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functional connectivity under anesthesia

Miles Berger, Deborah Oyeyemi, Mobolaji O Olurinde, Heather E Whitson, Kent J Weinhold, Marty G Woldorff, Lewis A Lipsitz, Eugene Moretti, Charles M Giattino, Kenneth C Roberts, Junhong Zhou, Thomas Bunning, Michael Ferrandino, Randall P Scheri, Mary Cooter, Cliburn Chan, Roberto Cabeza, Jeffrey N Browndyke, David M Murdoch, Michael J Devinney, Leslie M Shaw, Harvey Jay Cohen, Joseph P Mathew
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Every year, up to 40% of the more than 16 million older Americans who undergo anesthesia/surgery develop postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) or delirium. Each of these distinct syndromes is associated with decreased quality of life, increased mortality, and a possible increased risk of Alzheimer's disease. One pathologic process hypothesized to underlie both delirium and POCD is neuroinflammation. The INTUIT study described here will determine the extent to which postoperative increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) levels and monocyte numbers are associated with delirium and/or POCD and their underlying brain connectivity changes...
January 23, 2019: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Miju Kang, Yu-Jin Jee, Deok Won Lee, Sang-Pil Jung, Se-Won Kim, Sunin Yang, Dong-Mok Ryu
Background: Fibrous dysplasia (FD) is a benign bone lesion characterized by the progressive replacement of normal bone with fibro-osseous connective tissue. The maxilla is the most commonly affected area of facial bone, resulting in facial asymmetry and functional disorders. Surgery is an effective management option and involves removing the diseased bone via an intraoral approach: conservative bone shaving or radical excision and reconstruction. Case presentation: This case report describes a monostotic fibrous dysplasia in which the patient's right midface had a prominent appearance...
December 2018: Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Heonsoo Lee, Daniel Golkowski, Denis Jordan, Sebastian Berger, Rüdiger Ilg, Joseph Lee, George A Mashour, UnCheol Lee
Recent modeling and empirical studies support the hypothesis that large-scale brain networks function near a critical state. Similar functional connectivity patterns derived from resting state empirical data and brain network models at criticality provide further support. However, despite the strong implication of a relationship, there has been no principled explanation of how criticality shapes the characteristic functional connectivity in large-scale brain networks. Here, we hypothesized that the network science concept of partial phase locking is the underlying mechanism of optimal functional connectivity in the resting state...
December 6, 2018: NeuroImage
Elisabetta Bellia, Luca Boggione, Mara Terzini, Carlo Manzella, Guilio Menicucci
PURPOSE: This preliminary case series report sought to evaluate the efficacy of an immediate loading protocol for mandibular overdentures retained by two mini-implants with the outcome measures patient satisfaction, masticatory cycles, and masticatory efficiency at 1 year. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A convenience sample of 11 patients was recruited, and the clinical protocol consisted of immediately loading two mini-implants (10 mm long and 2.4 mm or 2.9 mm in diameter) via a mandibular overdenture connection with Locator attachments...
November 2018: International Journal of Prosthodontics
Milan Stoiljkovic, Craig Kelley, Tamas L Horvath, Mihály Hajós
BACKGROUND: Translational research in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology provides evidence that accumulation of amyloid-β and hyperphosphorylated tau, neuropathological hallmarks of AD, is associated with complex disturbances in synaptic and neuronal function leading to oscillatory abnormalities in the neuronal networks that support memory and cognition. Accordingly, our recent study on transgenic TgF344-AD rats modeling AD showed an age-dependent reduction of stimulation-induced oscillations in the hippocampus, and disrupted long-range connectivity together with enhanced neuronal excitability in the cortex, reflected in greatly increased expression of high-voltage spindles, an epileptic absence seizure-like activity...
October 10, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
Arabinda Mishra, Shantanu Majumdar, Feng Wang, George H Wilson, John C Gore, Li Min Chen
Whereas resting state blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI has been widely used to assess functional connectivity between cortical regions, the laminar specificity of such measures is poorly understood. This study aims to determine: (a) whether the resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) between two functionally related cortical regions varies with cortical depth, (b) the relationship between layer-resolved tactile stimulus-evoked activation pattern and interlayer rsFC pattern between two functionally distinct but related somatosensory areas 3b and 1, and (c) the effects of spatial resolution on rsFC measures...
