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Tuberculosis AND Brazil

Carolina Arana Stanis Schmaltz, Fernanda de Oliveira Demitto, Flavia Marinho Sant'Anna, Valeria Cavalcanti Rolla
BACKGROUND: Rifamycins are a group of antibiotics mainly used in the treatment of tuberculosis (TB), however they interact with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rifabutin allows more regimens options for concomitant imunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment compared to rifampicin. OBJECTIVE: Compare the outcomes of TB-HIV co-infected patients who used rifampicin or rifabutin. METHODS: We analysed data from a prospective cohort study at National Institute of Infectious Diseases Evandro Chagas, Rio de Janeiro (RJ), Brazil...
February 11, 2019: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Daniel J Carter, Rhian Daniel, Ana W Torrens, Mauro N Sanchez, Ethel Leonor N Maciel, Patricia Bartholomay, Draurio C Barreira, Davide Rasella, Mauricio L Barreto, Laura C Rodrigues, Delia Boccia
Background: Evidence suggests that social protection policies such as Brazil's Bolsa Família Programme (BFP), a governmental conditional cash transfer, may play a role in tuberculosis (TB) elimination. However, study limitations hamper conclusions. This paper uses a quasi-experimental approach to more rigorously evaluate the effect of BFP on TB treatment success rate. Methods: Propensity scores were estimated from a complete-case logistic regression using covariates from a linked data set, including the Brazil's TB notification system (SINAN), linked to the national registry of those in poverty (CadUnico) and the BFP payroll...
2019: BMJ Global Health
Daniely Aleixo Barbosa Maia, Paulo Germano de Frias, Romildo Siqueira Assunção, Suely Arruda Vidal, Lygia Carmen de Moraes Vanderlei
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the implantation of the Notifiable Diseases Information System (SINAN) in Pernambuco, Brasil, 2014. METHODS: This was an evaluation study based on primary data (interviews) and secondary data (SINAN documents/data) provided by the State Health Department and its Regional Divisions in order to estimate the degree of SINAN implantation, comparing structure and process indicators with results achieved. RESULTS: SINAN was found to be partially implemented at central level (77...
January 24, 2019: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
Abu A M Shazzadur Rahman, Ivor Langley, Rafael Galliez, Afrânio Kritski, Ewan Tomeny, S Bertel Squire
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major challenge to health in the developing world. Triage prior to diagnostic testing could potentially reduce the volume of tests and costs associated with using the more accurate, but costly, Xpert MTB/RIF assay. An effective methodology to predict the impact of introducing triage prior to tuberculosis diagnostic testing could be useful in helping to guide policy. METHODS: The development and use of operational modelling to project the impact on case detection and health system costs of alternative triage approaches for tuberculosis, with or without X-ray, based on data from Porto Alegre City, Brazil...
January 28, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Rafael Laniado-Laborín, Eduardo G Arathoon, Cristina Canteros, Raquel Muñiz-Salazar, Adrián Rendon
Coccidioidomycosis is a highly prevalent systemic mycosis in Latin America and has been reported (human and zoonotic cases) in México, Guatemala, Honduras, Colombia, Venezuela, Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Argentina. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis in Latin America is unknown due to lack of clinical awareness and limited access to laboratory diagnosis. Coccidioidomycosis is as prevalent in Mexico as in the endemic regions of the United States. The number of cases reported in Brazil and Argentina has progressively increased during the last decade, including areas that were not considered as endemic...
February 1, 2019: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Gian Luca Di Tanna, Ali Raza Khaki, Grant Theron, Kerrigan McCarthy, Helen Cox, Lucy Mupfumi, Anete Trajman, Lynn Sodai Zijenah, Peter Mason, Tsitsi Bandason, Betina Durovni, Wilbert Bara, Michael Hoelscher, Petra Clowes, Chacha Mangu, Duncan Chanda, Alexander Pym, Peter Mwaba, Frank Cobelens, Mark P Nicol, Keertan Dheda, Gavin Churchyard, Katherine Fielding, John Z Metcalfe
BACKGROUND: Xpert MTB/RIF, the most widely used automated nucleic acid amplification test for tuberculosis, is available in more than 130 countries. Although diagnostic accuracy is well documented, anticipated improvements in patient outcomes have not been clearly identified. We performed an individual patient data meta-analysis to examine improvements in patient outcomes associated with Xpert MTB/RIF. METHODS: We searched PubMed, Embase,, and the Pan African Clinical Trials Registry from inception to Feb 1, 2018, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the use of Xpert MTB/RIF with sputum smear microscopy as tests for tuberculosis diagnosis in adults (aged 18 years or older)...
February 2019: Lancet Global Health
Tarub S Mabud, Maria de Lourdes Delgado Alves, Albert I Ko, Sanjay Basu, Katharine S Walter, Ted Cohen, Barun Mathema, Caroline Colijn, Everton Lemos, Julio Croda, Jason R Andrews
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that prisons serve as amplifiers of general tuberculosis (TB) epidemics, but there is a paucity of data on this phenomenon and the potential population-level effects of prison-focused interventions. This study (1) quantifies the TB risk for prisoners as they traverse incarceration and release, (2) mathematically models the impact of prison-based interventions on TB burden in the general population, and (3) generalizes this model to a wide range of epidemiological contexts...
