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Edward Pivin, Flórido André Cunha Moreira Da Silva, Luca Calanca, Sébastien Deglise, Menno Pruijm
The most frequent dialysis modality in Switzerland is hemodialysis. Patients need a proper vascular access for this modality. There are three types of vascular access for hemodialysis : arteriovenous fistula, arteriovenous graft and central venous catheters. In this article, we will discuss the most important parameters that need to be taken into account when choosing the most appropriate access. We present the advantages and disadvantages of each vascular access, as well as their main local (thrombosis, infection, steal syndrome) and systemic (heart failure, pulmonary hypertension) complications, which may also be encountered by primary care physicians...
February 20, 2019: Revue Médicale Suisse
Mikhael F El-Chami, Nicolas Clementy, Christophe Garweg, Razali Omar, Gabor Z Duray, Charles C Gornick, Francisco Leyva, Venkata Sagi, Jonathan P Piccini, Kyoko Soejima, Kurt Stromberg, Paul R Roberts
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to report periprocedural outcomes and intermediate-term follow-up of hemodialysis patients undergoing Micra implantation. BACKGROUND: Leadless pacemakers may be preferred in patients with limited vascular access and high-infection risk, such as patients on hemodialysis. METHODS: Patients on hemodialysis at the time of Micra implantation attempt (n = 201 of 2,819; 7%) from the Micra Transcatheter Pacing Study investigational device exemption trial, Micra Transcatheter Pacing System Continued Access Study Protocol, and Micra Transcatheter Pacing System Post-Approval Registry were included in the analysis...
February 2019: JACC. Clinical Electrophysiology
Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Marina Boziki, Nikolaos Grigoriadis, Athanasios G Papavassiliou
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection affects an estimated 4.4 billion people globally. Moreover, H. pylori presents the most significant risk factor for gastric cancer and low-grade mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and it is the first example of bacterial infection linked to carcinogenesis. Here, we contend that H. pylori research, which focuses on a cancer-causing pathogen resident in a relatively accessible organ, the stomach, could constitute an exemplar for microbial-related carcinogenesis in less tractable organs, such as the pancreas and lung...
February 19, 2019: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Sofía Mira-Martínez, Anastasia K Pickford, Núria Rovira-Graells, Pieter Guetens, Elisabet Tintó-Font, Alfred Cortés, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
During the intraerythrocytic asexual cycle malaria parasites acquire nutrients and other solutes through a broad selectivity channel localized at the membrane of the infected erythrocyte termed Plasmodial Surface Anion Channel (PSAC). The protein product of the Plasmodium falciparum clonally variant clag3.1 and clag3.2 genes determines PSAC activity. Switches in the expression of clag3 genes, which are regulated by epigenetic mechanisms, are associated with changes in PSAC-dependent permeability that can result in resistance to compounds toxic for the parasite such as blasticidin S...
February 19, 2019: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Julien Reboud, Gaolian Xu, Alice Garrett, Moses Adriko, Zhugen Yang, Edridah M Tukahebwa, Candia Rowell, Jonathan M Cooper
Rapid, low-cost, species-specific diagnosis, based upon DNA testing, is becoming important in the treatment of patients with infectious diseases. Here, we demonstrate an innovation that uses origami to enable multiplexed, sensitive assays that rival polymerase chain reactions (PCR) laboratory assays and provide high-quality, fast precision diagnostics for malaria. The paper-based microfluidic technology proposed here combines vertical flow sample-processing steps, including paper folding for whole-blood sample preparation, with an isothermal amplification and a lateral flow detection, incorporating a simple visualization system...
February 19, 2019: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Samuel J Magaziner, Ziyue Zeng, Bihe Chen, George P C Salmond
Prophage mediated horizontal gene transfer (HGT) plays a key role in the evolution of bacteria, enabling access to new environmental niches, including pathogenicity. Citrobacter rodentium is a host-adapted intestinal mouse pathogen and important model organism for attaching and effacing (A/E) pathogens including the clinically significant enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) and enteropathogenic (EPEC) Escherichia coli Despite containing ten prophage genomic regions, including an active temperate phage, ΦNP, little was known regarding the nature of C...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Bacteriology
Sang-Won Park, Chang-Seop Lee, Jeong-Han Kim, In-Gyu Bae, Chisook Moon, Yee Gyung Kwak, Baek-Nam Kim, Jae Hoon Lee, Seong Yeol Ryu, Hee-Chang Jang, Jian Hur, Jae-Bum Jun, Younghee Jung, Hyun-Ha Chang, Young Keun Kim, Jeong-Hwan Hwang, Yeon-Sook Kim, Hye Won Jeong, Kyoung-Ho Song, Wan Beom Park, Eu Suk Kim, Myoung-Don Oh
BACKGROUND: Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is emerging in Asian 3 countries, China, Japan and Korea, which are scrub typhus endemic areas, and its incidence is increasing. As the two infections overlap epidemiologically and clinically and the accessibility or sensitivity of diagnostic tests is limited, early clinical prediction may be useful for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. METHODS: Patients aged ≥16 years who were clinically suspected and laboratory-confirmed to be infected with Orientia tsutsugamushi or the SFTS virus in South Korea were enrolled...