September 25, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Aya Kanno, Rei Enatsu, Satoshi Ookawa, Shouhei Noshiro, Shunya Ohtaki, Kengo Suzuki, Yuto Suzuki, Rintaro Yokoyama, Satoko Ochi, Yukinori Akiyama, Takeshi Mikami, Takuro Nakae, Takayuki Kikuchi, Takeharu Kunieda, Susumu Miyamoto, Riki Matsumoto, Nobuhiro Mikuni
BACKGROUND: The connection between the ventrolateral frontal and temporoparietal cortices has an important role in language function on the language-dominant side and spatial awareness on the nondominant side. However, the laterality of these pathways remains controversial. We investigated the laterality of this connection using corticocortical-evoked potentials (CCEPs). METHODS: From April 2014 to March 2016, 27 patients who had undergone frontotemporal craniotomy were enrolled...
December 2018: World Neurosurgery
James R Riehl, Ben J Palanca, ShiNung Ching
Characterizing anesthesia-induced alterations to brain network dynamics provides a powerful framework to understand the neural mechanisms of unconsciousness. To this end, increased attention has been directed at how anesthetic drugs alter the functional connectivity between brain regions as defined through neuroimaging. However, the effects of anesthesia on temporal dynamics at functional network scales is less well understood. Here, we examine such dynamics in view of the free-energy principle, which postulates that brain dynamics tend to promote lower energy (more organized) states...
2018: Network neuroscience
Nicholas J Michelson, Takashi Daniel Yoshida Kozai
General anesthesia is ubiquitous in research and medicine, yet although the molecular mechanisms of anesthetics are well characterized, their ultimate influence on cortical electrophysiology remains unclear. Moreover, the influence that different anesthetics have on sensory cortices at neuronal and ensemble scales is mostly unknown, and represents an important gap in knowledge that has widespread relevance for neural sciences. To address this knowledge gap, this work explored the effects of isoflurane and ketamine/xylazine, two widely used anesthetic paradigms, on electrophysiological behavior in mouse primary visual cortex...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Q Bukhari, A Schroeter, M Rudin
Effects of anesthetics on brain functional networks are not fully understood. In this work, we investigated functional brain networks derived from resting-state fMRI data obtained under different doses of isoflurane in mice using stationary and dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) analysis. Stationary network analysis using FSL Nets revealed a modular structure of functional networks, which could be segregated into a lateral cortical, an associative cortical network, elements of the prefrontal network, a subcortical network, and a thalamic network...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Felix Fischer, Florian Pieper, Edgar Galindo-Leon, Gerhard Engler, Claus C Hilgetag, Andreas K Engel
Cortical single neuron activity and local field potential patterns change at different depths of general anesthesia. Here, we investigate the associated network level changes of functional connectivity. We recorded ongoing electrocorticographic (ECoG) activity from temporo-parieto-occipital cortex of 6 ferrets at various levels of isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia and determined functional connectivity by computing amplitude envelope correlations. Through hierarchical clustering, we derived typical connectivity patterns corresponding to light, intermediate and deep anesthesia...
August 1, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Taku Sugita, Yusuke Kondo, Seigo Ishino, Ikuo Mori, Takashi Horiguchi, Mikako Ogawa, Yasuhiro Magata
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is the development of novel fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET and Tc-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (HMPAO) SPECT methods with free-moving apparatus on conscious rats to investigate brain activity without the effects of anesthesia and tactual stimulation. We also assessed the sensitivity of the experimental system by an intervention study using fluoxetine as a reference drug. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A catheter was inserted into the femoral vein and connected to a free-moving cannula system...
August 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Kamran Mozaffarian, Hamid Reza Zemoodeh, Mohammad Zarenezhad, Mohammad Owji
BACKGROUND: In combined high median and ulnar nerve injury, transfer of the posterior interosseous nerve branches to the motor branch of the ulnar nerve (MUN) is previously described in order to restore intrinsic hand function. In this operation a segment of sural nerve graft is required to close the gap between the donor and recipient nerves. However the thenar muscles are not innervated by this nerve transfer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the superficial radial nerve (SRN) can be used as an "in situ vascular nerve graft" to connect the donor nerves to the MUN and the motor branch of median nerve (MMN) at the same time in order to address all denervated intrinsic and thenar muscles...
June 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery Asian-Pacific Volume
Hyun-Ji Shim, Won Beom Jung, Felix Schlegel, Joonsung Lee, Sangwoo Kim, Jungryun Lee, Seong-Gi Kim
Mouse fMRI is critically useful to investigate functions of mouse models. Until now, the somatosensory-evoked responses in anesthetized mice are often widespread and inconsistent across reports. Here, we adopted a ketamine and xylazine mixture for mouse fMRI, which is relatively new anesthetics in fMRI experiments. Forepaw stimulation frequency was optimized using cerebral blood volume (CBV)-weighted optical imaging (n = 11) and blood-oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) fMRI with a gradient-echo time of 16 ms at 9...
