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https://read.qxmd.com/read/30650011/a-computational-model-of-the-early-stages-of-acentriolar-meiotic-spindle-assembly
#1
Gaelle Letort, Isma Bennabi, Serge Dmitrieff, François Nedelec, Marie-Hélène Verlhac, Marie-Emilie Terret
The mitotic spindle is an ensemble of microtubules responsible for the repartition of the chromosomal content between the two daughter cells during division. In metazoans, spindle assembly is a gradual process involving dynamic microtubules and recruitment of numerous associated proteins and motors. During mitosis, centrosomes organize and nucleate the majority of spindle microtubules. In contrast, oocytes lack canonical centrosomes but are still able to form bipolar spindles, starting from an initial ball which self-organizes in several hours...
January 16, 2019: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30635858/the-ratio-of-single-turnover-to-multiple-turnover-fluorescence-varies-predictably-with-growth-rate-and-cellular-chlorophyll-in-the-green-alga-dunaliella-tertiolecta
#2
Matthew Brown, William Bryce Penta, Bethan Jones, Mike Behrenfeld
Marine phytoplankton experience a wide range of nutrient and light conditions in nature and respond to these conditions through changes in growth rate, chlorophyll concentration, and other physiological properties. Chlorophyll fluorescence is a non-invasive and efficient tool for characterizing changes in these physiological properties. In particular, the introduction of fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRf) into studies of phytoplankton physiology has enabled detailed studies of photosynthetic components and kinetics...
January 11, 2019: Photosynthesis Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30582449/atrial-specific-gene-delivery-using-an-adeno-associated-viral-vector
#3
Li Ni, Larry Scott, Hannah M Campbell, Xiaolu Pan, Katherina M Alsina, Julia O Reynolds, Leonne E Philippen, Mohit Hulsurkar, William R Lagor, Na Li, Xander Ht Wehrens
RATIONALE: Somatic overexpression in mice using adeno-associated virus (AAV) as gene transfer vectors has become a valuable tool to analyze the roles of specific genes in cardiac diseases. The lack of atrial-specific AAV vector has been a major obstacle for studies into the pathogenesis of atrial diseases. Moreover, gene therapy studies for atrial fibrillation would benefit from atrial-specific vectors. Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) promoter drives gene expression specifically in atrial cardiomyocytes...
November 7, 2018: Circulation Research
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30540520/cdc42-negatively-regulates-endocytosis-during-apical-membrane-maintenance-in-live-animals
#4
Akiko Shitara, Lenka Malec, Seham Ebrahim, Desu Chen, Christopher Bleck, Matthew P Hoffman, Roberto Weigert
Lumen establishment and maintenance are fundamental for tubular organs physiological functions. Most of the studies investigating the mechanisms regulating this process have been carried out in cell cultures or in smaller organisms, whereas little has been done in mammalian model systems in vivo. Here we used the salivary glands of live mice to examine the role of the small GTPase Cdc42 in the regulation of the homeostasis of the intercellular canaliculi, a specialized apical domain of the acinar cells, where protein and fluid secretion occur...
December 12, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30473614/-chrysospleniumramosissimum-y-i-kim-y-d-kim-saxifragaceae-a-new-species-from-korea
#5
Yong-In Kim, Seong-Hyun Cho, Jung-Hoon Lee, Dae-Hyun Kang, Jin Hee Park, Young-Dong Kim
This study describes and illustrates Chrysospleniumramosissimum , a new plant species from Mt. Seonjaryeong, located in the central region of the Korean Peninsula. The species is most similar to C.valdepilosum but is readily distinguishable by the presence of yellowish-green bracteal leaves during flowering, highly branched sterile branches, shiny silvery dots on sterile branch leaves and larger tubercles on the seed coat.
