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Diagnosis of cancer

Michael G Kimlin, Pip Youl, Peter Baade, Sheree Rye, Alison Brodie
OBJECTIVES: This study will assess the relationship between vitamin D concentration at melanoma diagnosis and melanoma tumor characteristics, in individuals in a high ultraviolet radiation (UVR) environment. METHODS: We aim to recruit 600 recently diagnosed melanoma patients from Queensland, Australia, a high UVR location with one of the world's highest melanoma incidence rates. Patients are recruited through general practitioner, skin cancer specialist, dermatological and hospital-based practices...
March 1, 2019: Military Medicine
Suzanne E Scott, Clarissa Penfold, Smiji Saji, Sarah Curtis, Colin Watts, Willie Hamilton, Alexis J Joannides, Fiona M Walter
BACKGROUND: The patient's interpretation of the events and decisions leading up to consultation with a healthcare professional for symptoms of brain cancer is under researched. The aim of this study was to document responses to noticing the changes preceding a diagnosis of brain cancer and living with them, focusing on appraisal of changes and the decision to seek (and re-seek) help, with attention to the psychological processes underpinning the appraisal and help-seeking intervals. METHOD: In this qualitative study set in Eastern and NW England, in-depth interviews with adult patients recently diagnosed with primary brain cancer and their family members were analysed thematically, using the Model of Pathways to Treatment as a conceptual framework...
2019: PloS One
Kimiyo N Yamamoto, Lin L Liu, Akira Nakamura, Hiroshi Haeno, Franziska Michor
Despite recent progress in diagnostic and multimodal treatment approaches, most cancer deaths are still caused by metastatic spread and the subsequent growth of tumor cells in sites distant from the primary organ. So far, few quantitative studies are available that allow for the estimation of metastatic parameters and the evaluation of alternative treatment strategies. Most computational studies have focused on situations in which the tumor cell population expands exponentially over time; however, tumors may eventually be subject to resource and space limitations so that their growth patterns deviate from exponential growth to adhere to density-dependent growth models...
March 2019: JCO Clinical Cancer Informatics
Xuexiang Han, Ying Xu, Yiye Li, Xiao Zhao, Yinlong Zhang, Huan Min, Yingqiu Qi, Gregory J Anderson, Linhao You, Yuliang Zhao, Guangjun Nie
Combining informative imaging methodologies with effective treatments to destroy tumor is of great importance for oncotherapy. Versatile nanotheranostic agents that inherently possess both diagnostic imaging and therapeutic capabilities are highly desirable to meet these requirements. Here, a simple but powerful nanoplatform based on polydopamine-coated gold nanostar (GNS@PDA), which can be easily diversified to achieve various function extensions, is designed to realize functional and anatomical imaging-guided photothermal oncotherapy...
March 22, 2019: ACS Nano
Erin M Mobley, Mary E Charlton, Marcia M Ward, Charles F Lynch
BACKGROUND: Cancer survival rates in adolescents and young adults (AYAs) have shown slow improvements in comparison with other age groups, and this may be due to lower participation in clinical trials. Little evidence has been provided regarding how nonmetropolitan residence may influence clinical trial enrollment for AYAs with cancer. This study sought to determine whether AYAs from nonmetropolitan areas have lower rates of clinical trial enrollment than their urban counterparts and to examine factors associated with enrollment variation...