August 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Jochen F Meyer, Peyman Golshani, Stelios M Smirnakis
The influence of cortical cell spiking activity on nearby cells has been studied extensively in vitro . Less is known, however, about the impact of single cell firing on local cortical networks in vivo . In a pioneering study, Kwan and Dan (Kwan and Dan, 2012) reported that in mouse layer 2/3 (L2/3), under anesthesia , stimulating a single pyramidal cell recruits ~2.1% of neighboring units. Here we employ two-photon calcium imaging in layer 2/3 of mouse V1, in conjunction with single-cell patch clamp stimulation in layer 2/3 or layer 4, to probe, in both the awake and lightly anesthetized states , how (i) activating single L2/3 pyramidal neurons recruits neighboring units within L2/3 and from layer 4 (L4) to L2/3, and whether (ii) activating single pyramidal neurons changes population activity in local circuit...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Yun Li, Shengpei Wang, Chuxiong Pan, Fushan Xue, Junfang Xian, Yaqi Huang, Xiaoyi Wang, Tianzuo Li, Huiguang He
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of general anesthesia (GA) has been explored for hundreds of years, but unclear. Previous studies indicated a possible correlation between NREM sleep and GA. The purpose of this study is to compare them by in vivo human brain function to probe the neuromechanism of consciousness, so as to find out a clue to GA mechanism. METHODS: 24 healthy participants were equally assigned to sleep or propofol sedation group by sleeping ability. EEG and Ramsay Sedation Scale were applied to determine sleep stage and sedation depth respectively...
2018: PloS One
Michaël E Belloy, Maarten Naeyaert, Anzar Abbas, Disha Shah, Verdi Vanreusel, Johan van Audekerke, Shella D Keilholz, Georgios A Keliris, Annemie Van der Linden, Marleen Verhoye
Time-resolved 'dynamic' over whole-period 'static' analysis of low frequency (LF) blood-oxygen level dependent (BOLD) fluctuations provides many additional insights into the macroscale organization and dynamics of neural activity. Although there has been considerable advancement in the development of mouse resting state fMRI (rsfMRI), very little remains known about its dynamic repertoire. Here, we report for the first time the detection of a set of recurring spatiotemporal Quasi-Periodic Patterns (QPPs) in mice, which show spatial similarity with known resting state networks...
October 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Jaakko Paasonen, Petteri Stenroos, Raimo A Salo, Vesa Kiviniemi, Olli Gröhn
Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) is a translational imaging method with great potential in several neurobiologic applications. Most preclinical rsfMRI studies are performed in anesthetized animals, but the confounding effects of anesthesia on the measured functional connectivity (FC) are poorly understood. Therefore, we measured FC under six commonly used anesthesia protocols and compared the findings with data obtained from awake rats. The results demonstrated that each anesthesia protocol uniquely modulated FC...
May 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Jung In Song, Silvanie Volz, Maria Eirini Liodaki, Peter Mailänder, Konstantinos Kalousis
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disorder of unknown etiology, with heterogeneous clinical manifestations and chronic and often progressive course. The diffuse cutaneous form of SSc (dcSSc) is characterized by thickening of the skin (scleroderma) and distinctive involvement of multiple internal organs. Patients with limited cutaneous SSc (lcSSc) generally have long-standing Raynaud's phenomenon before other manifestations of SSc appear. Over the last decade the Interest of adipose-derived cell therapy in regenerative medicine has increased continuously...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Alexis T Baria, Maria V Centeno, Mariam E Ghantous, Pei C Chang, Daniele Procissi, A Vania Apkarian
Even though a number of findings, based on information content or information integration, are shown to define neural underpinnings characteristic of a conscious experience, the neurophysiological mechanism of consciousness is still poorly understood. Here, we investigated the brain activity and functional connectivity changes that occur in the isoflurane-anesthetized unconscious state in contrast to the awake state in rats (awake and/or anesthetized, n = 68 rats). We examined nine information measures previously shown to distinguish between conscious states: blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) variability, functional connectivity strength, modularity, weighted modularity, efficiency, clustering coefficient, small-worldness, and spatial and temporal Lempel-Ziv complexity measure...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
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