2018: PhytoKeys
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30425625/axonal-projections-from-the-middle-temporal-area-in-the-common-marmoset
#6
Hiroshi Abe, Toshiki Tani, Hiromi Mashiko, Naohito Kitamura, Taku Hayami, Satoshi Watanabe, Kazuhisa Sakai, Wataru Suzuki, Hiroaki Mizukami, Akiya Watakabe, Tetsuo Yamamori, Noritaka Ichinohe
Neural activity in the middle temporal (MT) area is modulated by the direction and speed of motion of visual stimuli. The area is buried in a sulcus in the macaque, but exposed to the cortical surface in the marmoset, making the marmoset an ideal animal model for studying MT function. To better understand the details of the roles of this area in cognition, underlying anatomical connections need to be clarified. Because most anatomical tracing studies in marmosets have used retrograde tracers, the axonal projections remain uncharacterized...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30384246/acid-treated-clay-catalysts-for-organic-dye-ozonation-thorough-mineralization-through-optimum-catalyst-basicity-and-hydrophilic-character
#7
Farida Boudissa, Diana Mirilà, Vasilica-Alisa Arus, Thizizi Terkmani, Sirène Semaan, Mélanie Proulx, Ileana-Denisa Nistor, René Roy, Abdelkrim Azzouz
Catalytic ozonation of Methylene Blue, Methyl Green, Methyl Orange and Methyl-thymol Blue was investigated in the presence of ion-exchanged montmorillonite (NaMt and Fe(II)Mt), crude bentonite and acid-activated counterparts. An original approach never tackled so far consisted in correlating the basicity and hydrophilic character to the dye-catalyst interactions occurring on the catalyst surface. This was achieved through CO2 and water thermal programmed desorption. Kinetics study revealed that ozonation starts in the bulk solution, and dye adsorption turns out to be an essential requirement for high catalytic effectiveness...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30313613/a-new-species-of-cascade-frog-amphibia-ranidae-in-the-amolops-monticola-group-from-china
#8
Zhiyong Yuan, Jieqiong Jin, Jiannan Li, Bryan L Stuart, Jun Wu
A new species, Amolops wenshanensis sp. nov., is described from Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces, China. The new species is a member of the A. monticola group, and is distinguished from its congeners using morphological and molecular data. The new species is diagnosed by having glandular dorsolateral folds; smooth skin; side of head dark with a light-colored upper lip stripe extending to axilla; green dorsal coloration in life; immaculate venter; indistinct transverse bands on dorsal surfaces of limbs; tympanum distinct; pineal body absent; all fingertips expanded with circummarginal grooves; two oblique vomerine teeth; vocal sac and white nuptial pad present in males; supratympanic fold absent; outer metatarsal tubercle absent; glandular gold-white flank spot absent; and skin on venter not translucent...
May 1, 2018: Zootaxa
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30271904/anisogamy-evolved-with-a-reduced-sex-determining-region-in-volvocine-green-algae
#9
Takashi Hamaji, Hiroko Kawai-Toyooka, Haruka Uchimura, Masahiro Suzuki, Hideki Noguchi, Yohei Minakuchi, Atsushi Toyoda, Asao Fujiyama, Shin-Ya Miyagishima, James G Umen, Hisayoshi Nozaki
Male and female gametes differing in size-anisogamy-emerged independently from isogamous ancestors in various eukaryotic lineages, although genetic bases of this emergence are still unknown. Volvocine green algae are a model lineage for investigating the transition from isogamy to anisogamy. Here we focus on two closely related volvocine genera that bracket this transition-isogamous Yamagishiella and anisogamous Eudorina . We generated de novo nuclear genome assemblies of both sexes of Yamagishiella and Eudorina to identify the dimorphic sex-determining chromosomal region or mating-type locus ( MT ) from each...
2018: Communications biology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/30053740/de-novo-assembly-and-comparative-transcriptome-analysis-reveals-genes-potentially-involved-in-tissue-color-changes-in-centipedegrass-eremochloa-ophiuroides-munro-hack
#10
Jianjian Li, Junqin Zong, Jingbo Chen, Yi Wang, Dandan Li, Ling Li, Jingjing Wang, Hailin Guo, Jianxiu Liu
Turf color is the most important characteristics of visual quality for a turfgrass species with high ornamental value and wide application prospects. Centipedegrass is a well-adapted warm-season turfgrass species in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions, possessing many outstanding properties including uniform green color. However, quite a few centipedegrass accessions or cultivars produce stolons and spike tissues with red-purple color, thereby decreasing their aesthetic value. A research focus in centipedegrass is to develop high-quality cultivars with uniform green color...
