanism by which observed symptoms are generated from such abnormalities has not been thoroughly investigated...
December 2018: Computational Psychiatry
Jeffrey L Krichmar
Neurorobots are robots whose control has been modeled after some aspect of the brain. Since the brain is so closely coupled to the body and situated in the environment, Neurorobots can be a powerful tool for studying neural function in a holistic fashion. It may also be a means to develop autonomous systems that have some level of biological intelligence. The present article provides my perspective on this field, points out some of the landmark events, and discusses its future potential.
2018: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Rocco Salvatore Calabrò, Antonino Naro, Margherita Russo, Placido Bramanti, Luigi Carioti, Tina Balletta, Antonio Buda, Alfredo Manuli, Serena Filoni, Alessia Bramanti
BACKGROUND: The use of neurorobotic devices may improve gait recovery by entraining specific brain plasticity mechanisms, which may be a key issue for successful rehabilitation using such approach. We assessed whether the wearable exoskeleton, Ekso™, could get higher gait performance than conventional overground gait training (OGT) in patients with hemiparesis due to stroke in a chronic phase, and foster the recovery of specific brain plasticity mechanisms. METHODS: We enrolled forty patients in a prospective, pre-post, randomized clinical study...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Rayyan Azam Khan, Noman Naseer, Nauman Khalid Qureshi, Farzan Majeed Noori, Hammad Nazeer, Muhammad Umer Khan
BACKGROUND: In this paper, a novel functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) framework for control of prosthetic legs and rehabilitation of patients suffering from locomotive disorders is presented. METHODS: fNIRS signals are used to initiate and stop the gait cycle, while a nonlinear proportional derivative computed torque controller (PD-CTC) with gravity compensation is used to control the torques of hip and knee joints for minimization of position error...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Onofrio Gigliotta, Tal Seidel Malkinson, Orazio Miglino, Paolo Bartolomeo
Most people tend to bisect horizontal lines slightly to the left of their true center (pseudoneglect) and start visual search from left-sided items. This physiological leftward spatial bias may depend on hemispheric asymmetries in the organization of attentional networks, but the precise mechanisms are unknown. Here, we modeled relevant aspects of the ventral and dorsal attentional networks (VAN and DAN) of the human brain. First, we demonstrated pseudoneglect in visual search in 101 right-handed psychology students...
November 2017: ENeuro
Victor Hugo C de Albuquerque, Robertas Damaševičius, Nuno M Garcia, Plácido Rogério Pinheiro, Pedro P Rebouças Filho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: BioMed Research International
Margherita Russo, Vincenzo Dattola, Anna Lisa Logiudice, Rosella Ciurleo, Edoardo Sessa, Rosaria De Luca, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Naro, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
INTRODUCTION: Currently, none of the available multiple sclerosis (MS) disease-modifying medications has been shown to stop or reverse gait disability. Recently, the nabiximols has been tested for the treatment of spasticity and walking impairment in MS. Nabiximols (trade name Sativex) is an oromucosal spray formulation containing 1:1 fixed ratio of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol derived from cloned Cannabis sativa L. plant. METHOD AND ANALYSIS: A single-center, prospective, parallel design, single-blind trial will be conducted at the IRCCS Neurolesi "Bonino-Pulejo" (Italy) involving MS patients affected by spasticity and undergoing a Robotic Rehabilitation training...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alkinoos Athanasiou, Ioannis Xygonakis, Niki Pandria, Panagiotis Kartsidis, George Arfaras, Kyriaki Rafailia Kavazidi, Nicolas Foroglou, Alexander Astaras, Panagiotis D Bamidis
Advances in neural interfaces have demonstrated remarkable results in the direction of replacing and restoring lost sensorimotor function in human patients. Noninvasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are popular due to considerable advantages including simplicity, safety, and low cost, while recent advances aim at improving past technological and neurophysiological limitations. Taking into account the neurophysiological alterations of disabled individuals, investigating brain connectivity features for implementation of BCI control holds special importance...
2017: BioMed Research International
Stefan Lambrecht, Anna Harutyunyan, Kevin Tanghe, Maarten Afschrift, Joris De Schutter, Ilse Jonkers
Real-time detection of multiple stance events, more specifically initial contact (IC), foot flat (FF), heel off (HO), and toe off (TO), could greatly benefit neurorobotic (NR) and neuroprosthetic (NP) control. Three real-time threshold-based algorithms have been developed, detecting the aforementioned events based on kinematic data in combination with a biomechanical model. Data from seven subjects walking at three speeds on an instrumented treadmill were used to validate the presented algorithms, accumulating to a total of 558 steps...
March 24, 2017: Sensors
Egidio Falotico, Lorenzo Vannucci, Alessandro Ambrosano, Ugo Albanese, Stefan Ulbrich, Juan Camilo Vasquez Tieck, Georg Hinkel, Jacques Kaiser, Igor Peric, Oliver Denninger, Nino Cauli, Murat Kirtay, Arne Roennau, Gudrun Klinker, Axel Von Arnim, Luc Guyot, Daniel Peppicelli, Pablo Martínez-Cañada, Eduardo Ros, Patrick Maier, Sandro Weber, Manuel Huber, David Plecher, Florian Röhrbein, Stefan Deser, Alina Roitberg, Patrick van der Smagt, Rüdiger Dillman, Paul Levi, Cecilia Laschi, Alois C Knoll, Marc-Oliver Gewaltig
Combined efforts in the fields of neuroscience, computer science, and biology allowed to design biologically realistic models of the brain based on spiking neural networks. For a proper validation of these models, an embodiment in a dynamic and rich sensory environment, where the model is exposed to a realistic sensory-motor task, is needed. Due to the complexity of these brain models that, at the current stage, cannot deal with real-time constraints, it is not possible to embed them into a real-world task...