March 22, 2019: Cancer
Alv A Dahl, Sophie D Fosså, Hanne C Lie, Jon Håvard Loge, Kristin Valborg Reinertsen, Ellen Ruud, Cecilie Essholt Kiserud
PURPOSE: In young adult cancer survivors (YACSs) to explore the rate of being nonemployed and having low work ability, and to identify factors associated with these two outcomes. METHODS: All Norwegian YACSs (N = 3558) diagnosed at ages 19-39 years and treated between 1985 and 2009 for breast or colorectal cancer, leukemia, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, or melanoma, and alive in 2015, were mailed a questionnaire. The response rate was 42%. For treatment, a minimal surgery-only group (N = 198) was defined as reference group, and 1000 YACSs represented the local, systemic, and systemic plus other treatment groups...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Rebekah E Tennyson, Helen C Griffiths
Impaired fertility is one potential late effect of cancer, with 15% of adolescents and young adults with cancer (AYAC) at a high risk. Guidelines state that fertility advice should be available at diagnosis; however, research shows that this is not routinely provided. This can negatively affect patients' emotional well-being, mental health, and satisfaction with care. This review aimed to synthesize and critically evaluate studies investigating professionals' experiences of discussing fertility issues with AYAC patients and to understand the barriers and facilitating factors to having these conversations with this specific age group...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Adolescent and Young Adult Oncology
Jeong A Yeom, Jieun Roh, Yeon Joo Jeong, Jin Choon Lee, Hyun Yul Kim, Young Ju Suh, Seung Kug Baik
OBJECTIVE: Although CT has been used as a complementary diagnostic method for the preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, it has the shortcomings of substantial radiation exposure and the use of contrast material (CM). The purpose of this article is to evaluate the image quality and diagnostic performance of 70-kVp thyroid CT with low volumes of CM versus conventional 120-kVp thyroid CT protocol. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty patients referred for preoperative thyroid CT were randomly divided into two groups (group A: 40 patients, 70 kVp, 60 mL of CM; group B: 40 patients, 120 kVp, 100 mL of CM)...
April 2019: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Lianmei Bai, Yichen Liu, Kaili Guo, Kun Zhang, Quanhong Liu, Pan Wang, Xiaobing Wang
Exosomes (Exos) are endogenous nanocarriers that have utility as novel delivery systems for the treatment of brain cancers. However, in general, natural Exos show limited BBB-crossing capacity and lack specific targeting. Further modifications including targeting peptides and genetic engineering approaches can circumvent these issues, but the process is time-consuming. Focused ultrasound (FUS) has been approved by the FDA for the diagnosis and treatment of brain disease due to its non-invasive nature, reversibility, and instantaneous local-opening of the BBB...
March 22, 2019: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhenxing Wang, Sujuan Ye, Na Zhang, Xun Liu, Menglei Wang
Sensitive detection of microRNAs (miRNAs) that serve as a disease marker could advance the diagnosis and treatment of diseases. Many methods used for quantitative detection of miRNAs, such as PCR-based approaches or the hybridization chain reaction, have presented challenges due to the complicated and time-consuming-procedures that are required. In this manuscript, a simple triggerable mutually amplified signal (TMAS) probe was designed and enriched within the center of a microfluidic chip and then used for one-step quantitative detection of microRNAs via surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology...
March 22, 2019: Analytical Chemistry
O P Singh, Veenita Yogi, Pallavi Redhu, H U Ghori, Ananya Pareek, Nancy Lal
Introduction: Prostate cancer is most frequently diagnosed cancer of men and bone is the most common site of metastasis. There is a lack of consensus for the selection criteria for bone scan in low-risk patients. Western guidelines do not recommend use of bone scan in asymptomatic patients and in low prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. We try to correlate the PSA value with bone metastases through bone scan in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: A total of 68 histologically newly diagnosed prostate cancer subjected to bone scan were retrospectively analyzed...
March 2019: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
Roberto Lisi, Gessica Abate, Pasqualina D'Urso, Maria Teresa Martinetti, Benedetta Siniscalchi, Francesco Marampon, Nadia Bulzonetti, Vincenzo Tombolini
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare benign cancer that can express a more aggressive phenotype related to the genetic mutation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase receptor (ALK). Involvement of trachea is extremely rare and due to the clinical and radiologic nonspecificity, the definitive diagnosis is based on the histologic evaluation of tissue specimens. Total surgical excision is curative and chemotherapy or radiotherapy has been employed in the treatment of unresectable tumors or as adjuvant therapies...
March 22, 2019: Tumori
Monika Klimek
INTRODUCTION: Pulmonary lymphangitis carcinomatosis (PLC) is a life-threating complication in patients suffering from malignancies. Misleading and nonspecific symptoms often result in a delayed diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: This review was aimed at evaluating epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and survival of patients with PLC reported in the literature. According to our knowledge, this study is the first such extensive analysis of PLC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We searched for the literature in the PubMed database for articles published from 1970 to 2018 using keywords: lung, pulmonary, lymphangitic, carcinoma, carcinomatosis...