February 19, 2019: BMC Infectious Diseases
Stephen M Chiweshe, Pieter C Steketee, Siddharth Jayaraman, Edith Paxton, Kyriaki Neophytou, Heidi Erasmus, Michel Labuschagne, Anneli Cooper, Annette MacLeod, Finn E Grey, Liam J Morrison
Human and animal African trypanosomiasis (HAT & AAT, respectively) remain a significant health and economic issue across much of sub-Saharan Africa. Effective control of AAT and potential eradication of HAT requires affordable, sensitive and specific diagnostic tests that can be used in the field. Small RNAs in the blood or serum are attractive disease biomarkers due to their stability, accessibility and available technologies for detection. Using RNAseq, we have identified a trypanosome specific small RNA to be present at high levels in the serum of infected cattle...
February 19, 2019: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mavish S Chaudry, Gunnar H Gislason, Anne-Lise Kamper, Marianne Rix, Anders R Larsen, Andreas Petersen, Paal S Andersen, Robert L Skov, Emil L Fosbøl, Henrik Westh, Henrik C Schønheyder, Thomas L Benfield, Vance G Fowler, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Niels E Bruun
INTRODUCTION: Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a high-risk infection and feared complication related to hemodialysis. This study aimed to investigate incidence and risk factors for SAB depending on hemodialysis access type. METHODS: The Danish National Registry on Regular Dialysis and Transplantation was used to identify patients from January 1, 1996 to December 31, 2011 with end-stage kidney disease. Patients were followed until death, the first episode of SAB, or end of study (December 31, 2011)...
February 19, 2019: Hemodialysis International
Ramya Uppuluri, Meena Sivasankaran, Shivani Patel, Venkateswaran Vellaichamy Swaminathan, Kesavan Melarcode Ramanan, Nikila Ravichandran, Balasubramaniam Ramakrishnan, Indira Jayakumar, Lakshman Vaidhyanathan, Revathi Raj
Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo SCT) has emerged as an acceptable alternative to matched family donor transplantation for children diagnosed to have primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs). We present data over 4 years on the challenges and efficacy of unmanipulated T cell replete haplo SCTs with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) in children diagnosed to have PIDs. We performed a retrospective study in the pediatric blood and marrow transplantation unit where all children less than 18 years of age diagnosed to have PIDs and who underwent haplo SCT with PTCy from January 2014 to February 2018 were included in the study...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Therese Conner, Francesca Cook, Vivian Fernandez, Karen Rascati, Vanessa Rangel-Miller
BACKGROUND: Severe mucopolysaccharidosis type I (also known as Hurler syndrome) is a rare devasting recessive genetic disease caused by the deficiency of an enzyme. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is the standard of care in the United States, usually conducted before the child is 3 years of age, but little is known about the continued medical and educational needs of the child after transplant. A greater understanding of the burden of illness on the primary caregiver is also needed...
February 18, 2019: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Kyu Jin Kim, Jung Tae Ahn, Kyung Tack Yoon, Jae Hoon Lee
PURPOSE: Infected lateral malleolar bursitis occurring as a diabetic complication requires debridement and flap surgery because it cannot be treated by conservative methods. The most accessible flap is the reverse sural artery flap, which can be harvested as a fasciocutaneous flap or an adipofascial flap. The purpose of this study was to compare the two types of flap methods performed in patients with diabetic infected lateral malleolar bursitis. METHODS: Twenty-nine cases of diabetic infected lateral malleolar bursitis treated with reverse sural artery flap between 2006 and 2017 were analyzed retrospectively...
January 2019: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
Judy Yuen-Man Siu, Timothy K F Fung, Leo Ho-Man Leung
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause various diseases; low-risk strains can cause genital warts, whereas high-risk strains can cause cervical cancer and cancer of the vulva in women and cancers of the penis, anus, and oropharynx in men. Although HPV affects men, literature has reported that the prevalence of HPV vaccination is far lower among men than among women. Few studies have examined perceptions and acceptability of the HPV vaccine among men, particularly in Chinese communities. In this study, the acceptability of the HPV vaccine to men was investigated using Hong Kong men as a case group...