2017: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Philipp Weidel, Mikael Djurfeldt, Renato C Duarte, Abigail Morrison
In order to properly assess the function and computational properties of simulated neural systems, it is necessary to account for the nature of the stimuli that drive the system. However, providing stimuli that are rich and yet both reproducible and amenable to experimental manipulations is technically challenging, and even more so if a closed-loop scenario is required. In this work, we present a novel approach to solve this problem, connecting robotics and neural network simulators. We implement a middleware solution that bridges the Robotic Operating System (ROS) to the Multi-Simulator Coordinator (MUSIC)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
James Wright, Vaughan G Macefield, André van Schaik, Jonathan C Tapson
It has been widely recognized that closed-loop neuroprosthetic systems achieve more favorable outcomes for users then equivalent open-loop devices. Improved performance of tasks, better usability, and greater embodiment have all been reported in systems utilizing some form of feedback. However, the interdisciplinary work on neuroprosthetic systems can lead to miscommunication due to similarities in well-established nomenclature in different fields. Here we present a review of control strategies in existing experimental, investigational and clinical neuroprosthetic systems in order to establish a baseline and promote a common understanding of different feedback modes and closed-loop controllers...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Egidio D'Angelo, Alberto Antonietti, Stefano Casali, Claudia Casellato, Jesus A Garrido, Niceto Rafael Luque, Lisa Mapelli, Stefano Masoli, Alessandra Pedrocchi, Francesca Prestori, Martina Francesca Rizza, Eduardo Ros
The cerebellar microcircuit has been the work bench for theoretical and computational modeling since the beginning of neuroscientific research. The regular neural architecture of the cerebellum inspired different solutions to the long-standing issue of how its circuitry could control motor learning and coordination. Originally, the cerebellar network was modeled using a statistical-topological approach that was later extended by considering the geometrical organization of local microcircuits. However, with the advancement in anatomical and physiological investigations, new discoveries have revealed an unexpected richness of connections, neuronal dynamics and plasticity, calling for a change in modeling strategies, so as to include the multitude of elementary aspects of the network into an integrated and easily updatable computational framework...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Frank van der Velde
In situ concept-based computing is based on the notion that conceptual representations in the human brain are "in situ." In this way, they are grounded in perception and action. Examples are neuronal assemblies, whose connection structures develop over time and are distributed over different brain areas. In situ concepts representations cannot be copied or duplicated because that will disrupt their connection structure, and thus the meaning of these concepts. Higher-level cognitive processes, as found in language and reasoning, can be performed with in situ concepts by embedding them in specialized neurally inspired "blackboards...
2016: Frontiers in Neurorobotics
Marco Iosa, Giovanni Morone, Andrea Cherubini, Stefano Paolucci
Most studies and reviews on robots for neurorehabilitation focus on their effectiveness. These studies often report inconsistent results. This and many other reasons limit the credit given to these robots by therapists and patients. Further, neurorehabilitation is often still based on therapists' expertise, with competition among different schools of thought, generating substantial uncertainty about what exactly a neurorehabilitation robot should do. Little attention has been given to ethics. This review adopts a new approach, inspired by Asimov's three laws of robotics and based on the most recent studies in neurorobotics, for proposing new guidelines for designing and using robots for neurorehabilitation...
2016: Journal of Medical and Biological Engineering
Joachim von Zitzewitz, Leonie Asboth, Nicolas Fumeaux, Alexander Hasse, Laetitia Baud, Heike Vallery, Grégoire Courtine
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to develop a robotic interface capable of providing finely-tuned, multidirectional trunk assistance adjusted in real-time during unconstrained locomotion in rats and mice. APPROACH: We interfaced a large-scale robotic structure actuated in four degrees of freedom to exchangeable attachment modules exhibiting selective compliance along distinct directions. This combination allowed high-precision force and torque control in multiple directions over a large workspace...
April 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Kristsana Seepanomwan, Daniele Caligiore, Angelo Cangelosi, Gianluca Baldassarre
Mental rotation, a classic experimental paradigm of cognitive psychology, tests the capacity of humans to mentally rotate a seen object to decide if it matches a target object. In recent years, mental rotation has been investigated with brain imaging techniques to identify the brain areas involved. Mental rotation has also been investigated through the development of neural-network models, used to identify the specific mechanisms that underlie its process, and with neurorobotics models to investigate its embodied nature...
December 2015: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Gibeom Park, Jun Tani
The current study presents neurorobotics experiments on acquisition of skills for "communicable congruence" with human via learning. A dynamic neural network model which is characterized by its multiple timescale dynamics property was utilized as a neuromorphic model for controlling a humanoid robot. In the experimental task, the humanoid robot was trained to generate specific sequential movement patterns as responding to various sequences of imperative gesture patterns demonstrated by the human subjects by following predefined compositional semantic rules...
December 2015: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Jun Hozumi, Michihiro Osumi, Toru Ogata, Masahiko Sumitani
Deafferentation, like as in limb amputation, brachial plexus avulsion injury and spinal cord injury, is usually followed by neuropathic pain. Neuropathic pain is a debilitating condition and it impairs the quality of life profoundly. Based on recent advances in the cognitive neuroscience, we explain intimate relationships among neuropathic pain, reorganization of primary sensory and motor cortices and the sensorimotor integration of the deafferentated limb. From the standpoint of the sensorimotor integration theory for emerging phantom limb pain, we further discuss the analgesic mechanism of neurorehabilitation techniques such as mirror visual feedback treatment and its related neurorobotics advancement for neuropathic pain...
July 2015: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
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