September 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29988164/concordant-divergence-of-mitogenomes-and-a-mitonuclear-gene-cluster-in-bird-lineages-inhabiting-different-climates
#11
Hernán E Morales, Alexandra Pavlova, Nevil Amos, Richard Major, Andrzej Kilian, Chris Greening, Paul Sunnucks
Metabolic processes in eukaryotic cells depend on interactions between mitochondrial and nuclear gene products (mitonuclear interactions). These interactions could have a direct role in population divergence. Here, we study mitonuclear co-evolution in a widespread bird that experienced population divergence followed by bidirectional mitochondrial introgression into different nuclear backgrounds. Using >60,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, we quantify patterns of nuclear genetic differentiation between populations that occupy areas with different climates and harbour deeply divergent mitochondrial lineages despite ongoing nuclear gene flow...
August 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29968460/cigarette-smoking-an-assessment-of-tobacco-s-global-environmental-footprint-across-its-entire-supply-chain
#12
Maria Zafeiridou, Nicholas S Hopkinson, Nikolaos Voulvoulis
While the health effects of cigarette smoking are well recognized and documented, the environmental impacts of tobacco are less appreciated and often overlooked. Here, we evaluate tobacco's global footprint across its entire supply chain, looking at resource needs, waste, and emissions of the full cradle-to-grave life cycle of cigarettes. The cultivation of 32.4 Mt of green tobacco used for the production of 6.48 Mt of dry tobacco in the six trillion cigarettes manufactured worldwide in 2014, were shown to contribute almost 84 Mt CO2 equiv emissions to climate change-approximately 0...
August 7, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29850672/the-effects-of-sr-incorporated-micro-nano-rough-titanium-surface-on-rbmsc-migration-and-osteogenic-differentiation-for-rapid-osteointegration
#13
Chuan Zhou, An-Tian Xu, Dan-Dan Wang, Guo-Fen Lin, Tie Liu, Fu-Ming He
Recruitment of endogenous bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) has been widely discussed as an alternative strategy for bone regeneration. Strontium (Sr) is known to direct the BMSCs' commitment to the bone lineage and encourage bone formation; however, the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, an Sr-incorporated micro/nano rough titanium surface (MNT-Sr) was fabricated by hydrothermal treatment in an attempt to facilitate BMSCs' recruitment and their osteogenic differentiation to enhance rapid osseointegration...
June 25, 2018: Biomaterials Science
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29742648/comparison-of-bacterial-culture-results-obtained-from-nasopharyngeal-and-midturbinate-swabs-in-children-with-upper-respiratory-tract-infection-symptoms
#14
Judith M Martin, Anita Simonian, Gysella Muniz, Michael Green, Nader Shaikh
Paired nasopharynx and midturbinate swabs were obtained from 96 children (mean age: 2.45 years) with upper respiratory tract symptoms. Of these, 38.5% were colonized with Streptococcus pneumoniae only, 16.7% with Haemophilus influenzae only and 9.4% with both bacteria. Bacterial cultures from paired nasopharynx and midturbinate swabs demonstrated agreement for S. pneumoniae (κ = 0.75), H. influenzae (κ = 0.59) and for both pathogens (κ = 0.62). This report compares the results of bacterial cultures obtained from the nasopharynx and midturbinate specimens in children with upper respiratory tract infections...
November 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29682409/copper-induced-activation-of-trps-and-vdccs-triggers-a-calcium-signature-response-regulating-gene-expression-in-ectocarpus-siliculosus
#15
Alberto González, Claudio A Sáez, Alejandra Moenne
In certain multicellular photoautotrophs, such as plants and green macroalgae, it has been demonstrated that calcium signaling importantly mediates tolerance to copper excess. However, there is no information in brown macroalgae, which are phylogenetically distant from green algae and plants. We have previously shown that chronic copper levels (2.5 μM) activate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels in the model brown macroalga Ectocarpus siliculosus , allowing extracellular calcium entry at 13, 29, 39 and 51 min...