January 2019: PLoS Medicine
Renata F Amorim, Eduardo R C Viegas, Antonio José V Carneiro, Barbara C Esberard, Evelyn S Chinem, Raquel S Correa, Luciana Rodrigues, Marcelo Ribeiro-Alves, Kelly S Silva, Heitor S de Souza, Ana Teresa P Carvalho
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) in the screening of LTBI among patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in an endemic area for tuberculosis, to evaluate the need for repeating tests during anti-TNFα, therapy, and to check whether the results may be affected by immunosuppression. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 110 IBD patients and 64 controls was conducted in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The TST was administered after the Quantiferon(® )-TB Gold In-tube test was performed...
January 23, 2019: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
M G Jacobs, D M Pelissari, F A Diaz-Quijano
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the association between tuberculosis (TB) patients' race and patients' access to diagnostic testing in Brazil. In addition, we evaluated if the associations could be explained by a geographic codistribution between racial groups and diagnostic testing. STUDY DESIGN: It is a cross-sectional study based on secondary data from a national surveillance system of new TB cases diagnosed in 2015. METHODS: We evaluated the association between TB patients' race (independent variable) and the HIV testing and TB mycobacterial culture providing (dependent variables) with logistic regression models...
January 14, 2019: Public Health
Marcia Ramos Costa, Rejane Christine de Sousa Queiroz, Thiago Augusto Hernandes Rocha, Núbia Cristina Da Silva, João Ricardo Nickenig Vissoci, Aline Sampieri Tonello, Elaine Thumé, Maria Nilza Lima Medeiros, Maria Dos Remédios Freitas Carvalho Branco, Maria Elza Lima Sousa, Erika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Luiz Augusto Facchini
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious and contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. TB emerged in the 21st century as an unsolved public health problem. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the characteristics of basic health units (BHUs) and the number of TB cases detected in Maranhão, Brazil. METHODS: An ecological, analytical study was conducted using the municipalities in the state of Maranhão as the unit of analysis...
January 14, 2019: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Hayley C Warsinske, Aditya M Rao, Flora M F Moreira, Paulo Cesar P Santos, Andrew B Liu, Madeleine Scott, Stephaus T Malherbe, Katharina Ronacher, Gerhard Walzl, Jill Winter, Timothy E Sweeney, Julio Croda, Jason R Andrews, Purvesh Khatri
Importance: The World Health Organization identified the need for a non-sputum-based triage test to identify those in need of further tuberculosis (TB) testing. Objective: To determine whether the 3-gene TB score can be a diagnostic tool throughout the course of TB disease, from latency to diagnosis to treatment response, and posttreatment residual inflammation. Design, Setting, and Participants: This nested case-control study analyzed the 3-gene TB score in 3 cohorts, each focusing on a different stage of TB disease: (1) the Adolescent Cohort Study profiled whole-blood samples from adolescents with latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, some of which progressed to active TB (ATB), using RNA sequencing; (2) the Brazil Active Screen Study collected whole blood from an actively screened case-control cohort of adult inmates from 2 prisons in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, for ATB from January 2016 to February 2016; and (3) the Catalysis Treatment Response Cohort (CTRC) identified culture-positive adults in primary health care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa, from 2005 to 2007 and collected whole blood for RNA sequencing from patients with ATB at diagnosis and weeks 1, 4, and 24...
October 5, 2018: JAMA network open
Maíra Rossetto, Évelin Maria Brand, Renata Mendonça Rodrigues, Laura Serrant, Luciana Barcellos Teixeira
In locations with a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) and HIV infection, there are a number of strategies to prevent negative outcomes such as opportunistic infections, hospitalizations and death, and this article investigates risk factors for the occurrence of hospitalization and death in cases of TB/HIV co-infection in the south of Brazil. The data are taken from a population-based retrospective cohort study on cases of TB/HIV co-infection from 2009 to 2013 in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Sociodemographic, epidemiological and clinical variables were analyzed...
2019: PloS One
Daniel Barros de Castro, Elvira Maria Godinho de Seixas Maciel, Megumi Sadahiro, Rosemary Costa Pinto, Bernardino Cláudio de Albuquerque, José Ueleres Braga
BACKGROUND: Brazil is among the 30 countries with high-burden of tuberculosis worldwide, and Manaus is the capital with the highest tuberculosis incidence. The accelerated economic and population growth in Manaus in the last 30 years has strengthened the process of social stratification that may result in population groups that are less favored in terms of healthcare and are vulnerable to infection and illness due to tuberculosis. This study aimed to characterize inequalities associated with tuberculosis incidence in relation to the socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of the resident population of Manaus and to identify their determinants from 2007 to 2016...