January 2019: American Journal of Men's Health
Lena G DeTar, Vladimir Dubrovsky, Jan M Scarlett
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this descriptive study were to identify risk factors for feline Microsporum canis infection at shelter intake, to describe screening test accuracy, and to refine confirmatory testing time frames. METHODS: Database records for the general feline population and intake data, medical records and fungal culture logs for cats diagnosed with M canis at a limited admissions shelter were accessed retrospectively for a period of 2 years. RESULTS: The feline population at the study shelter had a prevalence of M canis of 1...
February 19, 2019: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Collins Timire, Charles Sandy, Ajay Mv Kumar, Mkhokheli Ngwenya, Barbara Murwira, Kudakwashe C Takarinda, Anthony D Harries
OBJECTIVES: To determine the proportion of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB) patients who accessed second-line drug susceptibility testing (SL-DST) results following introduction of the Hain technology in southern provinces, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: Cohort study using secondary data. RESULTS: Xpert MTB/RIF results were used to identify 133 RR-TB patients for this study. Their mean age (SD) was 37.9 (11.1) years, 83(62%) were males and 106 (80%) were HIV-infected...
February 15, 2019: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Hamish McManus, Denton Callander, Basil Donovan, Darren B Russell, Catherine C O'Connor, Stephen C Davies, David A Lewis, Margaret E Hellard, Marcus Y Chen, Kathy Petoumenos, Rick Varma, Aaron Cogle, Mark Alastair Boyd, Andrew Grulich, James Pollard, Nick Medland, Christopher K Fairley, Rebecca J Guy
OBJECTIVES: To determine trends in and predictors of early treatment for people newly diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Australia. DESIGN, SETTING: Retrospective cohort analysis of routinely collected longitudinal data from 44 sexual health clinics participating in the Australian Collaboration for Coordinated Enhanced Sentinel Surveillance (ACCESS) program. PARTICIPANTS: Patients diagnosed with HIV infections, January 2004 - June 2015...
February 18, 2019: Medical Journal of Australia
Vinay Kapur, Sanjay D'Cruz, Ravinder Kaur
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral venous thrombosis is relatively rare and characterized by a wide spectrum of clinical features. It is more common in young adults with women affected more than men. The diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis is easier nowadays due to easy access to advanced neuroimaging techniques. Abnormalities in thrombophilic profile are associated with enhanced risk of cerebral venous thrombosis. It has varied etiologies such as hypercoagulable states, infection, dehydration, pregnancy, and substance abuse...
February 18, 2019: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Tara D Mangal, Ana Roberta Pati Pascom, Juan F Vesga, Mariana Veloso Meireles, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Timothy B Hallett
Emerging evidence suggests that HIV incidence rates in Brazil, particularly among men, may be rising. Here we use Brazil's integrated health systems data to develop a mathematical model, reproducing the complex surveillance systems and providing estimates of HIV incidence, number of people living with HIV (PLHIV), reporting rates and ART initiation rates. An age-structured deterministic model with a flexible spline was used to describe the natural history of HIV along with reporting and treatment rates. Individual-level surveillance data for 1,077,295 cases (HIV/AIDS diagnoses, ART dispensations, CD4 counts and HIV/AIDS-related deaths) were used to calibrate the model using Bayesian inference...
February 7, 2019: Epidemics
Karthik Madhavan, Lee Onn Chieng, Valerie L Armstrong, Michael Y Wang
OBJECTIVEDiscitis and osteomyelitis are seen in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients due to repeated vascular access for hemodialysis and urinary tract infections leading to recurrent bacteremia. Discitis and osteomyelitis are underdiagnosed due to the nonspecific initial presentation of back pain. In this article, we review the literature for better understanding of the problem and the importance of early diagnosis by primary care physicians and nephrologists. In addition, we discuss the decision-making, follow-up, management, and neurological outcomes...
February 15, 2019: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
C Gómez-Aix, C Alcaide, P Gómez, M A Aranda, M A Sánchez-Pina
In situ hybridization (ISH) is an informative and relatively accessible technique for the localization of viral genomes in plant tissue and cells. However, simultaneous visualization of related plant viruses in mixed infections may be limited by the nucleotide similarity in the genomes and the single chromogenic detection over the same sample preparation. To address this issue, we used two Pepino mosaic virus isolates and performed ISH over consecutive serial cross-sections of paraffin-embedded leaf samples of single and mixed infected Nicotiana benthamiana plants...
February 13, 2019: Journal of Virological Methods
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