March 22, 2019: Postgraduate Medicine
Andrew Estefan, Nancy J Moules, Catherine M Laing
A cancer diagnosis heralds the onset of significant life changes. The various experiences of diagnosis, treatment, and recovery from cancer during adolescence and young adulthood are complex and disruptive. Emphasis on treatment and recovery often overshadows other social and developmental imperatives for adolescents and young adults. Acknowledging, exploring, and crafting one's own sexual identity is a significant milestone achieved during this time, and it is one that is interrupted by the arrival and treatment of cancer...
March 22, 2019: Journal of Pediatric Oncology Nursing: Official Journal of the Association of Pediatric Oncology Nurses
Marie Lundberg, Amy Dickinson, Pia Nikander, Helena Orell, Antti Mäkitie
BACKGROUND: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a method for estimating body composition. Clinically the most important parameter is the phase angle (PA), which decreases with progressing malnutrition and is highly predictive for impaired survival and mortality. AIM: To evaluate the association of low PA with the complication rate and length of hospital stay. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cohort of 61 head and neck cancer (HNC) patients underwent BIA prior to surgical treatment...
March 22, 2019: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Michael J Marino, Mei-Chin Hsieh, Eric L Wu, Charles A Riley, Xiao-Cheng Wu, Edward D McCoul
BACKGROUND: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and allergic rhinitis (AR) may be associated with an increased risk of subsequent diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) or paranasal sinus cancer (PSC) in elderly Americans. The clinical utility of this association remains uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare early computed tomography (CT) or nasal endoscopy (NE) with late diagnostic studies for the diagnosis of NPC or PSC in elderly Americans with CRS or AR. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database was queried from 2003 to 2011 and included 150 088 Medicare beneficiaries...
March 22, 2019: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Lei Zhu, Haiman Bian, Lieming Yang, Jianjing Liu, Wei Chen, Xiaofeng Li, Jian Wang, Xiuyu Song, Dong Dai, Zhaoxiang Ye, Wengui Xu, Xiaozhou Yu
BACKGROUND: Differentiating pulmonary metastasis from primary lung cancer can be challenging in patients with breast malignancy. This study aimed to characterize the imaging features of 18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG-PET/CT) for distinguishing between these diseases. METHODS: We enrolled 52 patients who received curative treatment for breast cancer but later presented with suspected solitary pulmonary lesions (SPLs) and subsequently underwent 18 F-FDG-PET/CT to investigate...
March 21, 2019: Thoracic Cancer
Young Lee, Phillip Chao, Christin Coomarasamy, Jon A Mathy
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Merkel cell carcinoma is an aggressive neuroendocrine skin cancer. Australian studies report high incidence and poor survival rates compared internationally. While New Zealand has a comparable UV index and racial composition to Australia, survival outcomes are currently unknown. The role of Merkel cell polyoma virus in oncogenesis of Merkel cell carcinoma is an active area of research. We describe the incidence and survival of Merkel cell carcinoma in New Zealand with correlation to demographic and clinical factors including regional polyoma virus prevalence...
March 21, 2019: Australasian Journal of Dermatology
Vanette McLennan, Dominika Ludvik, Suzanne Chambers, Mark Frydenberg
PURPOSE: Research in the field of vocational rehabilitation, specifically for prostate cancer, remains rare despite increasing recognition of the role of vocational interventions in other cancer groups. The aim of this review was to compile and evaluate current trends, facilitators and barriers associated with returning to work after a prostate cancer diagnosis. METHOD: The literature search was conducted in March 2018 using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines...
March 21, 2019: Journal of Cancer Survivorship: Research and Practice
Ya Gao, Jipin Li, Xueni Ma, Jiancheng Wang, Bo Wang, Jinhui Tian, Gen Chen
Several systematic reviews have investigated the accuracy of imaging modalities for lymph node involvement of rectal cancer, but there are considerable differences in conclusions. This overview aimed to assess the methodological and reporting quality of systematic reviews that evaluated the diagnostic value of imaging modalities for lymph node involvement in patients with rectal cancer and to compare the diagnostic value of different modalities for lymph node involvement. The PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library and Chinese Biomedicine Literature were searched to identify relevant systematic reviews...
March 21, 2019: Clinical and Experimental Medicine
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