December 29, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
Janaina Gomes Nascimento Oliosi, Barbara Reis-Santos, Rodrigo Leite Locatelli, Carolina Maia Martins Sales, Walter Gomes da Silva Filho, Kerollen Cristina da Silva, Mauro Niskier Sanchez, Kaio Vinicius Freitas de Andrade, Gleide Santos de Araújo, Priya B Shete, Susan Martins Pereira, Lee W Riley, Christian Lienhardt, Ethel Leonor Noia Maciel
BACKGROUND: Social protection interventions might improve tuberculosis outcomes and could help to control the epidemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the independent effect of the Bolsa Familia Programme (BFP) on tuberculosis treatment outcomes in Brazil. METHODS: We prospectively recruited and followed up individuals (aged ≥18 years) who initiated tuberculosis treatment at 42 health-care centres across seven cities in Brazil, between March 1, 2014, and April 30, 2017...
December 21, 2018: Lancet Global Health
Daniele Maria Pelissari, Marina Gasino Jacobs, Patricia Bartholomay, Marli Souza Rocha, Draurio Barreira, Denise Arakaki-Sanchez, João Paulo Toledo, Fredi Alexander Diaz-Quijano
This study aimed to validate a method for classification of healthcare services in Brazil (basic care vs. other levels) and describe the decentralization of tuberculosis (TB) care to basic services (2002 to 2016). The healthcare services that reported and followed TB cases were classified as either "basic care" or "other levels" based on the type of establishment registered in the Brazilian National Registry of Healthcare Establishments (CNES, in Portuguese). The study estimated the agreement between this classification with a previous classification performed in 2013 by Brazil's state and local tuberculosis programs...
December 20, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Yuri F van der Heijden, Fareed Abdullah, Bruno B Andrade, Jason R Andrews, Devasahayam J Christopher, Julio Croda, Heather Ewing, David W Haas, Mark Hatherill, C Robert Horsburgh, Vidya Mave, Helder I Nakaya, Valeria Rolla, Sudha Srinivasan, Retna Indah Sugiyono, Cesar Ugarte-Gil, Carol Hamilton
RePORT International is a global network of research sites in India, Brazil, Indonesia, South Africa, China, and the Philippines dedicated to collaborative tuberculosis research in the context of HIV. A standardized research protocol (the Common Protocol) guides the enrollment of participants with active pulmonary tuberculosis and contacts into observational cohorts. The establishment of harmonized clinical data and bio-repositories will allow cutting-edge, large-scale advances in the understanding of tuberculosis, including identification of novel biomarkers for progression to active tuberculosis and relapse after treatment...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Emilyn Costa Conceição, Arthur Emil Dos Santos Guimarães, Maria Luíza Lopes, Ismari Perini Furlaneto, Yan Corrêa Rodrigues, Marília Lima da Conceição, Wandyra Araújo Barros, Ninarosa Calzavara Cardoso, Abhinav Sharma, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima, Harrison Magdinier Gomes, Rafael Silva Duarte, Cristiane Frota, Liliana K Rutaihwa, Sebastien Gagneux, Philip Noel Suffys, Karla Valéria Batista Lima
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease with a higher risk for infection and disease among household contacts (HHC). Here, we report a molecular epidemiology-based approach to study disease transmission and the genetic characteristics of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strains among HHC in the city of Belem, the capital of the state of Para in north Brazil. The study included 63 TB patients belonging to 26 HHC groups (HHC1 to HHC26). Spoligotyping and 24-loci Mycobacterial Interspersed Repetitive Unit - Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (MIRU-VNTR) revealed indistinguishable bacterial genotypes among 26 patients in 14 (53...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Francine Teixeira, Sonia M Raboni, Clea El Ribeiro, João Cb França, Anne C Broska, Nathalia Ls Souza
Worldwide, the convergence of tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection epidemics is a public health challenge. In Brazil, TB is the leading cause of death by infectious disease in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to report the clinical, demographic, epidemiological, and laboratory data for TB in PLWH. This cross-sectional study involved a retrospective analysis of data for patients with TB/HIV coinfection who attended from 2006 to 2015 through a review of medical records...
2018: Microbiology Insights
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes...
November 10, 2018: Lancet
Juan Manuel Cubillos-Angulo, María B Arriaga, Elisângela C Silva, Beatriz L A Müller, Daniela M P Ramalho, Kiyoshi F Fukutani, Pryscila F C Miranda, Adriana S R Moreira, Antonio Ruffino-Netto, Jose R Lapa E Silva, Timothy R Sterling, Afrânio L Kritski, Martha M Oliveira, Bruno B Andrade
Background: The role of genetic polymorphisms in latent tuberculosis (TB) infection and progression to active TB is not fully understood. Methods: We tested the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) rs5743708 (TLR2), rs4986791 (TLR4), rs361525 (TNFA), rs2430561 (IFNG) rs1143627 (IL1B) as risk factors for tuberculin skin test (TST) conversion or development of active TB in contacts of active TB cases. Contacts of microbiologically confirmed pulmonary TB cases were initially screened for longitudinal evaluation up to 24 months, with clinical examination and serial TST, between 1998 and 2004 at a referral center in Brazil...
November 24, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
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