2018: PeerJ
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29549943/green-synthesis-of-water-soluble-nontoxic-inorganic-polymer-nanocomposites-containing-silver-nanoparticles-using-white-tea-extract-and-assessment-of-their-in-vitro-antioxidant-and-cytotoxicity-activities
#16
Zeinab Haghparasti, Mahnaz Mahdavi Shahri
The use of nontoxic biological compounds in the synthesis of nanomaterials is an ecofriendly and cost-effective approach in nanotechnology. The present work was carried out to develop silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) by a green method using white tea (Wt) extract as reducing agent for reduction of silver nitrate as silver precursor into the lamellar space of inorganic polymer montmorillonite (Mt) as an effective protective reagent and support as well. The bioformed Wt/Ag@Mt nanocomposite (NCs) was compared with pure biosynthesized Wt/Ag-NPs under free stabilizer condition and effect of Mt stabilizer on antioxidant, cytotoxicity and structural properties were also investigated...
June 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29417735/foetal-bovine-serum-can-reduce-toxicity-of-indocyanine-green-brilliant-blue-g-and-trypan-blue-in-arpe-19-cellular-model-that-suggests-new-surgical-staining-protocols-for-internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-procedure
#17
Yu-Yi Lin, Jorn-Hon Liu, Yin Chang
BACKGROUND: To investigate and compare the cytotoxicity of indocyanine green (ICG), brilliant blue G (BBG) and trypan blue (TB) using ARPE-19 cells that have been pre-treated/post-treated with balanced salt solution (BSS) or foetal bovine serum (FBS). METHODS: The cultured human retina pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cells were pre-treated/post-treated with BSS or FBS (represent the autologous serum in clinic) in parallel with cells being soaked with various concentrations of ICG, BBG and TB...
September 2018: Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29396845/resistance-of-collard-green-genotypes-to-bemisia-tabaci-biotype-b-characterization-of-antixenosis
#18
G M Domingos, E L L Baldin, V F Canassa, I F Silva, A L Lourenção
Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is an important pest of vegetable crops, including collard greens Brassica oleracea var. acephala (Brassicaceae). The use of resistant genotypes is an interesting option to reduce insect populations and can be used as an important tool for integrated pest management (IPM). This study evaluated 32 genotypes of collard greens against the attack of silver leaf whitefly, with the aim to characterize antixenosis. Initially, a multiple-choice trial was conducted using all genotypes, in which the adult attractiveness was assessed on two leaves per genotype at 24 and 48 h after infestation...
August 2018: Neotropical Entomology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29371795/taxonomic-revision-of-the-lichen-genera-pertusaria-varicellaria-and-variolaria-pertusariales-ascomycota-in-south-korea
#19
Jung Shin Park, Sook-Young Park, Chan-Ho Park, Sergii Y Kondratyuk, Soon-Ok Oh, Jae-Seoun Hur
The crustose lichen genus Pertusaria comprises over ca. 800 species worldwide. In total, 20 Pertusaria species were localized to the Mt. Sorak and Jeju-do in Korea. To date, information regarding the distribution of Pertusaria species in the South Korean peninsula is scarce. In this study, we collected Pertusaria species across South Korea and identified them based on morphological, chemical, and molecular characteristics. Of the 387 samples collected, we identified 24 taxa and 1 variety, of which 17 were previously recorded, and 6 taxa were newly found in South Korea ( P...
December 2017: Mycobiology
https://read.qxmd.com/read/29299926/hydrophilic-multitemplate-molecularly-imprinted-biopolymers-based-on-a-green-synthesis-strategy-for-determination-of-b-family-vitamins
#20
Abbas Ostovan, Mehrorang Ghaedi, Maryam Arabi, Qian Yang, Jinhua Li, Lingxin Chen
A novel green synthesis strategy was proposed for preparation of multitemplate molecularly imprinted biopolymers (mt-MIBP) in aqueous media with less consumption of organic solvents, which were subsequently used as sorbents of ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) for simultaneous recognition and efficient separation of B-family vitamins in juice samples, followed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) determination. The obtained mt-MIBP was fully characterized by SEM, FT-IR, TEM, and BET...
January 31, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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